John's Island Presbyterian Church
John's Island Presbyterian Church is a historic Presbyterian church located on Johns Island, Charleston County, South Carolina. It was built in 1719 and remodeled in 1792, it is a "T"-shaped, frame meeting house-style church sheathed in clapboard. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975
A land grant is a grant of land – held by a government to hold until the land it granted to a person. The United States gave out numerous land grants to people desiring farmland; the American Industrial Revolution was guided by many supportive acts of legislatures promoting commerce or transportation infrastructure development by private companies, such as the Cumberland Road turnpike, the Lehigh Canal, the Schuylkill Canal, the many railroads that tied the young United States together. Roman soldiers were given pensions at the end of their service including land. Augustus fixed the amount in AD 5 at 3,000 denarii and by the time of Caracalla it had risen to 5,000 denarii. One denarius was equivalent to a day's wages for an unskilled laborer. In 1788 the British claimed all of eastern Australia as its own, forming the colony of New South Wales in Australia; the land was claimed as crown land. Over time, it released convicts. Males were allowed 30 acres, plus 20 acres if they were married, 10 acres additional per child.
Instructions were issued on 20 August 1789 that non-commissioned marine officers were to be entitled to 100 acres additional and privates to 50 acres additional. Governor Macquarie canceled land grants issued during the Rum Rebellion of 1808-09, although some were restored. Land grants started to be phased out when private tendering was introduced, stricter limits were placed on grants without purchase; the instructions to Governor Brisbane were issued on 17 July 1825. From 9 January 1831, all land was to be sold at public auction. There were significant land grants in the Swan River Colony, in Van Diemen's Land from 1803. In 1886, the Midland Railway of Western Australia was granted land concessions to build and operate a railway from Midland, near Perth, to Walkaway, near Geraldton; this was taken over by the government railway in the 1950s. It is 1,067 mm gauge. In 1889, a land grant railway was from Roebuck Bay in Western Australia to Angle Pole in South Australia was proposed; this would have been 1000 miles long.
Angle Pole was a locality. It was stillborn; the gauge would have been 1,600 mm. In 1897, a transcontinental North-South land grant railway was proposed to complete the missing link between Oodnadatta and Darwin, the latter called Palmerston or Port Darwin; the plan was abandoned, though the government railway was extended in the 1920s from Oodnadatta to Alice Springs, with similar extensions at the Darwin end. It was 1,067 mm gauge, but was replaced by a new 1,435 mm gauge line on a different route. In 1909, a land grant railway was proposed in Queensland from Charleville to Point Parker on the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, but the plan was abandoned; the Hudson's Bay Company was incorporated in 1670 with the grant of Rupert's Land by King Charles II of England. Following the Rupert's Land Act in the British Parliament, Rupert's Land was sold in 1869 to the newly formed Canadian Government for the nominal sum of £300,000. Land grants were an incentive for the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Plantations of Ireland in the 16th and 17th centuries involved the confiscation of some or all the land of Irish lords and its grant to settlers from England or Scotland. The English Parliament's Adventurers Act 1642 and Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 entitled "Adventurers" who funded the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland to lands seized from the leaders of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and the ensuing Confederacy. In New Zealand two private railway companies were offered land grants to build a railway, though both were taken over by the government and incorporated into the government-owned New Zealand Railways Department; the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company built and operated the 134 km Wellington-Manawatu Line north of Wellington to the Manawatu from 1881. The company was New Zealand owned, it was taken over by the government in 1908, the line became part of the North Island Main Trunk. The New Zealand Midland Railway Company started the Midland Line between Canterbury and the West Coast in 1886 but the British-owned company was taken over by the government in 1895, having constructed only 131 km of the 376 km route.
In America, starting in the 16th century, land grants were given for the purpose of establishing settlements and farms. England started with a headright system, used both by the Virginia Company of London and the Plymouth Colony, but used in colonies south of Maryland. Under this system, emigrants or those paying for their passage would receive land if they survived for a certain period of time. Countries granting land included Spain, the Netherlands, Britain; as English colonial law developed, headrights became a patentee had to improve the land. Under this doctrine of planting and seeding, the patentee was required to cultivate 1-acre of land and build a small house on the property, otherwise the patent would revert to the government. Between 1783 and 1821, Spain offered land grants to anyone; when the United States acquired that land by treaty, it agreed to honor all valid land grants. As a result, years of litigation ensued over the validity of many of the Spanish Land Grants. Spain and Mexico used the same s
Henry Clinton (British Army officer, born 1730)
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795. He is best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of his cousin Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many years. Late in life he died before assuming the post. Henry Clinton was born on April 16 in 1730, to Admiral George Clinton and Anne Carle, the daughter of a general. Early histories claimed his birth year as 1738, a date propagated in modern biographic summaries. Willcox notes that none of these records give indication of the place of Clinton's birth. Historian John Fredriksen claims. Little is known of the earliest years of Clinton's life, or of his mother and the two sisters that survived to adulthood. Given his father's naval career, where the family was domiciled is uncertain.
They were well-connected to the seat of the Earls of Lincoln, from whom his father was descended, or the estate of the Dukes of Newcastle, to whom they were related by marriage. In 1739 his father stationed at Gibraltar, applied for the governorship of the Province of New York, he won the post in 1741 with the assistance of the Duke of Newcastle. He did not go to New York until 1743, he took young Henry with him, having failed to acquire a lieutenant's commission for the 12-year-old. Henry's career would benefit from the family connection to the Newcastles. Records of the family's life in New York are sparse, he is reported to have studied under Samuel Seabury on Long Island, suggesting the family may have lived in the country outside New York City. Clinton's first military commission was to an independent company in New York in 1745; the next year his father procured for him a captain's commission, he was assigned to garrison duty at the captured Fortress Louisbourg. In 1749, Clinton went to Britain to pursue his military career.
It was two years. His father, after he returned to London when his term as New York governor was over, procured for Clinton a position as aide to Sir John Ligonier in 1756. By 1758 Clinton had risen to be a lieutenant colonel in the 1st Foot Guards, renamed the Grenadier Guards, was a line company commander in the 2nd Battalion and was based in London; the 2nd Battalion, 1st Foot Guards, was deployed to Germany to participate in the Seven Years' War, arriving at Bremen on 30 July 1760 joining the main Army, operating under Conway's Corps near Warberg. George II died on 25 October 1760 and Clinton, along with all Officers of the Regiment, was amongst those listed in the renewal of commissions to George III, in London, on 27 October 1760. Clinton was back with the 2nd Battalion coming out of winter quarters, at Paderborn in February 1761 and with the unit at the Battle of Villinghausen on 16 July 1761 under Prince Ferdinand, the Hereditary Crown Prince, at the crossing of the Diemel, near Warburg, in August, before wintering near Bielefeld.
His father died this year necessitating a return to England to resolve family affairs. In 1762 the unit, part of the force led by Prince Ferdinand, was in action at the Battle of Wilhelmsthal on 24 June 1762. After this action they participated in cutting the French supply lines at the heights of Homberg on 24 July 1762 and secured artillery into position, it was after this engagement that the unit lost its commanding officer, General Julius Caesar who died at Elfershausen and is buried there. Clinton, now a colonel, was appointed as aide-de-camp to Prince Ferdinand by the start of 1762 and was with him when he attacked Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé at the Battle of Nauheim on 30 August 1762. Prince Ferdinand was wounded during this engagement and Clinton wounded forcing him to quit the field; this and the consequent siege of Cassel, were the last actions of the 1st Foot Guards in the Seven Years' War and Clinton returned to England. Clinton had distinguished himself as an aide-de-camp to Brunswick, with whom he established an enduring friendship.
During these early years, he formed a number of friendships and acquaintances with other officers serving in Brunswick's camp. These included Charles Lee and William Alexander, who styled himself "Lord Stirling", he formed long-lasting and deep friendships with John Jervis, William Phillips. He made the acquaintance of Charles Cornwallis, who would famously serve under him as well. While Clinton was campaigning with the army in 1761, his father died; as the new head of the family, he had to unwind his father's affairs, which included sizable debts as well as arrears in pay. Battles he had with the Board of Trade over his father's unpaid salary lasted for years, attempts to sell the land in the colonies went nowhere, his mother, who had a history of mental instability and
Indigofera tinctoria called true indigo, is a species of plant from the bean family, one of the original sources of indigo dye. It has been naturalized to tropical and temperate Asia, as well as parts of Africa, but its native habitat is unknown since it has been in cultivation worldwide for many centuries. Today most dye is synthetic, but natural dye from I. tinctoria is still available, marketed as natural coloring where it is known as tarum in Indonesia and nila in Malaysia. In Iran and areas of the former Soviet Union it is known as basma; the plant is widely grown as a soil-improving groundcover. True indigo is a shrub one to two meters high, it may be biennial, or perennial, depending on the climate in which it is grown. It has light green pinnate sheafs of pink or violet flowers; the plant is a legume, so it is rotated into fields to improve the soil in the same way that other legume crops such as alfalfa and beans are. Dye is obtained from the processing of the plant's leaves, they are soaked in water and fermented in order to convert the glycoside indican present in the plant to the blue dye indigotin.
The precipitate from the fermented leaf solution is mixed with a strong base such as lye. The rotenoids deguelin, rotenol, rotenone and sumatrol can be found in I. tinctoria. Marco Polo was the first European to report on the preparation of indigo in India. Indigo was quite used in European easel painting, beginning in the Middle Ages. Feeser, Andrea. Red and Black Make Blue: Indigo in the Fabric of Colonial South Carolina Life 140 pages.
James Island (South Carolina)
James Island is one of South Carolina's most urban Sea Islands with nearly half of the island residing in Charleston city limits. The island is separated from peninsular downtown Charleston by the Ashley River, from the mainland by Wappoo Creek and the Wappoo Cut, from Johns Island by the Stono River, it lies inshore of Folly Beach. Fort Sumter is located on an island just off the eastern tip of James Island and is the site of the first battle of the Civil War. Bombardment of Fort Sumter was started from Fort Johnson, located on the eastern portion of James Island. Several significant military engagements took place on island including the battles of Secessionville, Grimball's Landing and Grimball's Causeway. All of these battles were alternately known as the "Battle of James Island". Here at James Island on Nov.14, 1782, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Colonel of the Continental Army, led the last known armed action of the Revolutionary War against the British and nearly was killed. The Continental Congress named Kosciuszko Brigadier General for his service in both the North, including his tremendous assistance to General Gates at The Battle of Saratoga and brilliant efforts assisting General Greene in saving the South Region Army from Cornwallis forces and severely weakening the British under command of Corwallis.
For much of the period before and after the formation of the United States, James Island land was agricultural with Sea Island cotton plantations covering much of the island. Growth accelerated after World War II and James Island became a suburban bedroom community to Charleston; as of the 2000 census, the United States Census Bureau reported that 33,781 people lived on the island. One-half of the island lies within the city limits of Charleston, the remainder of the island is made up of the Town of James Island and unincorporated areas. There has been political discord concerning the incorporation of portions of the island into the City of Charleston; the town of James Island has been founded on three separate occasions. Three incorporations were overturned as a result of legal suits filed by Charleston; the third incorporation attempt was in contention in another legal suit by the city, on November 7, 2008, the town's incorporation was upheld by a Circuit Court judge. The city of Charleston filed an appeal of the decision to the South Carolina Supreme Court.
This ruling was overturned by the Supreme Court. A fourth attempt at incorporation was successful, upheld by the courts and uncontested by the city of Charleston. There is now a formed Town of James Island; as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, the population of James Island is included within the Charleston-North Charleston Urbanized Area and the larger Charleston-North Charleston Metropolitan Statistical Area; the public schools on James Island are part of the Charleston County School District and include Harborview, Stiles Point, James Island and Murray-LaSaine, Apple Charter Elementary Schools. The high school interscholastic teams are the wear blue and orange uniforms. James Island had two high schools in the past: James Island High; the two schools merged in 1983 on the Fort Johnson campus. The first school year for the combined school was 1983-1984. Stephen Colbert and political satirist, lived on James Island for part of his boyhood, along with his 10 brothers and sisters. Langston Moore of the NFL Detroit Lions, attended James Island High School.
Samuel Smalls, the man upon whom the novel Porgy and subsequent opera Porgy and Bess are based, is buried in the cemetery beside James Island Presbyterian Church. Gorman Thomas, Major League Baseball player, grew up on James Island and played baseball for the original James Island High School. Roddy White, Pro Bowl wide receiver with the Atlanta Falcons, attended James Island High School. James Island information
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres in length and up to 23 km in width, covering an area of 432 km2, it is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea. It is about 168 km east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt, its capital and largest city is Bridgetown. Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown, it first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese claimed the island in 1536, but abandoned it, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625.
In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, it became an English and British colony. As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833. On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as its queen, it has a population of 287,010 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island; the name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese term Os Barbados or the Spanish equivalent, Los Barbados, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree, indigenous to the island, or to the bearded Caribs who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs.
In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish, it is uncertain. One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish. Many if not most believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil, were the first Europeans to come upon the island; the original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was Ichirouganaim, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth" or "Redstone island with teeth outside" or "Teeth". Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire"; the origin is uncertain. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word used by slaves, that it derives from the Igbo term bém from bé mụ́ meaning'my home, kind', the Igbo phoneme in the Igbo orthography is close to.
The name could have arisen due to the large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century. The words'Bim' and'Bimshire' are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire and Bimshire". Lastly, in the Daily Argosy of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians; that source suggested the followers of Byam became known as'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians. Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid; the Arawaks from South America became dominant around 800 AD, maintained that status until around 1200.
In the 13th century, the Kalinago arrived from South America. The Spanish and Portuguese claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries; the Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese made little impact and left the island uninhabited; some Arawaks continue to live in Barbados. In the early years the majority of the labour was provided by European indentured servants English and Scottish, with enslaved Africans and enslaved Amerindian providing little of the workforce. During the Cromwellian era this included a large number of prisoners-of-war and people who were illicitly kidnapped, who were forcibly transported to the island and sold as servants; these last two groups were predominately Irish, as several thousand were infamously rounded up by Engli
The tomato is the edible red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America; the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico; the Spanish encountered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and brought it to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century; the tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants grow to 1–3 meters in height.
They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and needs support. Indeterminate tomato plants are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once; the size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches in width. The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl, meaning "the swelling fruit"; the native Mexican tomatillo is tomate. When Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit to be larger and red, they called the new species xitomatl; the scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum. The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are and; the word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.
In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term: saying "" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me". Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; this has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are served with dinner and not dessert; the holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.
Tomato plants are vines decumbent growing 180 cm or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred 100 cm tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are dicots, grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing; when that tip stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other functional, vines. Tomato vines are pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs; these hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture if the vine's connection to its original root has been damaged or severed. Most tomato plants have compound leaves, are called regular leaf plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf style because of their resemblance to that particular relative.
Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are grooved, variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin, their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing; the flowers are 1–2 cm across, with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry; as a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising