A courthouse is a building, home to a local court of law and the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities. The term is common in North America. In most other English-speaking countries, buildings which house courts of law are called "courts" or "court buildings". In most of Continental Europe and former non-English-speaking European colonies, the equivalent term is a palace of justice. In most counties in the United States, the local trial courts conduct their business in a centrally located courthouse which may house county governmental offices; the courthouse is located in the county seat, although large metropolitan counties may have satellite or annex offices for their courts. In some cases this building may be renamed in some way or its function divided as between a judicial building and administrative office building. Many judges officiate at civil marriage ceremonies in their courthouse chambers. In some places, the courthouse contains the main administrative office for the county government, or when a new courthouse is constructed, the former one will be used for other local government offices.
Either way, a typical courthouse will have one or more courtrooms and a court clerk's office with a filing window where litigants may submit documents for filing with the court. Each United States district court has a federally owned building that houses courtrooms and clerk's offices. Many federal judicial districts are further split into divisions, which may have their own courthouses, although sometimes the smaller divisional court facilities are located in buildings that house other agencies or offices of the United States government; the United States District Court for the Eastern District of California has a courthouse in Yosemite to hear misdemeanors and petty crimes for Yosemite National Park. The courthouse is part of the iconography of American life and is equivalent to the city hall as the symbol of the municipium in European free cities. Courthouses are shown in American cinema, they range from small-town rural buildings with a few rooms to huge metropolitan courthouses that occupy large plots of land.
The style of American architecture used varies, with common styles including federal, Greek Revival and modern. Due to concerns over potential violence, many courthouses in American cities have security checkpoints where all incoming persons are searched for weapons through the use of an X-ray machine for all bags and a walk-through metal detector, much like those found at airports. For example, the Los Angeles Superior Court added such checkpoints to all entrances to its main courthouse in Downtown Los Angeles after a woman was shot and killed by her ex-husband in open court in September 1995; the Supreme Court of California ruled in 2002 that Los Angeles County was not liable to her three children under the California Government Tort Claims Act. After the Oklahoma City bombing, the federal government proceeded to fortify all large federal buildings, including many urban courthouses; some courthouses in areas with high levels of violent crime have redundant layers of security. For example, when the Supreme Court of California hears oral argument in San Francisco or Los Angeles, visitors must pass through one security checkpoint to enter the building, another to enter the courtroom.
In Canada each municipality constructs several in the case of large cities. In smaller communities the court is in the same building as the city hall and other municipal offices. In the past many courthouses included the local prison. One well-known court house in Canada is the Romanesque Revival Old City Hall in Ontario. Designed by E. J. Lennox, Old City Hall was completed in 1899 and has been functioning as a municipal building since, it was constructed to facilitate Toronto’s City Council and municipal offices and the city's courts however following the construction of the fourth city hall the building's purpose was limited to being a courthouse for the Ontario Court of Justice. This building can be described as Romanesque Revival due to multiple characteristics it shares with Romanesque architecture; these characteristics include the materiality in terms of large stone construction, the repetitive rhythmic use of windows containing various sized arches and barrel vaults directing attention towards them, decorated spandrels and the inclusion of gabled walls.
Old City Hall has been designated a National Historical Site since 1989. Court Courts of England and Wales List of courthouses
Dubuque County, Iowa
Dubuque County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 93,653; the county seat is Dubuque. The county is named for the first European settler of Iowa. Dubuque County comprises the Dubuque, IA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the seventh largest county by population in the state. Dubuque County is named for French trader Julien Dubuque, the first European settler of Iowa, an early lead mining pioneer in what is now Dubuque County. Dubuque was French Canadian, had a friendly relationship with the local Fox tribe of Native Americans, he and other early pioneers established a lucrative trading industry in the area. When lead deposits began becoming exhausted, the pioneers developed boat building, lumber yards, milling and machinery manufacturing to take its place; the establishment of the City of Dubuque in 1833 led to large-scale settlement of the surrounding area. This was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church, which sent priests and nuns to establish churches in the unpopulated countryside.
Irish and German immigrants came to the region. At an extra session of the Sixth Legislative Assembly of Michigan Territory held in September, 1834, the Iowa District was divided into two counties by running a line due west from the lower end of Rock Island in the Mississippi River; the territory north of this line was named Dubuque County, all south of it was Demoine County. Thus, at that time Dubuque County nominally included not only much of what is now the state of Minnesota but portions of what are now North Dakota and South Dakota. Dubuque County became part of Wisconsin Territory once it was split off from Michigan Territory on July 3, 1836. A massive reorganization and reduction of the county's size was executed on December 21, 1837, when its original area was separated into 13 named new counties and a "non-county area"; the land in present day Minnesota and the Dakotas was transferred to the newly created Fayette County in this action. Dubuque County became a part of Iowa Territory upon its creation on July 4, 1838.
In 1858, Saint Francis Catholic Church was established in Dubuque County. In the 1980s, the farm crisis set in, devastated large sections of the Midwest, including Dubuque County. Since the area was dependent on agriculture-related industries like Deere and Company and the Dubuque Packing Company, unemployment soared. In one month of 1982, Dubuque County had the highest in the nation; the county experienced huge population losses during this time. It would not recover from this until the late 1990s, when the economy diversified, shifting away from manufacturing, toward various service-related establishments. Since the 1990s, the area has become much more prosperous. Today, the county boasts a growing population; the surging economy can be seen in the West Side of the City of Dubuque, in neighboring Peosta and Asbury. These areas have expanded so much that concerns now lie with trying to manage the growth, a sharp change from just 20 years ago, it is one of Iowa's two original counties along with Des Moines County.
The city of Dubuque was chartered in 1833 as the first city in Iowa. Dubuque County is governed by a 3-member Board of Supervisors elected at large. Current supervisors include Wayne Demmer, Eric Manternach, Daryl Klein, they meet on alternate Mondays at 7:00 PM in the Dubuque County Courthouse. The County Sheriff's Department is responsible for law enforcement in all areas of the county those without their own police departments; the current county sheriff is Joe Kennedy. The Sheriff's Dept. is located at the Dubuque City/County Law Enforcement Center. The current county attorney is Ralph Potter, who succeeds the long-serving Fred McCaw, who died while on vacation in 2006; the county borders on Illinois and Wisconsin, is bounded on the northeast by the Mississippi River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 617 square miles, of which 608 square miles is land and 8.3 square miles is water. The county is drained by south forks of the Maquoketa River; the county seat is Dubuque, located along the Mississippi River in the east-central portion of the county.
Eastern Dubuque County is markedly different from the western portion in that its topography is uneven. The city of Dubuque and surrounding areas adjacent to the Mississippi River have many steep hills and ravines; the eastern portion is more wooded than the west, rolling farmland. Dubuque County is known for its impressive bluffs along the Mississippi River, which run along the entire length of the county's riverbanks; these form part of Iowa's Coulee Region, otherwise known as the Driftless Area. During the last ice age, much of the Mississippi Valley near Dubuque County was bypassed by glacial flows, which flattened the surrounding land in eastern Illinois and western Iowa, leaving the Driftless Area unusually rugged; the Iowa Department of Natural Resources administers 3 park and preserve areas in the county: Little Maquoketa River Mounds State Preserve Mines of Spain State Recreation Area/E. B. Lyons Nature Center White Pine Hollow State ForestThe Dubuque County Conservation Board administers 11 park and recreation areas in the county: The City of Dubuque and other towns in the county operate public park systems of their own.
Clayton County Grant County, Wisconsin
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Linn County, Iowa
Linn County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 211,226, making it the second-most populous county in Iowa; the county seat is Cedar Rapids. Linn county is named in honor of Senator Lewis F. Linn of Missouri. Linn County is included in IA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Linn County was created as a named but unorganized area on December 21, 1837, as a part of Wisconsin Territory, it became part of Iowa Territory on July 1838 when the territory was organized. Linn County was organized by the first legislative assembly of the Iowa Territory on January 15, 1839. A site was selected for its first county seat along Indian Creek, was named Marion, after the Revolutionary War general Francis Marion; as early as 1855, there were debates over moving the county seat to the fast-growing Cedar Rapids, southwest of Marion, but it was not until November 6, 1919, that there were enough votes in favor of the move. The first rail line was built through Cedar Rapids in 1859, made the town a major commercial hub in eastern Iowa.
Many areas of the county were damaged by the flooding of Cedar River in June 2008. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 725 square miles, of which 717 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. Interstate 380 Iowa Highway 27 U. S. Highway 30 U. S. Highway 151 U. S. Highway 218 Iowa Highway 1 Iowa Highway 13 Benton County Buchanan County Cedar County Delaware County Iowa County Johnson County Jones County The 2010 census recorded a population of 211,226 in the county, with a population density of 294.4163/sq mi. There were 92,251 housing units, of which 86,134 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 191,701 people, 76,753 households, 50,349 families residing in the county. The population density was 267 people per square mile. There were 80,551 housing units at an average density of 112 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.90% White, 2.57% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.37% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 1.44% from two or more races.
1.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 76,753 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.20% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.40% were non-families. 27.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.99. Age spread: 25.30% under the age of 18, 10.10% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,206, the median income for a family was $56,494. Males had a median income of $38,525 versus $26,403 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,977. About 4.30% of families and 6.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.60% of those under age 18 and 6.40% of those age 65 or over.
On July 24, 2007, the voters of Linn County approved a measure to change the form of government from a 3-member Board of Supervisors elected at large to a 5-member Board of Supervisors elected by district. The supervisors serve overlapping 4-year terms; the current supervisors are: The Board of Supervisors operate as both the executive and legislative branches of Linn County government. The following departments report directly to the Board of Supervisors: Communications, Community Services, Engineering/Secondary Road, Facilities and Budget, Human Resources, Information Technology, LIFTS, Planning and Development and Administration, Risk Management and Water Conservation and Veteran Affairs. Conservation and Public Health report to independent boards appointed by the Board of Supervisors; the Linn County Public Health Department is the only nationally-accredited health department in Iowa. The County Attorney, Recorder and Treasurer are elected separately; the population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Linn County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Linn County, Iowa USS Linn County Linn County government's website The History of Linn county, Iowa not authored Western Historical Company This searchable and pdf downloadable book was scanned into the public domain by Google books.
History of Linn County Iowa by Luther A. Brewer and Barthinius L. Wick The Pioneer Publishing Company This searchable and pdf downloadable book was scanned into the public domain by Google books
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A log cabin is a small log house a less finished or architecturally sophisticated structure. Log cabins have an ancient history in Europe, in America are associated with first generation home building by settlers. Construction with logs was described by Roman architect Vitruvius Pollio in his architectural treatise De Architectura, he noted that in Pontus, dwellings were constructed by laying logs horizontally overtop of each other and filling in the gaps with "chips and mud". Log cabin construction has its roots in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Although their origin is uncertain, the first log structures were being built in Northern Europe by the Bronze Age. C. A. Weslager describes Europeans as having:... accomplished in building several forms of log housing, having different methods of corner timbering, they utilized both round and hewn logs. Their log building had undergone an evolutionary process from the crude "pirtti"... a small gabled-roof cabin of round logs with an opening in the roof to vent smoke, to more sophisticated squared logs with interlocking double-notch joints, the timber extending beyond the corners.
Log saunas or bathhouses of this type are still found in rural Finland. By stacking tree trunks one on top of another and overlapping the logs at the corners, people made the "log cabin", they developed interlocking corners by notching the logs at the ends, resulting in strong structures that were easier to make weather-tight by inserting moss or other soft material into the joints. As the original coniferous forest extended over the coldest parts of the world, there was a prime need to keep these cabins warm; the insulating properties of the solid wood were a great advantage over a timber frame construction covered with animal skins, boards or shingles. Over the decades complex joints were developed to ensure more weather tight joints between the logs, but the profiles were still based on the round log. A medieval log cabin was considered movable property, as evidenced by the relocation of Espåby village in 1557: the buildings were disassembled, transported to a new location and reassembled.
It was common to replace individual logs damaged by dry rot as necessary. The Wood Museum in Trondheim, displays fourteen different traditional profiles, but a basic form of log construction was used all over North Europe and Asia and imported to America. Log construction was suited to Scandinavia, where straight, tall tree trunks are available. With suitable tools, a log cabin can be erected from scratch in days by a family; as no chemical reaction is involved, such as hardening of mortar, a log cabin can be erected in any weather or season. Many older towns in Northern Scandinavia have been built out of log houses, which have been decorated by board paneling and wood cuttings. Today, construction of modern log cabins as leisure homes is a developed industry in Finland and Sweden. Modern log cabins feature fiberglass insulation and are sold as prefabricated kits machined in a factory, rather than hand-built in the field like ancient log cabins. Log cabins are constructed without the use of nails and thus derive their stability from simple stacking, with only a few dowel joints for reinforcement.
This is because a log cabin tends to compress as it settles, over a few months or years. Nails torn out. In the present-day United States, settlers may have first constructed log cabins by 1638. Historians believe that the first log cabins built in North America were in the Swedish colony of Nya Sverige in the Delaware River and Brandywine River valleys. Many of its colonists were Forest Finns, because Finland was part of Sweden at that time. New Sweden only existed before it became the Dutch colony of New Netherland, which became the English colony of New York; the Swedish-Finnish colonists' quick and easy construction techniques not only spread. German and Ukrainian immigrants used this technique; the contemporaneous British settlers had no tradition of building with logs, but they adopted the method. The first English settlers did not use log cabins, building in forms more traditional to them. Few log cabins dating from the 18th century still stand, but they were not intended as permanent dwellings.
The oldest surviving log house in the United States is the C. A. Nothnagle Log House in New Jersey. Settlers built log cabins as temporary homes to live in while constructing larger, permanent houses. Log cabins were sometimes hewn on the outside. Log cabins were built from logs interlocked on the ends with notches; some log cabins were built without notches and nailed together, but this was not as structurally sound. Modern building methods allow this shortcut; the most important aspect of cabin building is the site upon. Site selection was aimed at providing the cabin inhabitants with both sunlight and drainage to make them better able to cope with the rigors of frontier life. Proper site selection placed the home in a location best suited to manage the ranch; when the first pioneers built cabins, they were able to "cherry pick" the best. These were old-growth trees with few limbs and straight with little taper; such logs did not need to be h
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website