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Johor

Johor known as Johore, is a state of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula. Johor has land borders with the Malaysian states of Pahang to the north and Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest. Johor shares maritime borders with Singapore to the south and Indonesia to both the east. Johor Bahru is the capital city and the economic centre of the state, Kota Iskandar is the seat of the state government, Muar serves as the royal town of the state; the old state capital is Johor Lama. As of 2017, the state's population is 3,700,000. Johor has diverse tropical rainforests and an equatorial climate; the state's mountain ranges form part of the Titiwangsa Range, part of the larger Tenasserim Range connected to Thailand and Myanmar, with Mount Ophir being the highest point in Johor. An early Johor-centred kingdom had early contact with Funan based on the exchange of gifts. After the demise of the kingdom, much of the Malay coast fell under the jurisdiction of Siam and Majapahit. Several decades with the emergence of the Malaccan Empire, Islam spread throughout the Malay Archipelago.

After the fall of the empire to the Portuguese, remnants of the Malaccan royal family moved to a river in the southern Malay Peninsula known to the locals as the Johor River and establishing a new sultanate, which became the Johor Empire. Their attempts to retake Malacca resulted in a three-way war between Johor, the Portuguese, Aceh, another rising sultanate in northern Sumatra. With the arrival of the Dutch East India Company, Johor ended Portuguese rule and restored its own rule to many of its former dependencies in Sumatra, although Malacca continued to be held by foreign powers. Through an internal dispute within the Johor sultanate and the presence of the East India Company in the northern Malay Peninsula, Dutch trade changed from being involved in local disputes to conquering much of Sumatra and signing the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 with the British to prevent further conflicts with the latter. Under the treaty, the Malay Archipelago was divided under two spheres of influence. Under British rule, priority was given towards education and development and the Johor royal administration itself was reformed under a British-style monarchy.

The three-year occupation by the Japanese in World War II halted modernisation. After the war, Johor became part of the temporary Malayan Union before being absorbed into the Federation of Malaya under certain terms and gaining full independence through the federation, subsequently Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Johor has high diversity in ethnicity and language; the state is known for its traditional dance of Kuda kepang. The head of state is the Sultan of Johor; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, with the state administration divided into administrative districts. Islam is the state religion per the 1895 Constitution of Johor, but other religions can be practised. Both Malay and English have been accepted as official languages for the state since 1914; the economy is based on services and manufacturing. The area was first known to the northern inhabitants of Siam as Gangganu or Ganggayu due to the abundance of gemstones near the Johor River. Arabic traders referred to it as جَوْهَر, a word borrowed from the Persian گوهر, which means "precious stone" or "jewel".

As the local people found it difficult to pronounce the Arabic word in the local dialect, the name subsequently became Johor. Meanwhile, the Old Javanese eulogy of Nagarakretagama called the area Ujong Medini as it is the southernmost point of mainland Asia. Another name, through Portuguese writer Manuel Godinho de Erédia, made reference to Marco Polo's sailing to Ujong Tanah in 1292. Both Ujong Medini and Ujong Tanah had been mentioned since before the foundation of the Sultanate of Malacca. Throughout the period, several other names co-existed such as Galoh and Wurawari. Johor is known by its Arabic honorific as دارالتّعظيم or "Abode of Dignity". A bronze bell estimated to be from 150 A. D. was found in Kampong Sungai Penchu near the Muar River. The bell is believed to have been used as a ceremonial object rather than a trade object as a similar ceremonial bell with the same decorations was found in Battambang Province, suggesting that the Malay coast came in contact with Funan, with the bell being a gift from the early kingdom in mainland Asia to local chieftains in the Malay Peninsula.

Another important archaeological find was the ancient lost city of Kota Gelanggi, discovered by following trails described in an old Malay manuscript once owned by Stamford Raffles. Artefacts gathered in the area have reinforced claims of early human settlement in the state; the claim of Kota Gelanggi as the first settlement is disputed by the state government of Johor, with other evidence from archaeological studies conducted by the state heritage foundation since 1996 suggesting that the historic city is located in Kota Tinggi District at either Kota Klang Kiu or Ganggayu. The exact location of the ancient city is still undisclosed, but is said to be within the 14,000-hectare forest reserve where the Lenggiu and Madek Rivers are located, based on records in the Malay Annals that, after conquering Gangga Negara, Raja Suran from Siam of the Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom had sailed to Ganggayu. Since ancient times, most of

North Carolina Highway 14

North Carolina Highway 14 is a primary state highway in the U. S. state of North Carolina in Rockingham County. It links US 29/US 158 near Reidsville with the city of Eden. From Eden, it continues north concurrent with NC 87 to the Virginia state line where the road continues as Virginia State Route 87. NC 14 begins at exit 153 of the US 29 freeway east of Reidsville. US 29 in this area is proposed to become part of I-785. US 158 heads east from this point but NC 14 and US 158 travel in a northwestern direction through woodlands as a four-lane wide highway with a center turn lane; the road enters the city after a one-quadrant interchange with East Market Street and passing under a railroad. The route crosses US 29 Business, where US 158 leaves the right of way to the west, following US 29 Business. NC 14 exits the city after passing through a small commercial strip, entering a mix of woods and farmland; the road through here remains a five-lane roadway. Most junctions here are at-grade intersections though the northernmost junction with Bethlehem Church Road, an overpass carries the road over NC 14 with a single on-ramp to NC 14 southbound.

After a long, straight stretch, the route intersects US 311, NC 87, NC 770 just before it crosses the Dan River and enters Eden. The four roads pass through eastern Eden as Van Buren Road along a commercial strip as a five-lane arterial road, it interchanges with Meadow Road at a partial cloverleaf interchange, where US 311 and NC 770 exit off to the east and NC 700 begins east. NC 14 and NC 87 narrow to two lanes and begin to curve to the west, intersecting many of the city's streets and paralleling the Smith River. Northwest of the city, the road intersects a former alignment of NC 87. At the Virginia state line, NC 87 and NC 14 end and the road becomes VA 87 to continue to Ridgeway, south of Martinsville, Virginia; the original NC 14 was renumbered to NC 86 in the 1940 renumbering that matched North Carolina route numbers to those of Virginia. NC 65 was renumbered to NC 14 concurrently with that change. In 1968, most of NC 14 was rebuilt as a new roadway; the entire route is in Rockingham County

Midtown Bridge (Hackensack River)

Midtown Bridge known as the Salem Street Bridge and William C. Ryan Memorial Bridge, crosses over the Hackensack River between Hackensack and Bogota, in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States; the through truss bridge was a swing bridge built in 1900 for trolleys. It became a road bridge in 1940 and its swing span was fixed in 1984, it was slated for replacement. The bridge was built in 1900 by F. R. Long and Company as a trolley bridge for the Bergen County Traction Company, which had opened in 1896. Steel for the bridge was provided by the Passaic Rolling Mill Company of Paterson; the bridge's original design was a through Pratt truss swing span on a stone center pier. It carried two sets of tracks, part of line running to Edgewater where there was connecting ferry service across the Hudson River to Manhattan. Various lines were consolidated in 1900 into the New Jersey and Hudson River Railway Company and in 1910 were sold to the Public Service Corporation as part of the Bergen Division which ran service between the ferry and the Broadway Terminal in Paterson.

Service was discontinued in 1938. The tracks were replaced with a steel deck and in 1940 the Midtown Bridge began carrying vehicular traffic; the swing span was closed for the passage of maritime vessels on February 4, 1978 and a in rehabilitation project in 1984 it was fixed in place and its machinery was removed. As of 2014, Coast Guard rules required that the draw be made operable within 12 months after notification by the District Commander. In 1980, the bridge was designated the "Ryan Memorial Bridge," after Bogota resident and U. S. Marine Corps Lieutenant William C. Ryan, killed during the Vietnam War in 1969, it was designated the Lt. William C Ryan Memorial Bridge during a re-dedication of the bridge on April 21, 2018; the Midtown Bridge was shut down for several weeks in 1998 by the Department of Public Works so that emergency repairs could be made to its steel joints, a situation described by county engineer Robert Mulder as "an ongoing problem that needs to be permanently fixed". A rehabilitation project closed the downriver Court Street Bridge from 2010 to 2012 and traffic diverted to the Midtown Bridge, believed to have suffered stresses due to the extra use.

On October 17, 2013 the Midtown Bridge was temporarily shut down for emergency repairs again after Bogota’s Council President and Office of Emergency Management coordinator Tito Jackson noticed a large separation in the joints of bridge’s metal decking. As of 2017 the bridge was slated for replacement, it was closed on March 16 and expected to be completed in November 2017. It reopened on April 20, 2018 List of crossings of the Hackensack River List of Public Service Railway lines List of county routes in Bergen County, New Jersey North Hudson County Railway Hackensack Street Cars/Trolleys Road Warrior: Recalling an era when'Big Red' was king