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John VII Palaiologos

John VII Palaiologos or Palaeologus was Byzantine Emperor for five months in 1390. While he was Emperor, there is evidence showing he used the name Andronikos, after his father, although when he was regent during his uncle's absence in the West, he governed in his birth name. John VII Palaiologos was the son of Emperor Andronikos IV Palaiologos and Keratsa of Bulgaria, a daughter of Emperor Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria and Theodora of Wallachia, he should not be confused with his cousin John VIII Palaiologos, the son of his uncle Manuel II, who succeeded his father. When his father Andronikos IV usurped the throne from his father John V Palaiologos in 1376, John VII was associated as co-emperor the following year. Both father and son were overthrown and blinded in 1379, but Andronikos IV kept his imperial status and was granted Selymbria as his domain by John V; when Andronikos IV died in 1385, John VII succeeded to his father's position. On 14 April 1390 John VII Palaiologos ousted his grandfather John V and maintained himself on the throne for five months, until John V was restored by his son Manuel with the help of the Republic of Venice John VII sought refuge with Bayezid I of the Ottoman Empire on 17 September 1390.

Bayezid confirmed John VII in his father's domain of Selymbria, relations improved with Manuel II, who may have recognized John VII as his intended heir. In 1399, after Bayezid I had besieged Constantinople for some five years, Manuel II left to ask for military aid in Western Europe and left John VII as regent to defend the capital. John VII discharged his duties well, hoping for a miracle, considered to occur when Bayezid was defeated by Timur at the Battle of Ankara; the defeat was followed by a civil war in the Ottoman Empire, as rival Ottoman princes sought peace and friendship with the Byzantine Empire. Taking advantage of this time of Ottoman weakness, John VII entered into a treaty that secured the return of much of the Turkish-occupied coast on the European side of the Sea of Marmara, with a special concession of the city of Thessalonica on the Aegean Sea. Thessalonica had been governed by Manuel II before its conquest by the Turks in 1387. On Manuel II's return John VII dutifully returned power to him and was allowed to retire to Thessalonica, ceded back to Byzantium.

There he governed as a semi-independent ruler for the rest of his life, using the title "Emperor of All Thessaly". John VII was allowed to keep the title of emperor, he associated his own young son, Andronikos V, with him at an uncertain date, but Andronikos V predeceased his father in 1407. By his wife Irene Gattilusio, John VII Palaiologos had at least one son: Andronikos V Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor List of Byzantine emperors Barker, John. Manuel II Paleologus: A Study in Late Byzantine Statesmanship. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-0582-8. George T. Dennis,'An unknown Byzantine emperor, Andronicus V Palaeologus', Jahrbuch der Oesterreichischen Byzantinistik 16, 175–187. Franz Dölger,'Johannes VII. Kaiser der Rhomäer', Byzantinische Zeitschrift 31, 21–36 Harris, The End of Byzantium. Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Eurydice Lappa-Zizicas,'Le voyage de Jean VII. Paléologue en Italie', Revue des Études Byzantines 34, 139–142. Necipoglu, Nevra. Byzantium between the Ottomans and the Latins: Politics and Society in the Late Empire.

Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-511-51807-2. Nicol, Donald M.. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nicol, Donald M.. The Reluctant Emperor: A Biography of John Cantacuzene, Byzantine Emperor and Monk, c. 1295-1383. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. Wirth,'Zum Geschichtsbild Kaiser Johannes VII.', Byzantion 35, 592–600

Manuel Musallam

Manuel Musallam is a Palestinian Catholic priest. His pastoral work has taken him to Jordan, the West Bank, to Gaza, he is a Palestinian activist opposed to Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories, the Judaization of Jerusalem. He has opened the doors of Christian schools to Muslim families, worked to achieve an understanding between Fatah and Hamas and has been instrumental in brokering solutions to both infra-Muslim and Muslim-Christian tensions. Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian Authority, appointed him head of the Department for the Christians of the Palestinian Foreign Office, he is an orator of distinction, a founder of Palestinian Folklore Groups, for which he was awarded a gold medal. Father Musallem retired to Birzeit, aged 71, on health grounds, in May 2009. Musallam grew up in Bir Zeit near Ramallah, he joined the Lower Seminary in Beit Jala outside of Bethlehem to study for the priesthood in October 1951. After his ordination in 1963 he was assigned to do pastoral work in the Jordanian cities of Zarqa and Anjara during the 1960s.

He earned the sobriquet of amir of the Christians among the Muslims in Zarqa while serving as assistant to Fr. Butros Aranki, he was appointed parish priest at Anjara in 1968 and developed solid contacts with the Palestinian fedayeen in the area. One account states that he was declared persona non grata around 1970, as the Black September Uprising broke out. After a brief period as priest of Bir Zeit parish, he was sent to Jenin, where there were few Christians but where his presence is still recalled with respect by the Muslims. Musallam recollects learning more about man by sitting down and drinking coffee in café bars with people in Jenin than from reading theological texts. Musallam said mass for 4 years in the Catholic compound in the heart of the Jenin, gained some prominence as a Fatah leader, but engaged in pastoral care for Christians in nearby villages, such as Burqin and Deir Ghazaleh. In 1975 he was appointed parish priest to the predominantly Christian West Bank village of Zababdeh, an enclave in a predominantly Muslim area, surrounded the villages of Tefit, Jalqamus and Qabatiya, where he served for 2 decades.

He was called in to settle disputes between feuding Muslim clans in the area. Though ordered to negotiate with the Israeli military governor, Musallam refused to go, though he was threatened with arrest for failure to do so, earned the governor's respect. On one occasion, hearing reports he was ill, the military governor sent a helicopter to have him transported to hospital, an offer he nonetheless turned down; the respect he earned in his period in Jenin led many local Muslims to ask him to accommodate their children in Zababdeh's excellent schooling system which he oversaw on his appointment there. He accepted their proposal, with the result that a third of the students are Muslim youths from Jenin and the surrounding countryside. One group of Palestinian Christians around Musallam see themselves as'the voices of the voiceless living stones in Jesus's Land', descendants of the First Christians and thus natives of Palestine, in Musallam's view, neither converts from Judaism nor Islam, who work towards the realization of One Democratic Secular State.

His rhetorical dexterity has been an important factor in forging a cross-confessional sense of shared identity among Palestinians. He was appointed to the diocese of Gaza in 1995. In Musallam's view, Palestinian Christians and Muslims are one people:the differences are annulled by the shared suffering and humiliation. In Gaza under Hamas administration, he notes, Muslims attend Christian weddings and visit churches on particular occasions. Hamas, does not fight other religions, it is engaged in a battle against the Israeli occupation In the wake of the Declaration of Principles set forth in the 1993 Oslo Peace Accords, Yassir Arafat's Fatah organized a rally among the predominantly Muslim community to gather their support for the agreements at Jenin Refugee Camp. The opening speech, a dry analysis by the Palestinian philosopher Sari Nusseibeh received polite applause, it was followed by a passionate talk by a local shabiba promising that this was the first step towards reclaiming all of Mandatory Palestine, words that elicited a more enthusiastic response.

Musallam had been chosen to close the rally, his stirring delivery was, according to a foreign observer, interrupted after every sentence with cries of al-Ab Manuel! al-Ab Manuel. He praised the indigenous value of sumud, the steadfastness of Palestinian attachment to their homeland, from the nakba onwards through their continuing exile. With regard to Jerusalem, he preached that: Remodulating the words of Psalm 137:5,'If I forget thee, O Palestinian Jerusalem, let my right hand lose its cunning', he concluded his oration by stating:'They scattered us on the wind to every corner of the earth but they did not eradicate us.' The speech, delivered on 8 September 1993, was received with a seven-minute standing ovation. Musallam considers Jerusalem to be the patrimony of all three Abrahamic religions, laments the decline, through emigration, of the once strong Christian population there, which has dropped from 60,000 in 1967 to 7,000 by 2006 Jerusalem is, he argues, not a legacy to be shared with Israel, or to be recognized as that country's capital.

It can not be built up as. "Jerusalem," Musallam declares, "was the city of God and prayer but has been converted into a city of man and hatred. Instead of becoming the key to the doors of heaven, it has become a key to war and blood." He is convinced th

Sir Richard King, 1st Baronet

Admiral Sir Richard King, 1st Baronet was a British naval officer and colonial governor. King was born in the son of Curtis King and Mary Barnett, he served in HMS Berwick. In 1745 made a lieutenant in HMS Tiger and in 1756 he was promoted to commander of the fireship HMS Blaze, he took part in the capture of Calcutta in 1756 and commanded the landing party at the capture of Hoogly in 1757. In 1763 he was given command of HMS Grafton and in 1770 he took over HMS Northumberland, he went on to command HMS Pallas from 1778 and HMS Exeter from 1779. He was knighted in 1782 for his services near India. Promoted Rear Admiral in 1787, he was appointed commander-in-chief of The Downs in 1790. In 1792 he was made commander-in-chief and Governor of Newfoundland. While King was in office France had declared war on Britain and King captured St. Pierre and Miquelon for the British and was promoted Vice-Admiral in 1793, he was elected Member of Parliament for Rochester in 1794, holding the seat until 1802. In 1794 he was appointed Plymouth and in 1795 promoted to Admiral.

In 1769 he married Susannah Margaretta Coker. Governors of Newfoundland List of people of Newfoundland and Labrador Leigh Rayment's list of baronets