Bennett Lester Benny Carter was an American jazz alto saxophonist, trumpeter, composer and bandleader. He was a figure in jazz from the 1930s to the 1990s. Carter performed with artists from several generations of jazz, and at major festivals. The National Endowment for the Arts honored Benny Carter with its highest honor in jazz, the NEA Jazz Masters Award for 1986. He was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1987, in 2000 he was awarded the National Endowment for the Arts, National Medal of Arts, presented by President Bill Clinton. Born in New York City in 1907, the youngest of six children, largely self-taught, by age fifteen, Carter was already sitting in at Harlem night spots. From 1924 to 1928, Carter gained professional experience as a sideman in some of New Yorks most prominent bands, as a youth, Carter lived in Harlem around the corner from Bubber Miley, who was Duke Ellingtons featured trumpeter. Carter was inspired by Miley and bought a trumpet, but when he found he couldnt play like Miley, Duke Ellington, and their respective groups.
He first recorded in 1928 with Charlie Johnsons Orchestra, arranging the titles recorded, Carters arrangements were sophisticated and very complex, and a number of them became swing standards which were performed by other bands. He arranged for Duke Ellington during these years, Carter was noted for his arrangements. By the early 1930s he and Johnny Hodges were considered the leading players of the day. Carter quickly became a leading trumpet soloist, having rediscovered the instrument and he recorded extensively on trumpet in the 1930s. Carters name first appeared on records with a 1932 Crown label release of Tell All Your Day Dreams to Me credited to Bennie Carter, Carters short-lived Orchestra played the Harlem Club in New York but only recorded a handful of records for Columbia, OKeh and Vocalion. The OKeh sides were issued under the name Chocolate Dandies and his trumpet solo on the October 1933 recording of Once Upon A Time by the Chocolate Dandies has long been considered a milestone solo achievement.
These 14 sides plus four by Carters big band were only issued in England at the time, originally titled Spike Hughes, the musicians were mainly made up from members of Carters band. Two recordings that typify his sound are 1937s Honeysuckle Rose, recorded with Django Reinhardt and Coleman Hawkins in Europe, returning home in 1938, he quickly formed another orchestra, which spent much of 1939 and 1940 at Harlems famed Savoy Ballroom. His arrangements were much in demand and were featured on recordings by Benny Goodman, Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Lena Horne, Glenn Miller, Gene Krupa and he relocated to Los Angeles in 1943, and moved increasingly into studio work. Beginning with Stormy Weather in 1943, he arranged for dozens of feature films and television productions
The soprano saxophone is a higher-register variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument, invented in the 1840s. The soprano is the third smallest member of the saxophone family, a transposing instrument pitched in the key of B♭, modern soprano saxophones with a high F♯ key have a range from A♭3 to E6 and are therefore pitched one octave above the tenor saxophone. Some saxophones have additional keys, allowing them to play an additional F♯ and these extra keys are commonly found on more modern saxophones. Additionally, skilled players can make use of the altissimo register, there is a soprano pitched in C, which is less common and until recently had not been made since around 1940. The soprano saxophone can be compared to the B♭ clarinet, although the clarinet can play a fourth lower and over a fifth higher. Professional players will use the technique of voicing to fix problems with intonation, due to its similarity in tone to the oboe, the soprano saxophone is sometimes used as a substitute for it.
In addition to straight sopranos, there are slightly and fully curved sopranos, the fully curved variety looks much like a small alto saxophone with a straighter crook. There is some debate over the effect of the straight and curved neck, with some believing that a curved neck on a soprano gives it a warmer. The soprano has all the keys of other models and some may have a top G key next to the F♯ key. Soprano saxophone mouthpieces are available in various designs, allowing players to tailor their tone as required, in 2001, François Louis created the aulochrome, a woodwind instrument made of two joined soprano saxophones, which can be played either in unison or in harmony. The soprano saxophone is used as a solo and chamber instrument in classical music. It is included in the quartet and plays a lead role. Many solo pieces have been written for it by such as Heitor Villa-Lobos, Alan Hovhaness, Jennifer Higdon, Takashi Yoshimatsu. As an orchestral instrument, it has used in several compositions.
It was used by Richard Strauss in his Sinfonia Domestica, where included in the music are parts for four saxophones and it is used in Maurice Ravels Bolero and has a featured solo directly following the tenor saxophones solo. Vincent dIndy includes a soprano in his opera Fervaal, greats of the jazz soprano sax include 1930s virtuoso Sidney Bechet, 1950s innovator Steve Lacy, beginning with his landmark 1960 album My Favorite Things, John Coltrane. Other notable soprano saxophonists include Jay Beckenstein, Dave Koz, Grover Washington, Jr. Ronnie Laws, and Nigerian Afrobeat multi-instrumentalist Fela Kuti
Vibrato is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch. It is used to add expression to vocal and instrumental music, Vibrato is typically characterised in terms of two factors, the amount of pitch variation and the speed with which the pitch is varied. In singing it can occur spontaneously through variations in the larynx, the vibrato of a string instrument and wind instrument is an imitation of that vocal function. In practice, it is difficult for a singer or musical instrument player to achieve a pure vibrato or tremolo, electronic manipulation or generation of signals makes it easier to achieve or demonstrate pure tremolo or vibrato. A Leslie speaker creates vibrato as a byproduct of tremolo production, as a Leslie speaker is moved by the rotating mechanism on which it is mounted, it moves closer to or farther away from any given object not mounted on the mechanism. e. However, the size of effect is likely to be tiny compared against the tremolo effect since the distance oscillation is very small.
The use of vibrato is intended to add warmth to a note and this can add a shimmer to the sound, with a well-made instrument it may help a solo player to be heard more clearly when playing with a large orchestra. The rate and extent of the variation in pitch during vibrato is controlled by the performer and bowed instruments generally use vibratos with an extent of less than half a semitone either side. Despite his technique, he was unable to play without vibrato, the featured saxophonist in Benny Goodmans Orchestra, George Auld, was brought in to play the part. Many classical musicians, especially singers and string players, have a similar problem, the use of vibrato in classical music is a matter of some dispute. For much of the 20th century it was used almost continuously in the performance of pieces from all eras from the Baroque onwards, especially by singers, a drastic change in approach cannot be understood wholly without regarding the rise of notionally historically informed performance from the 1970s onwards.
However, there is no proof that singers performed without vibrato in the baroque era. Vocal music of the renaissance is almost never sung with vibrato as a rule, there are only a few texts from the period on vocal production, but they all condemn excessive use of vibrato. However, it should be understood that vibrato occurs over a range of intensities, fast, wide. Leopold Mozart’s Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, for example, provides an indication of the state of vibrato in string playing at the end of the baroque period. This however, does not give anything more than an indication of Mozarts own personal taste, in this respect he resembles his contemporary, Francesco Geminiani, who advocated using vibrato as frequently as possible on short notes for this purpose. Certain types of vibrato, were seen as an ornament, in wind playing too, it seems that vibrato in music up to the 20th century was seen as an ornament to be used selectively. Martin Agricola writing in his Musica instrumentalis deudsch writes of vibrato in this way, composers up to the baroque period indicated vibrato with a wavy line in the sheet music
Harry Howell Carney was an American jazz musician whose virtuosity on the baritone saxophone influenced generations of subsequent players. He performed on clarinet and bass clarinet, as well as alto saxophone in the years of his career. Mainly known for his 45-year tenure in Duke Ellingtons Orchestra, Carneys strong, harry Howell Carney was born in 1910 in Boston, Massachusetts. He began on the piano at age six, moved to the clarinet at 13 and he grew up next door to future Ellington bandmate Johnny Hodges, four years his elder, who was an early influence on his music. His other main influences included clarinetists Buster Bailey and Don Murray and saxophonists Coleman Hawkins, after playing a variety of gigs in New York City at the age of 17, Carney joined Ellington in Boston in 1927. He initially played alto and soprano saxes, doubling on clarinet while Otto Hardwick handled the baritone parts, Carney initially vied with clarinetist Rudy Jackson for the hot clarinet solos and with Hardwick for alto and soprano solos.
An example of this is on Blue Bubbles, a song with Carney on alto and soprano, as Hardwick didnt stand out on baritone sax as much as his other horns, Carney saw an opportunity and immediately purchased a baritone sax. His progress was quick, and soon began being featured on the instrument, when Otto Hardwick left Ellington in 1928 to go to Europe, Carney took over the lead alto parts with Johnny Hodges taking over the main alto and soprano parts. Harry Carney took a solo on tenor sax on the Ellington song Hot Feet. He occasionally took a solo on clarinet, despite Bigard being the featured clarinetist with Ellington from 1928-1942. Examples include Bugle Call Rag, the 1932 versions of Creole Love Call, I Dont Know What Kind of Blues Ive Got, Its Like Reaching For The Moon and so forth. Carney performed a rare alto clarinet solo on Dukes Saddest Tale, Carney didnt fully take up bass clarinet until 1943, becoming one of the pioneers of the instrument. His alto saxophone work was reduced back to work after 1932 when Otto Hardwick returned to the band full-time as lead alto.
He does have a few features on a 1940 session with Rex Stewart playing alto on Linger Awhile. Although still seen doubling alto on a 1943 musical short Symphony in Swing and this was lamented by Mercer Ellington in his autobiography as his playing alto sax brought an additional tonal color to the sax section. Carney focused mainly on the saxophone for the remainder of his career, doubling bass clarinet. He did retain his sole set clarinet solo on Rockin In Rhythm, Carney was the longest serving player in Duke Ellingtons orchestra. On occasions when Ellington was absent or wished to make an entrance after the band had begun playing the first piece of a performance
Lawrence Welk was an American musician, accordionist and television impresario, who hosted the television program The Lawrence Welk Show from 1951 to 1982. His style came to be known to his audience of radio, television. Welk was born in the German-speaking community of Strasburg, North Dakota and he was sixth of the eight children of Ludwig and Christiana Welk, ethnic Germans who emigrated to America in 1892 from Odessa, Russian Empire. Lawrence Welk was a first cousin, once removed, of former Montana governor Brian Schweitzer, Welks grandparents and Magdalena Welk, emigrated in 1808 from Alsace-Lorraine to Ukraine. The family lived on a homestead that is now a tourist attraction and they spent the cold North Dakota winter of their first year inside an upturned wagon covered in sod. Growing up speaking German and English, Welk left school during fourth grade to work full-time on the family farm, any money he made elsewhere during that time, doing farmwork or performing, would go to his family.
On his 21st birthday, having fulfilled his promise to his father, during the 1920s, he performed with various bands before starting his own orchestra. He led big bands in North Dakota and eastern South Dakota and these included the Hotsy Totsy Boys and the Honolulu Fruit Gum Orchestra. His band was the band for the popular radio station WNAX in Yankton. In 1927, he graduated from the MacPhail School of Music in Minneapolis, during the 1930s, Welk led a traveling big band that specialized in dance tunes and sweet music. Initially, the band traveled around the country by car and they were too poor to rent rooms, so they usually slept and changed clothes in their cars. The term champagne music was derived from an engagement at the William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, the hotel lays claim to the original bubble machine, a prop left over from a 1920s movie premiere. Welk described his bands sound, saying, We still play music with the champagne style and we place the stress on melody, the chords are played pretty much the way the composer wrote them.
We play with a beat so that dancers can follow it. Welks big band performed across the country but particularly in the Chicago, in the early 1940s, the band began a 10-year stint at the Trianon Ballroom in Chicago, regularly drawing crowds of nearly 7,000. His orchestra performed frequently at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City during the late 1940s, in 1944 and 1945, Welk led his orchestra in many motion picture Soundies, considered to be the early pioneers of music videos. Welk collaborated with Western artist Red Foley to record a version of Spade Cooleys Shame on You in 1945, the record was number 4 to Cooleys number 5 on Billboards September 15 Most Played Juke Box Folk Records listing. From 1949 through 1951, the band had its own radio program on ABC, sponsored by Miller High Life
His compositions include Take the A Train, Chelsea Bridge, A Flower Is a Lovesome Thing, and Lush Life. Strayhorn was born in Dayton and his family soon moved to the Homewood section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. However, his mothers family was from Hillsborough, North Carolina, Strayhorn spent many months of his childhood at his grandparents house in Hillsborough. In an interview, Strayhorn said that his grandmother was his influence during the first ten years of his life. He first became interested in music while living with her, playing hymns on her piano, Strayhorn returned to Pittsburgh, and attended Westinghouse High School, attended by Erroll Garner and Ahmad Jamal. While still in school, he worked odd jobs to earn enough money to buy his first piano. While in high school, he played in the band, and studied under the same teacher, Carl McVicker. By age 19, he was writing for a professional musical, Strayhorn was introduced to the music of pianists like Art Tatum and Teddy Wilson at age 19.
These musicians guided him into the realm of jazz where he remained for the rest of his life and his first jazz exposure was in a combo called the Mad Hatters that played around Pittsburgh. He met Duke Ellington in December 1938, after an Ellington performance in Pittsburgh, here he first told, and showed, the band leader how he would have arranged one of Dukes own pieces. Ellington was impressed enough to invite other members to hear Strayhorn. At the end of the visit, he arranged for Strayhorn to meet him when the returned to New York. Strayhorn worked for Ellington for the quarter century as an arranger, occasional pianist. As Ellington described him, Billy Strayhorn was my right arm, my arm, all the eyes in the back of my head, my brain waves in his head. Strayhorns relationship with Ellington was always difficult to pin down, Strayhorn was a composer and arranger who seemed to flourish in Dukes shadow. Ellington was arguably a father figure and the band was affectionately protective of the diminutive, mild-mannered, unselfish Strayhorn, nicknamed by the band Strays, though Duke Ellington took credit for much of Strayhorn’s work, he did not maliciously drown out his partner.
Ellington would make jokes onstage like, Strayhorn does a lot of the work, Strayhorn composed the bands best known theme, Take the A Train, and a number of other pieces that became part of the band’s repertoire. Strayhorn arranged many of Ellingtons band-within-band recordings and provided harmonic clarity, Strayhorn often sat in on the piano with the Ellington Orchestra, both live and in the studio
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, and is a part of the Boston metropolitan area. According to the 2010 Census, the population was 105,162. As of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Springfield, Cambridge was one of the two seats of Middlesex County prior to the abolition of county government in 1997, Lowell was the other. The site for what would become Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was located safely upriver from Boston Harbor, Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, and her husband Simon, were among the first settlers of the town. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631, the settlement was initially referred to as the newe towne. Official Massachusetts records show the name capitalized as Newe Towne by 1632, the original village site is in the heart of todays Harvard Square. In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge itself to the city of Boston were pursued and rejected, in 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers.
Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court primarily—according to Cotton Mather—to be near the popular, in May 1638 the name of the settlement was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Hooker and Shepard, Newtownes ministers, and the colleges first president, major benefactor, in 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, which was known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. It was Governor Thomas Dudley who, in 1650, signed the charter creating the corporation which still governs Harvard College, Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Coming up from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3,1775, most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution.
On January 24,1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, a second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts, in the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution when it gave the country a new identity through poetry and literature. Cambridge was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would often be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires, the Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes—were highly popular and influential in their day. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846, the citys commercial center began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city around this time. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge led to three changes in the city, the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave.
For many decades, the citys largest employer was the New England Glass Company, by the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world
David Roy Eldridge, commonly known as Roy Eldridge, and nicknamed Little Jazz, was an American jazz trumpet player. Eldridge began playing the piano at the age of five, he claims to have been able to play coherent blues licks at even this young age. The young Eldridge looked up to his brother, Joe Eldridge, particularly because of Joes diverse musical talents on the violin, alto saxophone. Roy took up the drums at the age of six, taking lessons, Joe recognized his brothers natural talent on the bugle, which Roy played in a local church band, and tried to convince Roy to play the valved trumpet. When Roy began to play drums in his brothers band, Joe soon convinced him to pick up the trumpet, but Roy made little effort to gain proficiency on the instrument at first. From an early age, Roy lacked proficiency at sight-reading, a gap in his education that would affect him for much of his early career. Eldridge led and played in a number of bands during his early years and he absorbed the influence of saxophonists Benny Carter and Coleman Hawkins, setting himself the task of learning Hawkinss 1926 solo on The Stampede in developing an equivalent trumpet style.
Eldridge left home after being expelled from school in ninth grade, joining a traveling show at the age of sixteen, the show soon folded, however. He was picked up by the Greater Sheesley Carnival, Eldridge continued playing with similar traveling groups until returning home to Pittsburgh at the age of 17. At the age of 20, Eldridge led a band in Pittsburgh, billed as Roy Elliott and his Palais Royal Orchestra, many of the members of Webbs band, annoyed by the leaders lack of dedication, left to form a practically identical group with Eldridge as bandleader. The ensemble was short-lived, and Eldridge soon moved to Milwaukee, Eldridge moved to New York in November 1930, playing in various bands in the early 1930s, including a number of Harlem dance bands with Cecil Scott, Elmer Snowden, Charlie Johnson, and Teddy Hill. At this time, Eldridge was making records and radio broadcasts under his own name and he laid down his first recorded solos with Teddy Hill in 1935, which gained almost immediate popularity.
For a brief time, he led his own band at the reputed Famous Door nightclub. In October 1935, Eldridge joined Fletcher Hendersons Orchestra, playing lead trumpet, until he left the group in early September 1936, Eldridge was Hendersons featured soloist, his talent highlighted by such numbers as Christopher Columbus and Blue Lou. His rhythmic power to swing a band was a trademark of the jazz of the time. It has been said that from the mid-Thirties onwards, he had superseded Louis Armstrong as the exemplar of modern hot trumpet playing, in the fall of 1936, Eldridge moved to Chicago to form an octet with older brother Joe Eldridge playing saxophone and arranging. The ensemble boasted nightly broadcasts and made recordings that featured his extended solos, including After Youve Gone, fed up with the racism he had encountered in the music industry, quit playing in 1938 to study radio engineering. He was back to playing in 1939, when he formed a band that gained a residency at New Yorks Arcadia Ballroom
Sidney Bechet was an American jazz saxophonist and composer. He was one of the first important soloists in jazz and was perhaps the first notable jazz saxophonist and his playing is characterized by forceful delivery, well-constructed improvisations, and a distinctive wide vibrato. Bechets erratic temperament hampered his career and not until the late 1940s did he earn wide acclaim, Bechet was born in New Orleans in 1897 to a middle-class Creole of color family. His older brother Leonard Victor Bechet was a full-time dentist and a part-time trombonist, Sidney quickly learned to play several musical instruments kept around the house, mostly by teaching himself, he soon decided to specialize in clarinet. At the age of six, he started playing along with his brothers band at a birthday party. Later in his youth, Bechet studied with such renowned Creole clarinetists as Lorenzo Tio, Big Eye Louis Nelson Delisle, soon after, Bechet began to play in many New Orleans ensembles, using the improvisational techniques of the time.
He performed in parades with Freddie Keppards celebrated brass band, the Olympia Orchestra, in 1911–12, Bechet performed with Bunk Johnson in the Eagle Band of New Orleans, and in 1913–14, with King Oliver in the Olympia Band. Bechet spent his childhood and adolescence in New Orleans, but from 1914 to 1917 he was touring and traveling, going as far north as Chicago, in the spring of 1919, Bechet traveled to New York City, where he joined Will Marion Cooks Syncopated Orchestra. Soon after, the orchestra traveled to Europe, almost immediately upon arrival, the group was warmly received, and Bechet was especially popular, attracting attention near and far. While in London, Bechet discovered the straight soprano saxophone and quickly developed a style quite unlike his warm and his saxophone sound could be described as emotional and large. He often used a very broad vibrato, similar to what was common among some New Orleans clarinetists at the time, Bechet was convicted of assaulting a woman and was imprisoned in London from September 13 to 26,1922.
He was deported to the United States, leaving Southampton on November 3, on July 30,1923, he began recording, it is some of his earliest surviving studio work. The session was led by Clarence Williams, a pianist and songwriter, better known at time for his music publishing. Bechet recorded Wild Cat Blues and Kansas City Man Blues, Wild Cat Blues is in a multithematic ragtime tradition, with four 16-bar themes, and Kansas City Man Blues is a 12-bar blues. He interpreted and played each uniquely, with outstanding creativity and innovation for the time, on September 15,1925, Bechet and other members of the Revue Nègre, including Josephine Baker, sailed to Europe, arriving at Cherbourg, France, on September 22. The revue opened at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, Paris, on October 2, Bechet toured Europe with various bands, reaching as far as Russia in mid-1926. In 1928, he led his own band at the famous Bricktops Club in Montmartre. Bechet was jailed for 11 months in Paris when a passerby was wounded during a shoot-out
C. G. Conn Ltd. sometimes called Conn Instruments or commonly just Conn, was a United States manufacturer of musical instruments, especially brass instruments. In 1985 their Strobotuner division was bought by Peterson Electro-Musical Products, assets of C. G. Conn were bought by Steinway Musical Instruments in 2000 and in January 2003 were merged with other Steinway properties into a subsidiary called Conn-Selmer. Conn-Selmer is the current company responsible for merchandise manufactured by C. G. Conn Ltd, the company was founded by Charles Gerard Conn. In 1850 he accompanied his family to Three Rivers, Michigan and in the year to Elkhart. Little is known about his life, other than that he learned to play the cornet. With the outbreak of the American Civil War he enlisted in the army on 18 May 1861 at the age of seventeen, on 14 June 1861 he became a private in Company B, 15th Regiment Indiana Infantry, and shortly afterwards was assigned to a regimental band. When his enlistment expired he returned to Elkhart, but re-enlisted on 12 December 1863 at Niles, Michigan in Company G, at the age of nineteen on 8 August 1863 he was elevated to the rank of Captain.
During the Assault on Petersburg on 30 July 1864, Conn was wounded, in spite of two imaginative and valiant attempts to escape, he was recaptured and spent the remainder of the war in captivity. He was honorably discharged on 28 July 1865, in 1884 Conn organized the 1st Regiment of Artillery in the Indiana Legion and became its first Colonel, a military title which stayed with him throughout the remainder of his life. He was the first commander of the Elkhart Commandery of the Knights Templar, Colonel Conn served as Lieutenant Colonel of the 2nd Regiment of Uniform Rank, Knights of Pythias, and was re-elected many times as Commander of the local G. A. R. His home at Elkhart, the Charles Gerard Conn Mansion, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2007, after the war, Conn returned to Elkhart and established a grocery and baking business. He played cornet in the community band. Conns entrance into the instrument manufacturing business was the result of a split lip. There are three existing stories of how this occurred, but the accepted version is that Del Crampton slugged him in the mouth outside a saloon where both of them had been drinking.
Conns upper lip was severely lacerated, and it pained him so to play his cornet that he thought his playing days were over, in addition to running his store, Conn made rubber stamps and re-plated silverware. He decided to try adhering rubber stamp material to the rim of a mouthpiece which he hoped would conform to his lips, after he showed his friends his idea, he realized that there was tremendous demand for his invention. Conn began to contemplate manufacturing his new mouthpiece and he needed a rim with a groove which the rubber cement would adhere to more easily. It was in 1874 when Conn converted a discarded sewing machine frame into a simple lathe, Conn patented his rubber-rimmed mouthpiece in 1875 described as an elastic face where the mouthpiece comes in contact with the lips, the object being to prevent fatigue and injury to the lips
Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements