John Samuel Waters Jr. is an American filmmaker, writer and artist. Born and raised in Baltimore, Waters rose to prominence in the early 1970s for his transgressive cult films, including Multiple Maniacs, Pink Flamingos and Female Trouble, he wrote and directed the 1988 film Hairspray which became an international success and turned into a hit Broadway musical which has remained in continuous production. Waters has written and directed other successful films including Polyester, Cry-Baby, Serial Mom and Cecil B. Demented. In 2015, the British Film Institute celebrated Waters’ films with a retrospective in honor of his 50 year-filmmaking career; that year, he was nominated for a Grammy Award for the spoken word version of his book Carsick. As an actor, Waters has appeared in films such as Sweet and Lowdown, Seed of Chucky and Suburban Gothic. More he performs in his touring one-man show, This Filthy World. In addition to filmmaking and acting, Waters works as a visual artist and across different mediums such as installations and sculpture.
He has published multiple collections of his journalistic exploits, screenplays and artwork. Waters’ artwork exhibits in galleries and museums around the world. Waters was born in Baltimore, the son of Patricia Ann and John Samuel Waters, a manufacturer of fire-protection equipment, his family were upper-middle class Roman Catholics. Waters grew up in a suburb of Baltimore, his boyhood friend and muse Glenn Milstead known as Divine lived in Lutherville. The film Lili inspired an interest in puppets in the seven-year-old Waters, who proceeded to stage violent versions of Punch and Judy for children's birthday parties. Biographer Robrt L. Pela says that Waters' mother believes the puppets in Lili had the greatest influence on Waters' subsequent career. Cry-Baby was a product of Waters' boyhood, because of his fascination as a 7-year-old with the "drapes" receiving intense news coverage because of the murder of a young "drapette", coupled with his awed admiration for a young man who lived across the street and who possessed a hot rod.
Waters was educated at the Calvert School in Baltimore. After attending Towson Jr. High School in Towson and Calvert Hall College High School in nearby Towson, he graduated from Boys' Latin School of Maryland. While still a teenager, Waters made frequent trips into the city to visit Martick's, a beatnik bar in downtown Baltimore, he and Milstead met many of their film collaborators there. Although underage and therefore not admitted into the bar proper, Waters loitered in the adjacent alley, where he relied on the kindness of patrons to slip him drinks. Waters' first short film was Hag in a Black Leather Jacket. Influential to his creative mind, Waters said the following about seeing the film,The Wizard of Oz: "I was always drawn to forbidden subject matter in the very beginning; the Wizard of Oz opened me up because it was one of the first movies I saw. It opened me up to screenwriting, to costumes, and great dialogue. I think the witch has great, great dialogue." Waters has stated that he takes an equal amount of joy and influence from high-brow "art" films and sleazy exploitation films.
In January 1966, Waters and some friends were caught smoking marijuana on the grounds of NYU. Waters returned to Baltimore, where he completed his next two short films Roman Candles and Eat Your Makeup; these were followed by the feature-length films Mondo Multiple Maniacs. Waters' films became Divine's primary star vehicles. All of Waters' early films were shot in the Baltimore area with his company of local actors, the Dreamlanders. In addition to Divine, the group included Mink Stole, Cookie Mueller, Edith Massey, David Lochary, Mary Vivian Pearce, Susan Walsh, others. Waters' early campy movies present exaggerated characters in outrageous situations with hyperbolic dialogue. Pink Flamingos, Female Trouble, Desperate Living, which he labeled the Trash Trilogy, pushed hard at the boundaries of conventional propriety and movie censorship. Waters' 1981 film Polyester starred Divine opposite former teen idol Tab Hunter. Since his films have become less controversial and more mainstream, although works such as Hairspray, Cry-Baby, Serial Mom and Cecil B.
Demented still retain his trademark inventiveness. The film Hairspray, the last movie he produced, was turned into a hit Broadway musical that swept the 2003 Tony Awards, a film adaptation of the Broadway musical was released in theaters on July 20, 2007, to positive reviews and commercial success. Cry-Baby, itself a musical, was converted into a Broadway musical. In 2004, the NC-17-rated A Dirty Shame marked a return to his earlier, more controversial work of the 1970s; as of 2019, it is the most recent film. In 2007, Waters became the host of'Til Death Do Us Part, a program on America's Court TV network. In 2008, Waters was planning to make a children's Christmas film called Fruitcake starring Johnny Knoxville and Parker Posey. Filming was planned for November 2008, but it was shelved in January 2009. In 2010, Waters told the Chicago Tribune that "Independent films that cost $5 million are hard to get made. I sold the idea, got a development deal, got paid a great salary to write it—and now the company is no longer around, the case with many in
Yone Suzuki was a Japanese businesswoman, described in 1918 as "the wealthiest woman in Japan". Yone Suzuki was from Osaka; as a widow with two sons, Yone Suzuki took over her late husband's business, the Suzuki Trading Company, trusting manager Kaneko Naokichi with many of the strategic decisions. In 1900, she made a fortune in a deal involving sugar, real estate, camphor, she started a peppermint factory, she bought the Kobe Steel Works, expanded her operations in camphor manufacture, sugar refineries and flour mills. She built a factories to produce fish oil and bean oil, owned a fleet of ships, added branch offices of the Suzuki conglomerate in several international locations, including Europe, North America and elsewhere in Asia, she was described in 1918 as "the wealthiest woman in Japan", in 1927 as the "richest woman in the world." However, she was described as "one of the best-hated persons in the country" for taking advantage of wartime conditions and for running up the price of rice.
She had to go into hiding with an alias for a while during the rice riots of 1918, after angry crowds burned her company's headquarters in Kobe. The Suzuki conglomerate was badly affected by a foreign exchange crisis in 1923–1924, failed in a financial panic in 1927; the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, dysfunctional internal dynamics, unpopular business practices, external rivalries with other large Japanese conglomerates, are cited as contributing to the Suzuki collapse. Among the present-day companies descended from Suzuki & Co. are Kobe Sojitz. She married a sugar merchant, when she was 13 years old, their sons were Ewazo. She was widowed when he died in 1894. At the peak of her wealth, she lived in a mansion at Kobe; the 2014 Japanese television drama Oiesan was a historical drama based on a novel by Kaoru Tamaoka about Yone Suzuki's life. Yūki Amami played Yone Suzuki in the program
Hugo Desiré Rijhiner was a Surinamese officer in the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, awarded the Military William Order for his actions in the Battle of Rotterdam. Together with Harry Voss, Rijhiner remains one of only two Surinamese soldiers to have been awarded the Military William Order. Rijhiner joined the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army in the 1920s. After he was promoted to sub-lieutenant on 24 June 1939, Rijhiner was granted a temporary leave from the military and subsequently left the Dutch East Indies for the Netherlands, with the intention to travel onwards to Suriname. While he was in the Netherlands, the Second World War broke out, Rijhiner was mobilized for the war effort in Europe. During the Battle of Rotterdam, Rijhiner was responsible for the defence of an ammunition depot in Overschie. While inspecting his troops on 12 May 1940, Rijhiner was shot in his left thigh by friendly fire because his wearing a KNIL uniform with a Dutch army coat and helmet was considered suspicious by one of the soldiers.
Despite being wounded, against the advice of his superiors, Rijhiner moved back to the front the next day, to defend the ammunition depot. This move was the basis for the decision to award Rijhiner with the Military William Order, promulgated by royal decree by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands on 26 June 1946. After the surrender of the Dutch army on 14 May 1940, Rijhiner went into hiding and joined the Dutch resistance while adopting the hiding name "Reinier", he was apprehended by the Sicherheitsdienst and after a short incarceration at Scheveningen prison sent to a camp in Darmstadt. Van der Horst, Liesbeth. Wereldoorlog in de West: Suriname, de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba 1940–1945. Hilversum: Verloren. Van den Oord, Ad. Allochtonen van nu & de oorlog van toen. Den Haag: Sdu. Wong, Tony. Surinaamse oorlogsveteranen van de Tweede Wereldoorlog, 1939–1945, Korea-oorlog, 1951–1953. Paramaribo: de Ware Tijd
In mathematics, a concave function is the negative of a convex function. A concave function is synonymously called concave downwards, concave down, convex upwards, convex cap or upper convex. A real-valued function f on an interval is said to be concave if, for any x and y in the interval and for any α ∈, f ≥ f + α f A function is called concave if f > f + α f for any α ∈ and x ≠ y. For a function f: R → R, this second definition states that for every z between x and y, the point on the graph of f is above the straight line joining the points and. A function f is quasiconcave. 1. A differentiable function f is concave on an interval if and only if its derivative function f ′ is monotonically decreasing on that interval, that is, a concave function has a non-increasing slope.2. Points where concavity changes are inflection points.3. If f is twice-differentiable f is concave if and only if f ′′ is non-positive. If its second derivative is negative it is concave, but the converse is not true, as shown by f = −x4.
4. If f is concave and differentiable it is bounded above by its first-order Taylor approximation: f ≤ f + f ′ 5. A Lebesgue measurable function on an interval C is concave if and only if it is midpoint concave, that is, for any x and y in C f ≥ f + f 2 6. If a function f is concave, f ≥ 0 f is subadditive on [ 0, ∞ ). Proof: Since 1 ≥ t ≥ 0, letting y = 0 we have f = f ≥ t f + f ≥ t f. For a, b ∈ [ 0, ∞ ): f + f = f + f ≥ a a + b f + b a + b f = f 1. A function f is concave over a convex set if and only if the function −f is a convex function over the set. 2. The sum of two concave functions is itself con
This is a list of encyclopedias as well as encyclopedic and biographical dictionaries published on the subjects of religion and mythology in any language. Entries are in the English language unless stated as otherwise. Annotated Dictionary of Modern Religious Movements. Grolier, 1993. Askmark, Ragnar, ed.. Nordisk teologisk uppslagsbok for kyrka och skola. Copenhagen: Munksgaard. Baumgartner, Anne. Ye Gods: A Dictionary of the Gods. Lyle Stuart, 1984. Benowitz, June Melby. Encyclopedia of American women and religion. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 0-87436-887-1. Betz, Hans Dieter. Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Handwörterbuch für Theologie und Religionswissenschaft. Mohr, 1998–2000. ISBN 3-16-146942-9. Betz, Hans Dieter. Religion past & present: Encyclopedia of theology and religion. Brill, 2007–2010. ISBN 90-04-14666-0. Bishop and Michael Barton. Encyclopedia of World Faiths: An Illustrated Survey of the World's Living Religions. Facts on File, 1988. Bowker, John Westerdale; the Oxford dictionary of world religions. Oxford University Press, 1997.
ISBN 0-19-213965-7. Bradshaw, Paul F; the new Westminster dictionary of liturgy and worship. Westminster John Knox Press, 2002. ISBN 0-664-22655-8. Brandon, S. G. F. ed.. Dictionary of Comparative Religion. New York: Scribner. Brasher, Brenda E. Encyclopedia of fundamentalism. Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-92244-5. Buchberger, Michael, ed.. Lexicon fur Theologie und Kirche. Freiburg: Herder. Carlyon, Richard. Guide to the Gods. Morrow, 1982. Cookson, Catharine. Encyclopedia of religious freedom. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-94181-4. Cotterell, Arthur. Dictionary of World Mythology. Putnam, 1980. Crim, Keith. Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions. Nashville: Abingdon. Douglas, J. D. New 20th-Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 2nd ed. Baker Book House, 1991. Eliade, Mircea; the Encyclopedia of Religion. Macmillan, 1986. Eliade and Ioan Couliano. Eliade Guide to World Religions. HarperCollins, 1991. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Religion. Catholic University Press, 1979. Ferguson, John, ed.. An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mysticism and the Mystery Religions.
London: Thames and Hudson. Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore and Legends. Funk & Wagnalls, 1949–1956. Galling, Kurt, ed.. Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Tubingen: Mohr. Guiley, John Zaffis; the encyclopedia of demons and demonology. Facts On File/Checkmark Books, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8160-7314-6. Harris, Ian. Contemporary Religions: A World Guide, Longman, 1992. Harvey, Robert J. Wallis. Historical dictionary of shamanism. Scarecrow Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8108-5798-8. Hastings, James, ed.. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. New York: Scribner. Herzog, Johann Jakob, ed.. Realencyklopadie fur protestantische Theologie und Kirche. Leipzig: Hinrichs. Hetherington, Norriss S. Encyclopedia of Cosmology: Historical and Scientific Foundations of Modern Cosmology. Garland, 1993. Hinnells, John. Handbook of Living Religions. Viking, 1985. Hinnels, John R. A new handbook of living religions. Blackwell, 1997. ISBN 0-631-18275-6. Hinnels, John R. ed.. The Penguin Dictionary of Religions. London: Allen Lane.
Jackson, S. M. ed.. New Schaff-Herzog encyclopedia of religious knowledge. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Johnston, William M. Recent reference books in religion: A guide for students, researchers and readers. InterVarsity Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8308-1440-X. Jones, Lindsay. Encyclopedia of religion. Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. ISBN 0-02-865733-0. Jordan, Michael. Encyclopedia of Gods: Over 2500 Deities of the World. Facts on File, 1993. Keller, Rosemary Skinner, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Marie Cantlon. Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34685-1. Kennedy, Richard. International Dictionary of Religion: A Profusely Illustrated Guide to the Beliefs of the World. Crossroad, 1984. Krause and Gerhard Muller, ed.. Theologische Realenzykopadie. Berlin and New York: W. de Gruyter. Landes, Richard Allen. Encyclopedia of millennialism and millennial movements. Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-415-92246-1. Leach, Marjorie. Guide to the Gods. ABC-Clio, 1992. Loetscher, Lefferts A. ed.. Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.
Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. Lossky, Nicholas. Dictionary of the ecumenical movement. WCC Publications, c2002. Lurker, Manfred. Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses and Demons. Routledge, 1987. Marquis Who's Who. Who's who in religion. Marquis Who's Who, 1975/76-1992/93. Mead, Frank Spencer, ed.. Handbook of Denominations in the United States. Nashville: Abingdon. Meagher, Paul Kevin. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Religion. Washington: Corpus Pubns. for Sisters of St. Joseph of Philadelphia. Melton, J. Gordon, ed.. The Encyclopedia of American Religions. Wilmington, N. C.: McGrath. Melton, J. Gordon, Marin Baumann, David B. Barrett. Religions of the world: A comprehensive encyclopedia of beliefs and practices. ABC-CLIO, 2002. ISBN 1-57607-223-1. Mercatante, Anthony S; the Facts on File Encyclopedia of World Mythology and Legend. Facts on File, 1988. Parrinder, Edward Geoffrey, ed.. Dictionary of Non-Christian Religions. Amersham, Bucks.: Hulton. Parrinder, Geoffrey. World Religions from Ancient History to the Present.
Facts on File, 1984. Poupard, Paul, ed.. Dictionnaire des religions. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Pye, Michael; the Continuum dictionary of religion. Continuum, 1994. ISBN 0-8264-0639-4. Rice, Edward. Eastern definitions. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday. Riggs, Thomas. Worldmark encyclopedia of religious practices. Thomson
Suning.com Co. Ltd. Suning Commerce Group Co. Ltd. is one of the largest non-government retailers in China, headquartered in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. Suning has more than 1600 stores covering over 700 cities of China and Japan and its e-commerce platform, Suning.com ranks among top three Chinese B2C companies. The operation categories include physical merchandise, such as home appliances, 3C products, general merchandise, household commodities and baby care products, content products and service merchandise with the total number of SKU exceeding 3 million, it was listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2004. Suning Commerce Group Co. Ltd. principally operates franchised retail shops of electronics appliances in China. The Company offers colour televisions and video players, disc players, washing machines and information technology products, small household electronics, air conditioners, telecommunications products and other products; the company provides installation and repair services for electronic appliances.
As of December 31, 2010, the company had 1,311 stores in 231 cities across China. On 26 December 1990, the predecessor of Suning was founded in Nanjing as an air-conditioner retail store. On 15 May 1996, 江苏苏宁交家电有限公司 was incorporated. In 2000 the company was renamed into 江苏苏宁交家电有限公司 and Suning Appliance Chain Store Co. Ltd.. In July 2004, Suning Appliance Chain Store was listed on SZSE; as at 31 December 2004, founder and chairman Zhang Jindong owned 35.12% stake, followed by Jiangsu Suning Appliance Co. Ltd., the parent company of Suning Appliance Chain Store Co. Ltd. for 18.29% stake. Chen Jinfeng owned 8.78% stake. Moreover, Liu Xiaomeng, Zhang Jindong, Sun Weimin and Chen Jinfeng owned 42%, 28%, 18% and 12% stake in Jiangsu Suning Appliance, as at 2002. Suning Appliance Chain Store was renamed into Suning Appliance Co. Ltd. in 2005. In 2009 Suning Appliance purchased Hong Kong based retail chain Citicall, which became Hongkong Suning Commerce Co. Ltd. for HK$35 million and not more than HK$180 million for fixed assets.2011-, Suning's been exploring "online and offline" multi-channel integration.
On 19 February 2013, Suning Appliance announced to change the company name to Suning Commerce Group Co. Ltd. On October 2015 PPTV was sold to chairman Zhang Jindong via a subsidiary of Suning Culture Investment Management for US$398.4102 million, making a profit of RMB 1.355 billion. In 2015 financial year the comprehensive income of Suning Commerce Group in consolidated basis was just 1.01168 billion RMB. In April 2016 Suning Commerce acquired 4.90% stake in Nubia Technology from chairman Zhang Jindong for 283.7 million RMB, proportional to Zhang's subscription in the capital increase of Nubia in December 2015. On 3 June 2016 Suning Commerce Group issued about 1.86 billion new shares to Taobao Software Co. Ltd. a subsidiary of Alibaba Group, for about 28 billion RMB. During the year the company sold some properties to Zhang, making extraordinary profit for the loss-making company. In 2018, the listed company was renamed to Suning.com Co. Ltd. In 2019, Suning.com acquired 80% stake of the Chinese division of Carrefour.
In January 2016, one of the shareholders of Suning Commerce, Suning Appliance Group, completed the purchase of the Chinese football club Jiangsu F. C.. The Chinese name of the football club was renamed as 江苏苏宁易购队 Jiangsu Suning.com team. According to Suning Commerce, the company sponsored the football club CN¥123 million in 2016. On 6 June 2016 chairman Zhang Jindong, via his own private holding company Suning Holdings Group, signed a contract to purchase the majority stake in Italian football club Inter Milan; the deal was approved by the extraordinary general meeting on 28 June 2016, which after the deal, Suning Holdings Group owned 68.55% shares. Suning.com, the online shopping website of Suning Commerce, became a sponsor of the Italian club. As of 31 December 2016 Suning Appliance Group, second largest shareholder of Suning.com Co. Ltd. Suning Holdings Group, sister company, minority shareholder of Suning.com Co. Ltd. Li, Woke. "Suning plans massive expansion." China Daily. March 6, 2012. "Suning sets up R&D shop in California."
China Daily. January 2, 2014. Li, Woke. "Yum to open restaurants in Suning stores." China Daily. May 10, 2012. He, Wei. "Suning eyes new telecom market." China Daily. October 22, 2013. "Suning enters finance." China Radio International at China Daily. December 19, 2014. Official website