Terje Rypdal is a Norwegian guitarist and composer. He has been an important member in the Norwegian jazz community, Rypdal was born in Oslo, the son of a composer and orchestra leader. He studied classical piano and trumpet as a child, and taught himself to play guitar as he entered his teens. Starting out as a Hank Marvin-influenced rock guitarist with The Vanguards, Rypdal turned towards jazz in 1968 and joined Jan Garbareks group and George Russells sextet and orchestra. An important step towards international attention was his participation in the jazz festival in Baden-Baden, Germany, in 1969. During his musical studies at Oslo university and conservatory, he led the orchestra of the Norwegian version of the musical Hair and he has often been recorded on the ECM record label, both jazz-oriented material and classical compositions. His compositions Last Nite and Mystery Man were featured in the Michael Mann film Heat, Rypdal was married to the Norwegian singer Inger Lise Andersen/Rypdal, and they had two children, the auditor Daniel and the electronica musician Marius.
Rypdal was married again in 1988 to Elin Kristin Bergei and they have two children Ane Izabel and the guitarist Jakob Rypdal. Official website Terje Rypdal at AllMusic Terje Rypdal on ECM Records Notes on the Road Interview with Terje Rypdal
Modal jazz is jazz that uses musical modes rather than chord progressions as a harmonic framework. Originating in the late 1950s and 1960s, modal jazz is epitomized by Miles Daviss 1958 composition Milestones,1959 album Kind of Blue, and John Coltranes classic quartet from 1960–64. Other important performers include Woody Shaw, Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, Wayne Shorter, McCoy Tyner, Larry Young, Pharoah Sanders, Joe Henderson, Chick Corea, in bebop as well as in hard bop, musicians use chords to provide the background for solos. A song starts out with a theme that introduces the chords for the solos and these chords repeat throughout the whole song, while the soloists play new, improvised themes over the repeated chord progression. By the 1950s, improvising over chords had become such a dominant part of jazz and this inversion technique led to a modal sound throughout Tizols work. Towards the end of the 1950s, spurred by the experiments of composer and bandleader George Russell and they chose not to write their pieces using conventional chord changes, but instead using modal scales.
Musicians employing this technique include Miles Davis, Freddie Hubbard, Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, among the significant compositions of modal jazz were So What by Miles Davis and Impressions by John Coltrane. So What and Impressions follow the same AABA song form and were in D Dorian for the A sections, the Dorian mode is the natural minor scale with a raised sixth. Other compositions include Davis Flamenco Sketches, Bill Evans Peace Piece, Miles Davis recorded one of the best selling jazz albums of all time in this modal framework. Kind of Blue is an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz, included on these sessions was tenor saxophonist John Coltrane who, throughout the 1960s, would explore the possibilities of modal improvisation more deeply than any other jazz artist. The rest of the musicians on the album were alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley, pianists Bill Evans and Wynton Kelly, bassist Paul Chambers and this record is considered a kind of test album in many conservatories focusing on jazz improvisation.
The compositions So What and All Blues from Kind of Blue are considered jazz standards. Davis has acknowledged the role played by Bill Evans, a former member of George Russells ensembles. Another great innovator in the field of jazz is pianist Herbie Hancock. He is well known for working in Miles Daviss Second Great Quintet, Herbie Hancock recorded a number of solo albums, the pieces haunting repeating vamps in the rhythm section and the searching feeling of the entire piece has made Maiden Voyage one of the most famous modal pieces. Miles Davis was effusive in his praise for Jamals influence on him, his playing, and his music, Adderley and Davis at the Twilight of Bebop, The Search for Melodic Coherence
John Abercrombie (guitarist)
John Laird Abercrombie is an American jazz guitarist and bandleader. His work explores jazz fusion, post bop, free jazz, Abercrombie studied at Berklee College of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. He recorded his album, Timeless with Manfred Eichers ECM label. Abercrombie has played with Billy Cobham, Ralph Towner, Jack DeJohnette, Charles Lloyd, Michael Brecker and he is known for his spare and eclectic style and his work with organ trios. John Abercrombie was born on December 16,1944, in Port Chester and his family moved to Greenwich, where he grew up. He picked up the guitar at the age of 14 and he began by playing along to Chuck Berry, but discovered jazz by listening to Barney Kessel. He attended Berklee College of Music from 1962 to 1966 and studied under famed guitar educator Jack Petersen and he often played with other students at Pauls Mall, a jazz club in Boston connected to the larger club Jazz Workshop. The gigs at Pauls Mall facilitated meetings with organist Johnny Hammond Smith, Smith asked Abercrombie to play with him, and they performed at Bostons Big M club as well as on tour.
Abercrombie graduated from Berklee in 1967 and briefly attended North Texas State University before moving to New York in 1969 and he quickly became one of the most in-demand session players, recording with Gil Evans in 1974, Gato Barbieri in 1971, and Barry Miles in 1972 among others. In 1969, he joined Dreams, one of the first jazz-rock bands and he recorded on several of Cobhams albums, Total Eclipse and Shabazz. Abercrombies following began to grow at this point, largely due to Dreamss growing success and they shared billing with such rock acts as the Doobie Brothers, and Abercrombie found his career taking a direction he had not expected. One night we appeared at the Spectrum in Philadelphia and I thought, in 1973 Manfred Eicher, the German producer and founder of ECM Records, invited Abercrombie to record for ECM. Abercrombie recorded his first solo album, Timeless, in 1974 with drummer Jack DeJohnette, the album was well received and critically acclaimed and marked the beginning of his fruitful relationship with ECM.
The labels understated, subdued music was representative of the music Abercrombie continued to make throughout his career, in 1975 he formed the band Gateway with DeJohnette and bassist Dave Holland, recording the albums Gateway and Gateway II. After the Gateway albums, Abercrombie changed his style and instrumentation. He recorded Arcade, The Abercrombie Quartet, and M with pianist Richie Beirach, bassist George Mraz, and drummer Peter Donald. Abercrombie said of this quartet, it was important to have that group. it was my first opportunity to really be a leader. During the mid-1970s and into the 1980s, he contributed to ensembles led by DeJohnette and took part in a number of other sessions for ECM
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival. The term originated in the 19th century, but is applied to music older than that. Some types of music are called world music. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways, as music transmitted orally, music with unknown composers and it has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles. Starting in the century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms. Smaller, similar revivals have occurred elsewhere in the world at other times and this type of folk music includes fusion genres such as folk rock, folk metal, electric folk, and others. Even individual songs may be a blend of the two, a consistent definition of traditional folk music is elusive.
The terms folk music, folk song, and folk dance are comparatively recent expressions and they are extensions of the term folklore, which was coined in 1846 by the English antiquarian William Thoms to describe the traditions and superstitions of the uncultured classes. Traditional folk music includes most indigenous music, despite the assembly of an enormous body of work over some two centuries, there is still no certain definition of what folk music is. Some do not even agree that the term Folk Music should be used, Folk music may tend to have certain characteristics but it cannot clearly be differentiated in purely musical terms. One meaning often given is that of old songs, with no known composers, the fashioning and re-fashioning of the music by the community that give it its folk character. Such definitions depend upon processes rather than abstract musical types, one widely used definition is simply Folk music is what the people sing. For Scholes, as well as for Cecil Sharp and Béla Bartók, Folk music was already. seen as the authentic expression of a way of life now past or about to disappear, particularly in a community uninfluenced by art music and by commercial and printed song.
In these terms folk music may be seen as part of a schema comprising four types, primitive or tribal, elite or art, folk. Music in this genre is often called traditional music. Although the term is only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre
Spellemannprisen, often referred to as the Norwegian Grammy Awards in English, is a Norwegian music award presented to Norwegian musicians. The award was established by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, first awarded in 1973, the prize honours musicians from the previous year, it is still awarded annually. The Spellemann committee, composed of members of IFPI Norway and FONO, manages the award, twenty-one categories are currently awarded and the committee may award additional honorary and industry awards. The awards are held in January or February. Spellemannprisen is often dubbed as the Norwegian Grammy Awards, separate juries convene for each category. Members are confidential from both the public and the other juries. The juries score each nominee separately, convene to deliberate until there is a winner, three nominees are presented to the jury. The Spellemanns committee nominates three categories, Newcomer of the Year, Fiddler of the Year and Hit Artist, a nomination jury nominates the rest of the videos, which are presented to the juries.
Starting in 2007, the winner of the Newcomer of the Year Award takes home a prize on 200000 kroner, the scholarship is awarded by Gramo, a Norwegian music industry funding agency. As of 2014, sixteen artists have won the more than five times. Leif Ove Andsnes has the most wins with 10 awards, yet no one has won more than one award in a single year, in 2011, the live award show returned to NRK for the first time since 2001, and remained on the same channel afterwards. From 2002 to 2010, the show was broadcast on TV2
Jack DeJohnette is an American jazz drummer and composer. He was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 2007, DeJohnette was born in Chicago, Illinois. He began his career as a pianist, studying from age four and first playing professionally at age fourteen. DeJohnette would credit an uncle, Roy I, wood Sr. as the person in his life who inspired him to play music. Wood was a Chicago disc jockey who would become vice president of the National Network of Black Broadcasters. DeJohnette began his career on piano, adding drums and eventually focussing on the latter, playing R&B, hard bop. He led his own groups in addition to playing with Richard Abrams, Roscoe Mitchell and he occasionally performed with Sun Ra and his Arkestra. In the early 1960s, DeJohnette had the opportunity to sit in for three tunes with John Coltrane and his quintet, a foray into playing with big name jazz musicians. In 1966 DeJohnette moved to New York City, where he became a member of the Charles Lloyd Quartet, however, DeJohnette left the group in early 1968, citing Lloyds deteriorating, flat playing as his main reason for leaving.
DeJohnette joined Evans trio in 1968, the year the group headlined the Montreux Jazz Festival. In November 1968 he worked briefly with Stan Getz and his quartet, in 1969, DeJohnette left the Evans trio and replaced Tony Williams in Miles Daviss live band. Davis had seen DeJohnette play many times, one of which was during a stint with Evans at Ronnie Scotts Jazz Club in London in 1968, Davis recognized DeJohnette’s ability to combine the driving grooves associated with rock and roll with improvisational aspects associated with jazz. DeJohnette is heard on the compilation album Directions, and was the drummer on the landmark album Bitches Brew. One thing was flowing into the next, and we were stopping and starting all the time and he played on the live albums that would follow the release of Bitches Brew, taken from concerts at the Fillmore East in New York and Fillmore West in San Francisco. These ventures were undertaken at the behest of Clive Davis, president of Columbia Records and he contributed to such famous Davis albums as Live-Evil, Jack Johnson, and On the Corner.
He left the Davis group in the middle of 1971, although he returned for concerts through the rest of that year. DeJohnettes first record, The DeJohnette Complex, was released in 1968, on the album, he played melodica as well as drums, preferring often to let his mentor, Roy Haynes, sit behind the set. He recorded, in the early 1970s, the albums Have You Heard, the musical freedom he had while recording for ECM offered DeJohnette many dates as a sideman and opportunities to start his own groups
Anouar Brahem is a Tunisian oud player and composer. He is widely acclaimed as an innovator in his field, performing primarily for a jazz audience, he fuses Arab classical music, folk music and jazz and has been recording since at least 1991, after becoming prominent in his own country in the late 1980s. Brahem was born in Halfaouine in the Medina of Tunis, Tunisia and he studied oud at Tunisias National Conservatory of Music. In 1981, he left for Paris in search of new vistas and this enabled him to meet musicians from a variety of genres. He remained there as a composer for four years, notably for Tunisian cinema and he collaborated with Maurice Béjart for his ballet Thalassa Mare Nostrum and with Gabriel Yared as lutist for Costa Gavras’ film Hanna K. Most often he utilizes an ensemble of three or four musicians and he has collaborated throughout his career and on several albums with other musicians, Tunisian percussionist Lassad Hosni and violinist Bechir Selmi and Turkish clarinetist Barbaros Erköse.
He has performed concerts with these same ensembles. 1994, Madar with Jan Garbarek and Ustad Shaukat Hussain,2002, Charmediterranéen with Orchestre National de Jazz and Gianluigi Trovesi. Anouar Brahem’s official website Anouar Brahem’s official Youtube Channel Anouar Brahem - musicolog Anouar Brahem on ECM Records
Birdland (New York jazz club)
Birdland is a jazz club started in New York City on December 15,1949. The original Birdland, which was located at 1678 Broadway, just north of West 52nd Street in Manhattan, was closed in 1965 due to increased rents, but it re-opened for one night in 1979. A revival began in 1986 with the opening of the second nightclub by the name that is now located in Manhattans Theater District. The current location is in the next to The New York Observer headquarters. 1678 Broadway, below the street level Irving Levy, Morris Levy and they adopted the name Birdland to capitalize on the popularity of their regular headliner Charlie Yardbird Parker, who, at that time, had been enjoying undisputed popularity as a jazz artist. The club was scheduled to open on September 8,1949. Parker, in reality, played very few jobs at Birdland, not because he was troublesome, Ramey had persuaded Goodstein to let Parker perform at Birdland with his band on a pair of Monday nights in 1954. The neon sign at the front of the read, Birdland.
The venue seated 500 people and had space for a full orchestra and it had a long bar, booths, and a fenced-in bullpen — a drinkless area, nicknamed the peanut gallery, where teenagers were sometimes allowed to watch. Irving Levy and Morris Levy were the owners but the club was operated by Oscar Goodstein. The name was carried through into the feature of caged finches inside the club, the venue attracted other jazz musicians who made recordings there. This includes Art Blakeys 1954 two-volume A Night at Birdland, most of John Coltranes Live at Birdland, dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk, Miles Davis, Louie Bellson, Bud Powell, Johnny Smith, Stan Getz, Lester Young, and many others made appearances. George Shearings standard Lullaby of Birdland was named in the clubs honor, the clubs original master of ceremonies, the diminutive, four feet tall Pee Wee Marquette, was notorious for mispronouncing the names of musicians if they refused to tip him. The disc jockey Symphony Sid broadcast live on WJZ early in the clubs existence, Irving Levy was stabbed to death at the club in 1959.
His younger brother, took over Irvings role in the club, and from 1959 through the early 1960s, Chapter 11 bankruptcy In June 1964, Birdland filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in New York Federal Court. Goodstein was president of the club at the time, creditors included Goodstein himself, NLP Restaurant, and Gerry Mulligan, who had been booked through International Talent Associates. In an effort to stem losses in 1964, Birdland started booking jazz artists that played a traditional style of jazz. The premises was taken over by Lloyd Price, an R&B and rock-and-roll singer who re-dedicated the venue,2745 Broadway at 105th The current version of Birdland, initially owned by John R. Valenti, opened in Uptown, Manhattan in 1985 at 2745 Broadway at 105th Street
The baritone saxophone or bari sax is one of the largest members of the saxophone family, only being smaller than the bass and subcontrabass saxophones. The baritone saxophone is used in classical music, military bands, marching bands. The baritone saxophone was created in 1846 by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax as one of a family of 14 instruments, the saxophone was created to be a tonal link between the woodwinds and brasses, which Sax believed to be lacking. The family was divided two groups of seven saxophones each from the soprano to the contrabass. The family consisting of saxophones ranged in the keys of B♭, the bari sax, pitched in E♭, is the fifth member of this family. The baritone saxophone, like saxophones, is a conical tube of thin brass. It has an end, flared to form a bell. The baritone saxophone uses a single reed mouthpiece like that of a clarinet, there is a loop in the neck to reduce it to a practical height, colloquially referred to as a “Q”. Baritone saxophones come in two sizes with one ranging to low A and the other to low B♭, all baritone saxophones were low B♭ instruments, but over time players began modifying their horns to reach the low A below.
In the 1980s, it common for saxophone manufacturers to produce low A instruments. In modern times, the low A is considered standard and is written in sheet music for the instrument. Despite the ubiquity of the low A horn, some still prefer to use B♭ horns because of the added weight. As is true for other saxophones, the F♯ key was an addition to the horn now considered standard. The baritone saxophone’s relatively large mass has led to the development of harness-style neckstrap that distributes the weight across the users shoulders. Several different kinds exist, produced by brands as well known as Neotech and Vandoren, and each distributes weight differently across the neck, clavicle. Many marching saxophonists prefer this style for its ability to decrease fatigue and those who mainly perform seated, on the other hand, may dislike the decreased ability to move one’s upper body. It is an instrument in the key of E♭, pitched an octave plus a major sixth lower than written. It is one octave lower than the alto saxophone, modern baritones with a low A key and high F♯ key have a range from C2 to A4
Michael John David Mike Westbrook is an English jazz pianist and writer of orchestrated jazz pieces. Mike Westbrook grew up in Torquay, after moving to London in 1962, Westbrook led numerous bands and small, and played regularly at the Old Place and the Little Theatre Club at Garrick Yard, St Martins Lane. Together with Chris McGregors Brotherhood of breath, Westbrook shared the role of house-band at Ronnie Scotts Jazz Club. He became a key figure in the development of British jazz, producing several records for the Deram label, with the newly formed Mike Westbrook Concert Band. These featured such musicians as Surman, Mike Osborne and Harry Miller, the band varied in size from 10 to 26 musicians. In 1968 his band made their debut at the Montreux Festival with Malcolm Griffiths, Alan Jackson, Harry Miller, Mike Osborne. The 1970s saw a range of different projects. Cosmic Circus, jointly founded with John Fox specialised in large scale, one-off high technology shows involving high-divers, tight-rope, carnival processions and it was part of Earthrise Tour in the UK.
This included singer/vocalist Norma Winstone who performed on several of the albums at the time. Adrian Mitchell drew Mike Westbrook in for his musical Tyger on the life of William Blake for the Royal National Theatre and this would become a major influence on Mike Westbrooks work. In 1972/73 he worked in the context of his jazz-rock band Solid Gold Cadillac, the most consequential effect of this was the participation of Phil Minton. His unmistakable voice would feature in many of Westbrooks projects, a live performance of Solid Gold Cadillac has been repeatedly broadcast by BBC Radio 6 between 2002 and 2007. In March 1977 the Mike Westbrook Brass Band, avant-rock group Henry Cow, the ensemble performed in London and several cities in Europe, including Bordeaux, France, in May 1978. They performed live at Angoulème Jazz festival, France in May 1979 and his work for the theatre began with Adrian Mitchells Tyger, a celebration of William Blake, staged by the Royal National Theatre in 1971. This became a vehicle for his Brass Band of the 1970s and 1980s, a revised and expanded version of the work was re-recorded in 1997 and named Glad Day.
In 1982, at the insistence of the anti-nuclear campaigner E. P. Thompson, the cover carried an extract from Thompsons 1980 protest pamphlet Protest and Survive and the single included a poetry/graphic insert designed by Kate Westbrook and Michael Kustow. The Brass Band recorded Mama Chicago, described as a Jazz Cabaret, the album was released on CD for the first time in 2007. More recently Mike Westbrook has developed the work further and it now includes a choir and on occasion