The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of working-class life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Bart and Maggie; the show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society and the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after his own family members, substituting Bart for his own name; the shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After three seasons, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became Fox's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season. Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 659 episodes of The Simpsons have been broadcast, it is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American scripted primetime television series in terms of seasons and number of episodes.
The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 27, 2007, grossed over $527 million. On October 30, 2007, a video game was released; the Simpsons is on its thirtieth season, which began airing September 30, 2018. The Simpsons was renewed for a thirty-first and thirty-second season on February 6, 2019, in which the latter will contain the 700th episode; the Simpsons received acclaim throughout its first nine or ten seasons, which are considered its "Golden Age". Time named it the 20th century's best television series, Erik Adams of The A. V. Club named it "television's crowning achievement regardless of format". On January 14, 2000, the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 31 Primetime Emmy Awards, 30 Annie Awards, a Peabody Award. Homer's exclamatory catchphrase "D'oh!" has been adopted into the English language, while The Simpsons has influenced many other adult-oriented animated sitcoms.
However, it has been criticized for a perceived decline in quality over the years. The Simpsons is known for its wide ensemble of supporting characters; the main characters are the Simpson family, who live in a fictional "Middle America" town of Springfield. Homer, the father, works as a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position at odds with his careless, buffoonish personality, he is married to a stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children: a ten-year-old troublemaker and prankster. Although the family is dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds with each other and they are shown to care about one another. Homer's dad Grampa Simpson lives in the Springfield Retirement Home after Homer forced his dad to sell his house so that his family could buy theirs. Grampa Simpson has had starring roles in several episodes; the family owns a dog, Santa's Little Helper, a cat, Snowball V, renamed Snowball II in "I, -Bot". Both pets have had starring roles in several episodes.
The show includes an array of quirky supporting characters, which include Homer's co-workers Lenny Leonard and Carl Carlson, the school principal Seymour Skinner and teachers Edna Krabappel and Elizabeth Hoover, neighbor Ned Flanders, friends Barney Gumble, Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Moe Szyslak, Milhouse Van Houten, Nelson Muntz, extended relatives Patty and Selma Bouvier, townspeople such as Mayor Quimby, Chief Clancy Wiggum, tycoon Charles Montgomery Burns and his executive assistant Waylon Smithers, local celebrities Krusty the Clown and news reporter Kent Brockman. The creators intended many of these characters as one-time jokes or for fulfilling needed functions in the town. A number of them subsequently starred in their own episodes. According to Matt Groening, the show adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the comedy show SCTV. Despite the depiction of yearly milestones such as holidays or birthdays passing, the characters do not age between episodes, appear just as they did when the series began.
The series uses a floating timeline in which episodes take place in the year the episode is produced though the characters do not age. Flashbacks and flashforwards do depict the characters at other points in their lives, with the timeline of these depictions generally floating relative to the year the episode is produced. For example, in the 1991 episode "I Married Marge", Bart appears to be born in 1980 or 1981, but in the 1995 episode "And Maggie Makes Three", Maggie appears to be born in 1993 or 1994. A canon of the show does exist, although Treehouse of Horror episodes and any fictional story told within the series are non-canon. However, continuity is limited in The Simpsons. For example, Krusty the Clown may be able to read in one episode, but may not be able to read in another. Lessons learned by the family in one episode may be forgotten in the next; some examples of limited continuity include Sideshow Bob's appearances where Bart and Lisa flashback at all the crimes he committed in Springfield or when the characters try to remember things that happened in previous episodes.
The Simpsons takes place in the fictional American town of Springfield in an unknown and impossible-to-determine U. S. state. The show is intentionally e
Rat Race (film)
Rat Race is a 2001 American comedy film directed by Jerry Zucker. Inspired by Stanley Kramer's 1963 classic It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World, the film features an ensemble cast consisting of Rowan Atkinson, Whoopi Goldberg, Cuba Gooding Jr. Jon Lovitz, Kathy Najimy, Lanai Chapman, Breckin Meyer, Amy Smart, Seth Green, Vince Vieluf, Wayne Knight, John Cleese and Dave Thomas; the film centers on six teams of people who are given the task of racing 563 miles from a Las Vegas casino to a Silver City, New Mexico train station where a storage locker contains a duffel bag filled with $2 million. Produced by Fireworks Pictures, Alphaville Films, Zucker's Zucker Productions, the film was released by Paramount Pictures on August 17, 2001 in the United States and Canada, it received mixed reviews from critics but was a box office success, having grossed $85.5 million worldwide against a $48 million budget. Donald Sinclair, the eccentric owner of The Venetian Resort in Las Vegas, devises a new game to entertain the high rollers who visit his hotel/casino.
Six special tokens are placed in the casino's slot machines and the winners are told that $2 million in cash is hidden in a duffel bag in a train station locker at Silver City, New Mexico, 563 miles southeast of Las Vegas. Each team is given a key to race to the train station in order to claim the money. Unbeknownst to the competitors, Sinclair's wealthy patrons place bets on who will win; the patrons continue making smaller bets throughout the film while being facilitated by Sinclair's assistant Grisham, who at one point hires an escort as part of a dare. The racers consist of scheming siblings Duane and Blaine Cody, high-strung businesswoman Merrill Jennings and her mother Vera, disgraced football referee Owen Templeton, the Pear family led by the opportunistic Randy Pear, narcoleptic Italian tourist Enrico Pollini and no-nonsense young attorney Nick Schaffer. At first, they claim that they're not going to play Sinclair's game, but greed takes over most of the racers as they wait for the elevator and start to race.
On the way, they consider working together to get the money, but they change their minds once they see Enrico run past them in the staircase. Unable to get on the earliest flight to Silver City and Blaine destroy the airport radar with their Ford Bronco, grounding everybody else yet wrecking their own vehicle in the sabotage, prompting them to steal another; the brothers decide to split up and create a replica key in the hopes of doubling their chances of winning, but the locksmith overhears their plan and makes off with the key in a hot air balloon. Duane and Blaine catch up to the locksmith, leaving him and a stray dairy cow hanging from the balloon's anchor rope; the brothers hijack a monster truck and drive it to Silver City. Merrill and Vera crash their car after being given malicious road directions by a squirrel seller for not purchasing one of her squirrels, they steal a rocket car which races across the desert until it runs out of fuel. Afterwards, the two dizzily stumble onto a bus full of mental patients headed for Silver City.
Owen becomes stranded in a desert after being kicked out by a taxi driver as revenge for making the bad call at the football game days ago. Upon arriving at a gas station, he finds a bus driver whom he tricks into giving him all his clothes by telling the driver that his wife has gone into labor, before hijacking his bus filled with Lucille Ball cosplayers going to an I Love Lucy convention. On the way, the bus hits the cow dangling from the hot air balloon, causing it to swerve off the road. Owen has an emotional breakdown and reveals that he is not the bus driver, resulting in the enraged women chasing him for deceiving them. Owen rides a horse to Silver City. Randy tricks his family into accompanying him in the race by making. On the way, the family mistakenly visits a museum dedicated to the Nazi Klaus Barbie where they steal Adolf Hitler's staff car after the Cody brothers vandalize their vehicle. Randy declines to end the trip, he tells them about the cash and they are excited for it. When his family insists on ending the trip again, Randy drugs them with sleeping pills and bundles them into a semi-truck to reach Silver City.
At first, Nick chooses not to participate in the race and instead plans to head back to Chicago, but he changes his mind after he meets a female pilot named Tracy Faucet, who gives him an advantage as she is one of the few pilots who are still able to fly using her non-fixed-wing helicopter. After Tracy uses her helicopter to attack her cheating boyfriend Shawn Kent and Nick subsequently hijack Shawn's truck and drive it to Silver City, forming a romantic relationship in the process. Enrico joins the race because he is excited to win and does not appear to care about the money itself, but he falls asleep at the start of the race and wakes up hours later, he receives a ride from an ambulance driver named Zack, delivering a transplant heart to El Paso. On the way, Enrico inadvertently throws the heart out of the van after Zack opens the icebox containing it. While looking for it in the fields, it gets stolen by a dog, electrocuted by an electric fence. Believing that the heart would fail to save the person who needs it due to the holes made by the dog's teeth, Zack decides to kill Enrico and cut out his heart in order to replace the missing heart, prompting Enrico to escape by boarding a passing train headed for Silver City.
He is mistaken for a pedophile in the train when he loses his key in a nearby baby's diaper and as a result is thrown out at the Silver City train station where he be
The Wedding Singer
The Wedding Singer is a 1998 American romantic comedy film directed by Frank Coraci and written by Tim Herlihy. It stars Adam Sandler as a wedding singer in the 1980s and Drew Barrymore as a waitress with whom he falls in love, it was produced by Robert Simonds for US$18 million and grossed $80.2 million in the United States and $123.3 million worldwide. The film was adapted into a stage musical of the same name, debuting on Broadway in April 2006 and closing on New Year's Eve of that same year. In 1985, Robbie Hart is a nice and entertaining wedding singer from Ridgefield, New Jersey, he is engaged to his long-time girlfriend, who fell in love with him when he dreamed of becoming a rock star. He meets and befriends a waitress, Julia Sullivan, at the reception hall where she is newly employed, she is engaged to businessman and bond-investor Glenn Gulia and he promises to sing at their wedding. On Robbie's wedding day, his sister Kate tells him that Linda has changed her mind about the wedding, leaving him devastated and humiliated.
That day, Linda visits Robbie and she reveals that she stopped loving him when she found out that he lost his ambitions of being a rock star and instead became a wedding singer. She tells him that after talking to her friends, she realizes she can't continue lying to herself and ends their relationship, he tries to move on with his life. Julia tries to cheer him up and asks him to help her plan her own wedding, he agrees and their friendship blossoms. While Robbie spends more time with Julia, he begins to realize just. During a double date between Julia and Glenn, Julia's cousin, Robbie learns that Glenn cheats on Julia and does not plan to stop after they get married. Julia and Robbie are confused by their deepening feelings for each other, he tells her he has plans to retire from singing and pursue a more conventional career, thinking that will impress her. She becomes angry with him. Dismayed, he meets his friend Sammy at a bar and says he's just going to have fun with women from now on, but Sammy says he's not happy and those kinds of guys are doomed, so Robbie goes to tell Julia how he feels.
Meanwhile, Julia confides in her mother that she has fallen out of love with Glenn and has developed feelings for Robbie, bursts into tears thinking about becoming "Mrs. Glenn Gulia." When Robbie arrives to confess his feelings, he sees her through her bedroom window in her wedding dress, while she looks in a mirror, pretending she has just married Robbie, but he assumes she is thinking of Glenn. Heartbroken, Robbie leaves to get drunk and finds Glenn in the midst of his pre-wedding bachelor party. After a heated exchange, he punches Robbie and proceeds to mock him. An intoxicated Robbie finds Linda waiting for him and wanting to reconcile, he passes out, but the following morning, she answers the door and introduces herself as his fiancée to a crestfallen Julia. She runs to Glenn sleeping off the events of the earlier night, giving up and ready to be married immediately, he offers to take her to Las Vegas. Robbie awakens and after shaking off his hangover from the previous night, tells Linda that it's over and kicks her out.
He attends the 50th wedding anniversary party of his neighbor Rosie. Realizing he wants to grow old with Julia, with Rosie's encouragement, he decides to pursue Julia. Just Holly arrives and asks him if he is still with Linda, he reveals he learns of Julia's plans to marry Glenn. He, Holly rush to the airport, where he gets a first class ticket to Las Vegas. After telling his story to an empathetic audience in first class, which includes Billy Idol, he learns that Glenn and Julia are on the same flight after a female flight attendant informs everyone that Glenn said the same terms he said about Julia while trying to seduce her. With the help of Billy and the flight crew, over the loudspeaker, he sings a song he has written called "Grow Old With You," dedicated to Julia; as Robbie approaches Julia singing, Glenn tries to attack him only to be blocked by Billy Idol and a flight attendant. When Glenn threatens Billy, a burly Billy Idol fan forces Glenn down the aisle while the same female flight attendant he tried seducing earlier shoves him into the lavatory.
Robbie and Julia admit their love for each other, share a kiss after Billy informs him that he liked the song and plans to tell his record company executives about him. The film ends as the scene fades to Julia kissing at their wedding. Adam Sandler as Robbie Hart Drew Barrymore as Julia Sullivan Christine Taylor as Holly Sullivan Jodi Thelen as Kate Hart Allen Covert as Sammy Angela Featherstone as Linda Matthew Glave as Glenn Gulia Ellen Albertini Dow as Rosie Alexis Arquette as George Stitzer Christina Pickles as Angie Sullivan Frank Sivero as Andy Billy Idol as himself Kevin Nealon as Mr. Simms Steven Brill as Glenn's buddy Steve Buscemi as David Veltri Peter Dante as David's friend Jon Lovitz as Jimmie Moore Brian Posehn as Man at Dining Table #9 Michael Shuman as The Bar Mitzvah Boy Robert Smigel as Andre Chauntal Lewis as Stuck-Up Girl at Bar Mitzvah The film had a budget of $18 million and received $123.3 million worldwide in ticket sales. It opened at the # 2 spot in the US behind Titanic.
The film received positive reviews. Rotten Tomatoes gives it a score of 68% based on reviews from 63 critics, with an average rating of 6.2/10, saying that "It's decidedly uneven -- and surprisin
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Mount Sinai known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions. Mount Sinai is mentioned many times in the Book of Exodus and other books of the Bible, the Quran. According to Jewish and Islamic tradition, the biblical Mount Sinai was the place where Moses received the Ten Commandments. Mount Sinai is a 2,285-metre moderately high mountain near the city of Saint Catherine in the Sinai region, it is next to Mount Catherine. It is surrounded on all sides by higher peaks of the mountain range. Mount Sinai's rocks were formed in the late stage of the Arabian-Nubian Shield's evolution. Mount Sinai displays a ring complex that consists of alkaline granites intruded into diverse rock types, including volcanics; the granites range in composition from syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite. The volcanic rocks are alkaline to peralkaline and they are represented by subaerial flows and eruptions and subvolcanic porphyry.
The nature of the exposed rocks in Mount Sinai indicates that they originated from differing depths. The biblical Mount Sinai is one of the most important sacred places in the Jewish and Islamic religions. According to the Hebrew Bible, it was the mountain. However, the earliest Christian traditions place this event at the nearby Mount Serbal, at the foot of which a monastery was founded in the 4th century; the earliest references to Jebel Musa as Mount Sinai or Mount Sinai being located in the present-day Sinai peninsula are inconclusive. There is evidence that prior to 100 CE, well before the Christian monastic period, Jewish sages equated Jebel Musa with Mount Sinai. Graham Davies of Cambridge University argues that early Jewish pilgrimages identified Jebel Musa as Mount Sinai and this identification was adopted by the Christian pilgrims. R. K. Harrison states that "Jebel Musa... seems to have enjoyed special sanctity long before Christian times, culminating in its identification with Mt. Sinai."Christians settled upon this mountain in the third century AD.
Georgians from the Caucasus moved to the Sinai Peninsula in the fifth century, a Georgian colony was formed there in the ninth century. Georgians erected their own churches in the area of the modern Mount Sinai; the construction of one such church was connected with the name of David The Builder, who contributed to the erection of churches in Georgia and abroad as well. There were political and religious motives for locating the church on Mount Sinai. Georgian monks living there were connected with their motherland; the church had its own plots in Kartli. Some of the Georgian manuscripts of Sinai remain there, but others are kept in Tbilisi, St. Petersburg, New York City, Paris, or in private collections; some modern biblical scholars now believe that the Israelites would have crossed the Sinai peninsula in a direct route, rather than detouring to the southern tip, therefore look for the biblical Mount Sinai elsewhere. According to some scholars, the Song of Deborah suggests that God dwelt at Mount Seir, so many scholars favour a location in Nabatea.
Alternatively, the biblical descriptions of Sinai can be interpreted as describing a volcano, so a small number of scholars have considered equating Sinai with locations in northwestern Saudi Arabia, such as Jabal al-Lawz, as there are no volcanoes on the Sinai peninsula. Saint Catherine's Monastery lies on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of an inaccessible gorge at the foot of modern Mount Sinai in Saint Catherine at an elevation of 1550 meters; the monastery is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. According to the UNESCO report and website hereunder, this monastery has been called the oldest working Christian monastery in the world – although the Monastery of Saint Anthony, situated across the Red Sea in the desert south of Cairo lays claim to that title. There are two principal routes to the summit; the longer and shallower route, Siket El Bashait, takes about 2.5 hours on foot, though camels can be used. The steeper, more direct route is up the 3,750 "steps of penitence" in the ravine behind the monastery.
The summit of the mountain has a mosque, still used by Muslims. It has a Greek Orthodox chapel, constructed in 1934 on the ruins of a 16th-century church, not open to the public; the chapel encloses the rock, considered to be the source for the biblical Tablets of Stone. At the summit is "Moses' cave", where Moses was said to have waited to receive the Ten Commandments. Hashem el-Tarif Jebel Musa, Morocco, a named mountain in Morocco Mount Sinai travel guide from Wikivoyage Caucasian Albanian Alphabet Discovered and Deciphered, Azerbaijan International, Vol. 11:3. Six articles. View OF Mount Sinai Information about the town of St. Katherine and the Sinai mountains A Report on Mount Sinai Map of Mount Sinai, 18th century. Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, National Library of Israel
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid
Marjorie Jacqueline "Marge" Simpson is a fictional character in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons and part of the eponymous family. She is voiced by Julie Kavner and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Marge was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters, he named the character after his mother Margaret Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three seasons, the Simpson family received their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. Marge is the matriarch of the Simpson family. With her husband Homer, she has three children: Bart and Maggie. Marge is the moralistic force in her family and provides a grounding voice in the midst of her family's antics by trying to maintain order in the Simpson household, she is portrayed as a stereotypical television mother and is included on lists of top "TV moms".
She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise. Marge's distinctive blue beehive hairstyle was inspired by a combination of the Bride's in Bride of Frankenstein and the style that Margaret Groening wore in the 1960s. Julie Kavner, a member of the original cast of The Tracey Ullman Show, was asked to voice Marge so that more voice actors would not be needed. Kavner has won several awards for voicing Marge, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, she was nominated for an Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in an Animated Feature for her performance in The Simpsons Movie. In 2000, along with the rest of her family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the Simpsons uses a floating timeline, as such the show is assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes.
Marge Simpson is the wife of Homer and mother of Bart and Maggie Simpson. She was raised by her parents and Clancy Bouvier, she has a pair of the joyless Patty and Selma, both of whom vocally disapprove of Homer. In "The Way We Was", it is revealed via flashback that Marge attended Springfield High School, in her final year met Homer Simpson, after they both were sent to detention—Homer for smoking in the bathroom with Barney, Marge for burning her bra in a feminist protest, she was at first wary of Homer, but agreed to go to the prom with him, although she ended up going with Artie Ziff after Homer received tutoring lessons were a means to get to know her better, while knowing that she needed to sleep for a school meet. However, she regretted going with Artie. At the end of the evening, while Artie drove her home after receiving a slap, she spied Homer walking along the side of the road with the corsage meant for her. After hearing her parents voicing their negative opinions about Homer, she took her own car and went back to give him a ride.
She told Homer she should've gone to the prom with him and he fixes her snapped shoulder strap with the corsage. During the ride, he tells her he will kiss her and never be able to let her go. After the two had been dating for several years, Marge discovered she was pregnant with Bart, she and Homer were married in a small wedding chapel across the state line. Bart was born soon after, the couple bought their first house; the episode "That'90s Show" contradicted much of the established back-story. As with many Simpsons characters, Marge's age and birthday changes to serve the story. In season one episodes "Life on the Fast Lane" and "Some Enchanted Evening", Marge was said to be 34. In "Homer's Paternity Coot", Marge states that Emerald would have been her birthstone if she had been born three months placing her birthday sometime in February. In "Regarding Margie", Homer mentioned that Marge was his age, meaning she could have been anywhere between 36 and 40. During this episode, Lisa questions Homer's memory of Marge's birthday.
When he can not remember, Marge yells. In the season eighteen episode "Marge Gamer" she states that she and actor Randy Quaid share the same birthdate. Marge has been nonworking for most of the series, choosing to be a homemaker and take care of her family. However, she has held several one-episode jobs in the course of the series; these include working as a nuclear technician alongside Homer at Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in "Marge Gets a Job". While Marge has never expressed discontent with her role as a homemaker, she has become bored with it. In "The Springfield Connection", Marge decided that she needed more excitement in her life and became a police officer. However, by the end of the episode, she quit. Matt Groening first conceived Marge and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office. Groe