John Hoyer Updike was an American novelist, short-story writer, art critic, literary critic. One of only three writers to win the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction more than once, Updike published more than twenty novels, more than a dozen short-story collections, as well as poetry and literary criticism and children's books during his career. Hundreds of his stories and poems appeared in The New Yorker starting in 1954, he wrote for The New York Review of Books. His most famous work is his "Rabbit" series, which chronicles the life of the middle-class everyman Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom over the course of several decades, from young adulthood to death. Both Rabbit Is Rich and Rabbit at Rest were recognized with the Pulitzer Prize. Describing his subject as "the American small town, Protestant middle class", Updike was recognized for his careful craftsmanship, his unique prose style, his prolific output – he wrote on average a book a year. Updike populated his fiction with characters who "frequently experience personal turmoil and must respond to crises relating to religion, family obligations, marital infidelity".
His fiction is distinguished by its attention to the concerns and suffering of average Americans, its emphasis on Christian theology, its preoccupation with sexuality and sensual detail. His work has attracted significant critical attention and praise, he is considered one of the great American writers of his time. Updike's distinctive prose style features a rich, sometimes arcane vocabulary as conveyed through the eyes of "a wry, intelligent authorial voice" that describes the physical world extravagantly while remaining squarely in the realist tradition, he described his style as an attempt "to give the mundane its beautiful due". Updike was born in Reading, the only child of Linda Grace and Wesley Russell Updike, was raised in the nearby small town of Shillington; the family moved to the unincorporated village of Plowville. His mother's attempts to become a published writer impressed the young Updike. "One of my earliest memories", he recalled, "is of seeing her at her desk... I admired the typewriter eraser, the boxes of clean paper.
And I remember the brown envelopes that stories would go off in—and come back in."These early years in Berks County, would influence the environment of the Rabbit Angstrom tetralogy, as well as many of his early novels and short stories. Updike graduated from Shillington High School as co-valedictorian and class president in 1950 and received a full scholarship to Harvard College, where he was the roommate of Christopher Lasch during their first year. Updike had received recognition for his writing as a teenager by winning a Scholastic Art & Writing Award, at Harvard he soon became well known among his classmates as a talented and prolific contributor to The Harvard Lampoon, of which he served as president, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Upon graduation, Updike attended the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art at the University of Oxford with the ambition of becoming a cartoonist. After returning to the United States and his family moved to New York, where he became a regular contributor to The New Yorker.
This was the beginning of his professional writing career. Updike stayed at The New Yorker as a full staff writer for only two years, writing "Talk of the Town" columns and submitting poetry and short stories to the magazine. In New York, Updike wrote the poems and stories that came to fill his early books like The Carpentered Hen and The Same Door; these works were influenced by Updike's early engagement with The New Yorker. This early work featured the influence of J. D. Salinger. During this time, Updike underwent a profound spiritual crisis. Suffering from a loss of religious faith, he began reading Søren Kierkegaard and the theologian Karl Barth. Both influenced his own religious beliefs, which in turn figured prominently in his fiction. Updike remained a believing Christian for the rest of his life. Updike and his family relocated to Ipswich, Massachusetts. Many commentators, including a columnist in the local Ipswich Chronicle, asserted that the fictional town of Tarbox in Couples was based on Ipswich.
Updike denied the suggestion in a letter to the paper. Impressions of Updike's day-to-day life in Ipswich during the 1960s and 1970s are included in a letter to the same paper published soon after Updike's death and written by a friend and contemporary. In Ipswich, Updike wrote Rabbit, Run, on a Guggenheim Fellowship, The Centaur, two of his most acclaimed and famous works. Rabbit, Run featured Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom, a former high school basketball star and middle-class paragon who would become Updike's most enduring and critically acclaimed character. Updike wrote three additional novels about him. Rabbit, Run was featured in Time's All-TIME 100 Greatest Novels. Updike's career and reputation were nurtured and expanded by his long association with The New Yorker, which published him throughout his career, despite the fact that he had departed the magazine's employment after only two years. Updike's memoir indicates that he stayed in his "corner of New England to give its domestic news" with a focus on the American home from the point of view of a male
Subtractive color, or "subtractive color mixing", predicts the spectral power distribution of light after it passes through successive layers of absorbing media. This idealized model is the essential principle of how dyes and inks are used in color printing and photography where the perception of color is elicited after white light passes through microscopic "stacks" of absorbing media allowing some wavelengths of light to reach the eye and not others. RYB is the standard set of subtractive primary colors used for mixing pigments, it is used in art and art education in painting. It predated modern scientific color theory. Red and blue are the primary colors of the RYB color "wheel"; the secondary colors, violet and green make up another triad, formed by mixing equal amounts of red and blue and yellow, blue and yellow, respectively. The RYB primary colors became the foundation of 18th-century theories of color vision as the fundamental sensory qualities blended in the perception of all physical colors and in the physical mixture of pigments or dyes.
These theories were enhanced by 18th-century investigations of a variety of purely psychological color effects, in particular, the contrast between "complementary" or opposing hues produced by color afterimages and in the contrasting shadows in colored light. These ideas and many personal color observations were summarized in two founding documents in color theory: the Theory of Colors by the German poet and government minister Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Law of Simultaneous Color Contrast by the French industrial chemist Michel-Eugène Chevreul. In late 19th and early to mid-20th-century commercial printing, use of the traditional RYB terminology persisted though the more versatile CMY triad had been adopted, with the cyan sometimes referred to as "process blue" and the magenta as "process red". In color printing, the usual primary colors are cyan and yellow. Cyan is the complement of red; the amount of cyan applied to a white sheet of paper controls how much of the red in white light will be reflected back from the paper.
Ideally, the cyan is transparent to green and blue light and has no effect on those parts of the spectrum. Magenta is the complement of green, yellow the complement of blue. Combinations of different amounts of the three can produce a wide range of colors with good saturation. In inkjet color printing and typical mass production photomechanical printing processes, a black ink K component is included, resulting in the CMYK color model; the black ink serves to cover unwanted tints in dark areas of the printed image, which result from the imperfect transparency of commercially practical CMY inks. Purely photographic color processes never include a K component, because in all common processes the CMY dyes used are much more transparent, there are no registration errors to camouflage, substituting a black dye for a saturated CMY combination, a trivial prospective cost-benefit at best, is technologically impractical in non-electronic analog photography. Additive color Color mixing Color motion picture film Color space Color theory Primary color Berns, Roy S..
Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of 3rd edition. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-471-19459-X. Stroebel, John Compton, Ira Current, Richard Zakia. Basic Photographic Materials and Processes, 2nd edition. Focal Press, Boston. ISBN 0-240-80405-8. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Wyszecki, Günther & W. S. Stiles. Colour Science: Concept and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0-471-02106-7. Stanford University CS 178 interactive Flash demo comparing additive and subtractive color mixing
Wolfgang Kaim is a German chemist, the chair of coordination chemistry at the University of Stuttgart. He is co-author of the internationally recognized book, Bioinorganic Chemistry, awarded with the Literature Award of the German Chemical Industry. Kaim studied chemistry and mathematics at the University of Frankfurt and the University of Konstanz, his diplom thesis in physical organic chemistry was supervised by E. Daltrozzo, he started working on main group radicals in Hans Bock’s group at the University of Frankfurt, where he earned his PhD in 1978. After a post-doctoral year with F. A. Cotton at Texas A&M University, supported by a postdoctoral Liebig Fellowship, he completed his habilitation for inorganic chemistry in 1982. Kaim continued his independent research career at the University of Frankfurt with a Winnacker Fellowship followed by a Heisenberg Fellowship. In 1987 he moved to the University of Stuttgart to take up a chaired position for coordination chemistry where he continues till today.
Kaim is an adjunct professor at the Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, has been visiting professor at the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, guest professor at the Universidad de Chile in Santiago, University of Concepción and the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. He has been the advisor of more than 55 PhD students. In 2014 he was awarded Alfred Stock Memorial Prize by Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker. Kaim’s interdisciplinary research covers the areas of radical stabilization by metal coordination, coenzyme models, the extension of mixed-valence chemistry, electron transfer effects on M-C and M-H bonds, the crystallization of new organic radicals and the electron transfer properties of boron compounds, as well as spectroelectrochemistry in the IR, UV/VIS/near-infrared regions as spectroscopic probes for electron transfer sites and the consequences of electron transfer or charge transfer on structure and bonding, EPR spectroscopy as a less common but useful methodology and CV.
He is the co-author of more than 600 publications in peer-reviewed journals. “Non-innocent ligands in bioinorganic chemistry – an overview”, W. Kaim and B. Schwederski, Coord. Chem. Rev. 254 1580-1588. “Electronic structure alternatives in nitrosylruthenium complexes”, G. K. Lahiri and W. Kaim, Dalton Trans. 39 4471-4478. “Boron Atoms as Spin Carriers in Two- and Three-Dimensional Systems”, W. Kaim, N. S. Hosmane, S. Záliš, J. A. Maguiere and W. N. Lipscomb, Angew. Chem. 121 5184-5193. Chem. Int Ed. 48 5082-5091. “A Five-Center Redox System: Molecular Coupling of Two Non-Innocent Imino-o-benzoquinonato-Ruthenium Functions through a p Acceptor Bridge”, A. K. Das, B. Sarkar, J. Fiedler, S. Záliš, I. Hartenbach, S. Strobel, G. K. Lahiri and W. Kaim, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131 8895-98902. “Unconventional Mixed-Valent Complexes of Ruthenium and Osmium” W. Kaim and G. K. Lahiri, Angew. Chem. 119 1808-1828. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 1778-1796. "Odd Electron on Nitrogen: A Metal-Stabilized Aminyl Radical" W. Kaim, Science 307 216-217. "Long-Range Electronic Coupling in Various Oxidation States of a C4-Linked Trisruthenium Dimer" Y.
Hoshino, S. Higuchi, J. Fiedler, C.-Y. Su, A. Knödler, B. Schwederski, B. Sarkar, H. Hartmann and W. Kaim, Angew. Chem. 115 698. Chem. Int. Ed. 42 674. "Multi-Frequency EPR Study and Density-Functional g-Tensor Calculations of Persistent Organorhenium Radical Complexes" S. Frantz, H. Hartmann, N. Doslik, M. Wanner, W. Kaim, H.-J. Kümmerer, G. Denninger, A.-L. Barra, C. Duboc-Toia, J. Fiedler, I. Ciofini, C. Urban and M. Kaupp, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 10563