The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Poinsett County, Arkansas
Poinsett County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,583; the county seat is Harrisburg. Poinsett County is included in AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. Poinsett County was formed on February 28, 1838, named for Joel Roberts Poinsett, U. S. Secretary of War. County business was conducted in the county judge's home until first court was held in Bolivar, upon completion of a courthouse in 1839. County government was moved in 1859 to Harrisburg, a more central locale designated as the new county seat. Poinsett County acquired its current boundaries in the years following this change, as portions were assigned to newly organized counties; the northern portion became Craighead County, the south portion became Cross County. Sunken lands were added to eastern Poinsett County during this time, including Lepanto and Marked Tree; the Civil War devastated the county financially. It did not recover until the railroads were constructed into the area, giving farmers a new avenue to market their crops, the timber industry developed.
The Texas and St. Louis Railway Company completed track through Weiner and the St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railway ran through the center of the county in 1882; the Kansas City, Ft. Scott, Gulf Railroad opened service in east Poinsett County the following year. Shipping timber had become feasible and was undertaken throughout northeast Arkansas following the completion of railroads. Farmers used the railroads to ship their farm animals to new markets. Many small railroad towns boomed during this period. Despite this uplift, the county's population consisted of poor sharecroppers and tenant farmers, with an elite class of white landowners. Poinsett County was the hardest hit county by the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, which flooded thousands of fields and destroyed homes countywide; the Southern Tenant Farmers Union was founded in 1935 in Tyronza during the Great Depression. The organization was an interracial union to improve the pay and working conditions of poor sharecroppers, it met violent resistance from white planters, with union leaders and members attacked and some killed throughout its areas of organizing in Arkansas and Mississippi.
The Southern Tenant Farmers Union Museum in Tyronza is now operated by Arkansas State University. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 764 square miles, of which 758 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. Located in Arkansas's northeast corner, the county is bisected by Crowley's Ridge and the L'Anguille River which both pass north-south through the county; the soils in the eastern part of the county have been deposited by the Mississippi River and are used for cotton farming. Western Poinsett County is dedicated to rice fields. Lake Poinsett State Park is centrally located within the county. Craighead County Mississippi County Crittenden County Cross County Jackson County As of the 2000 census, there were 25,614 people, 10,026 households, 7,228 families residing in the county; the population density was 34 people per square mile. There were 11,051 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.98% White, 7.13% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.74% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races.
1.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,026 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.60% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.90% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,558, the median income for a family was $32,257. Males had a median income of $26,633 versus $19,199 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,087.
About 17.60% of families and 21.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.60% of those under age 18 and 20.50% of those age 65 or over. Poinsett County voted Democratic until, in 2008, it voted Republican for only the third time in the past century. Early childhood and secondary education is available from four school districts listed from largest to smallest based on student population: Trumann School District based in Trumann with four facilities serving more than 1,600 students. Harrisburg School District based in Harrisburg with five facilities and serving more than 1,300 students. East Poinsett County School District based in Lepanto with three facilities serving more than 750 students. Marked Tree School District based in Marked Tree with three facilities serving more than 650 students. Poinsett County is served with central and branch libraries from two library systems, the Crowley Ridge Regional Library System and Trumann Library System. Fisher Harrisburg Lepanto Marked Tree Trumann Tyronza Weiner Waldenburg Greenfield Rivervale Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county.
Each township includes unincorporated areas. A
Mississippi County, Arkansas
Mississippi County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,480. There are two county seats and Osceola; the county was formed on November 1, 1833, named for the Mississippi River which borders the county to the east. Mississippi County is part of the First Congressional District in Arkansas; the Mississippi County Judge is John Alan Nelson. The Blytheville, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Mississippi County. Jefferson W. Speck, a Mississippi County planter, was the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1950 and 1952. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 920 square miles, of which 901 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water. Big Lake National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 census, there were 46,480 people residing in the county; the racial makeup of the county was 60.5% White, 33.9% Black, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, <0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.2% from two or more races.
3.6% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the 2000 census, there were 51,979 people, 19,349 households, 13,911 families residing in the county; the population density was 58 people per square mile. There were 22,310 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.45% White, 32.70% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.07% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. 2.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,349 households out of which 36.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.00% were married couples living together, 17.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 20.80% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,479, the median income for a family was $32,648. Males had a median income of $29,645 versus $19,782 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,978. About 19.00% of families and 23.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.10% of those under age 18 and 19.80% of those age 65 or over. While a traditionally Democratic area, Mississippi County has voted Republican in the past three presidential elections. Mississippi County is home to the following public school districts, listed in order of student population: Blytheville School District Osceola School District Gosnell School District Southern Mississippi County School District Manila School District Buffalo Island Central School District Armorel School DistrictThe following school districts are based outside of the county but serve portions: East Poinsett County School District KIPP: Delta Public Schools Nettleton School District Mississippi County is served by the Mississippi–Crittenden Regional Library System, which includes the Mississippi County Library System and 13 branch libraries in communities throughout the county.
FM FM 88.3 KBCM Blytheville FM 93.9 KAMJ Gosnell FM 96.3 KHLS Blytheville FM 103.7 KAIA K279BJ Blytheville FM 107.3 KQXF OsceolaAM AM 860 KOSE Wilson NEA Town Courier, Blytheville, Arkansas The Osceola Times, Osceola, Arkansas There are no television stations in Mississippi County, Arkansas. Mississippi County, Arkansas is placed in TN Television Market; those stations include: ABC- WATN 24 NBC- WMC 5 CBS- WREG 3 Fox- WHBQ 13 PBS- WKNO 10 CW- WLMT 30 Ion WPXX 50However some residents in county may watch stations from the Jackson, TN, Jonesboro, AR, or Little Rock, AR Television Markets. Blytheville Gosnell Joiner Keiser Leachville Manila Osceola Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications.
The townships of Mississippi County are listed below. Island 35 Mastodon List of lakes in Mississippi County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Mississippi County, Arkansas "Mississippi. I. A N. E. county of Arkansas". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
St. Louis Southwestern Railway
The St. Louis Southwestern Railway, known by its nickname of "The Cotton Belt Route" or Cotton Belt, is a former US Class I railroad which operated between St. Louis and various points in the states of Arkansas, Tennessee and Texas from 1891 to 1980. In 1980 the Cotton Belt began operating the Rock Island's Golden State Route which added the states of Kansas and New Mexico to the operation. Operation of the Cotton Belt was assumed by parent Southern Pacific in 1992; the Cotton Belt was one of the lines comprising the railroad empire acquired by financier Jay Gould in the last quarter of the 19th century. Construction of the original Tyler Tap Railroad began in the summer of 1875. On October 18, 1903, the Cotton Belt gained trackage rights via the Thebes Bridge and the Missouri Pacific Railroad along the eastern shore of the Mississippi River to reach East St. Louis and used Terminal Railroad Association trackage rights into St. Louis; the Cotton Belt operated a yard and a locomotive servicing facility in East St. Louis, just east of Valley Junction, south of Alton and Southern Railroad's Gateway Yard, north of Kansas City Southern's East St. Louis Yard.
The Cotton Belt operated a freight station in downtown St. Louis. Union Pacific Railroad now operates the yard, but the engine servicing facilities have been demolished; the Cotton Belt and its subsidiary St. Louis Southwestern Railway of Texas together operated 1,607 miles of road in 1945. In 1925 SSW and SSW of Texas reported a total of 1474 million net ton-miles of revenue freight and 75 million passenger-miles; the Southern Pacific Company gained Interstate Commerce Commission approval to control the Cotton Belt system on April 14, 1932, but continued to operate it as a separate company until 1992, when the SP consolidated the Cotton Belt's operations into the parent company. Cotton Belt diesel locomotives from 1959 on were painted in Southern Pacific's "bloody nose" scheme: a dark gray locomotive body with a red "winged" nose. Cotton Belt was painted on the sides and in years the letters SSW were painted on the nose. In 1996 the Union Pacific Railroad finished the acquisition, begun a century before with the purchase of the Southern Pacific by UP in 1901, until divestiture was ordered in 1913.
The merged company retained the name Union Pacific for all railroad operations. Many former SSW locomotives are used by Union Pacific today, although few still sport unmodified Cotton Belt paint. Most of the remaining units have been repainted with the UP livery, while others wear "patched" SSW paint with a UP shield logo and new numbers applied over the SSW number; the Cotton Belt ran passenger trains from St. Louis to Texas and from Memphis to Dallas and Shreveport, Louisiana. Cotton Belt's Lone Star operated from Memphis Union Station to Dallas Union Terminal with a connecting section from Lewisville, Arkansas, to Shreveport; the Morning Star was the second named train over much of this route, operating out of St. Louis Union Station to Dallas, with a separate Memphis section inaugurated in 1941 to provide a convenient connection with the Southern Railway's Tennessean to and from Washington, D. C. and New York City. The Cotton Belt operated passenger trains between Mt. Pleasant and Waco, a doodlebug between Tyler and Lufkin.
The Cotton Belt began a series of passenger train cutbacks in the early 1950s. The railroad had 25 steam engines and four gas electric motor cars available for passenger service in 1949. By late 1952 nine diesels had replaced the steam locomotives and motorcars and passenger train mileage had been trimmed considerably; the Cotton Belt was one of the first Class 1 lines in the southwest to discontinue passenger service. The last Cotton Belt passenger train, #8, operated on November 30, 1959, from Pine Bluff, Arkansas, to East St. Louis, Illinois. Arkansas and Memphis Railway Bridge and Terminal Company 20% Arkansas and Southern Railway 1887 predecessor of SLA&T line to Shreveport Arkansas Short Line Blytheville and Arkansas Southern Railroad Cairo and Southern Railroad Central Arkansas and Eastern Railroad Company Dallas Terminal Railway and Union Depot Company Deering Southwestern Railway Eastern Texas Railroad Gideon and North Island Railway Gray's Point Terminal Railway Company Kansas and Gulf Short Line Railroad Company Little River Valley and Arkansas Railroad Company Manila and Southwestern Memphis Union Station Company 20% Paragould Southeastern Railway Company Pine Bluff Arkansas River Railway St. Louis and Texas Railway St. Louis and Texas Terminal Railway St. Louis Southwestern Railway Company of Texas Shreveport Bridge and Terminal Company Southern Illinois and Missouri Bridge Company 40% Southwest Greyhound Lines, Inc. 16.7% Southwestern Transportation Company Trucking subsidiary founded October 1, 1928 Stephenville North and South Texas Railway Stuttgart and Arkansas River Railroad Company Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis 6.25% Texarkana Union Station Trust 21% Texas and Louisiana Railroad Texas and St. Louis Railway Texas and St. Louis Railway Company of Arkansas Tyler Southeastern Railway Company Tyler T
The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family, they migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers; the term "Osage" is a French version of the tribe's name, which can be translated as "warlike". The Osage people refer to themselves in their indigenous Dhegihan Siouan language as Wazhazhe, or "Mid-waters". At the height of their power in the early 19th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in the region, feared by neighboring tribes; the tribe controlled the area between the Missouri and Red rivers, the Ozarks to the east and the foothills of the Wichita Mountains to the south. They depended on agriculture.
The 19th-century painter George Catlin described the Osage as "the tallest race of men in North America, either red or white skins. In the Ohio Valley, the Osage lived among speakers of the same Dhegihan language stock, such as the Kansa, Ponca and Quapaw. Researchers believe that the tribes became differentiated in languages and cultures after leaving the lower Ohio country; the Omaha and Ponca settled in what is now Nebraska, the Kansa in Kansas, the Quapaw in Arkansas. In the 19th century, the Osage were forced to remove from Kansas to Indian Territory, the majority of their descendants live in Oklahoma. In the early 20th century, oil was discovered on their land. Many Osage became wealthy through leasing fees generated by their headrights. However, during the 1920s, they suffered manipulation and numerous murders by whites eager to take over their wealth. In the 21st century, the federally recognized Osage Nation has ~20,000 enrolled members, 6,780 of whom reside in the tribe's jurisdictional area.
Members live outside the nation's tribal land in Oklahoma and in other states around the country, including Kansas. The Osage are descendants of cultures of indigenous peoples, in North America for thousands of years. Studies of their traditions and language show that they were part of a group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the Ohio River valley area, extending into present-day Kentucky. According to their own stories, they migrated west as a result of war with the Iroquois and/or to reach more game. Scholars are divided as to whether they think the Osage and other groups left before the Beaver Wars of the Iroquois; some believe that the Osage started migrating west as early as 1200 CE and are descendants of the Mississippian culture in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. They attribute their style of government to effects of the long years of war with invading Iroquois. After resettling west of the Mississippi River, the Osage were sometimes allied with the Illiniwek and sometimes competing with them, as that tribe was driven west of Illinois by warfare with the powerful Iroquois.
The Osage and other Dhegian-Siouan peoples reached their historic lands developing and splitting into the above tribes in the course of the migration to the Great Plains. By 1673, when they were recorded by the French, many of the Osage had settled near the Osage River in the western part of present-day Missouri, they were recorded in 1690 as having adopted the horse The desire to acquire more horses contributed to their trading with the French. They attacked and defeated indigenous Caddo tribes to establish dominance in the Plains region by 1750, with control "over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas," which they maintained for nearly 150 years, they lived near the Missouri River. Together with the Kiowa and Apache, they dominated western Oklahoma, they lived near the Quapaw and Caddo in Arkansas. The Osage held high rank among the old hunting tribes of the Great Plains. From their traditional homes in the woodlands of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, the Osage would make semi-annual buffalo hunting forays into the Great Plains to the west.
They hunted deer and other wild game in the central and eastern parts of their domain. The women cultivated varieties of corn and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food, they harvested and processed nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had cultural practices that had elements of the cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples; the villages of the Osage were important hubs in the Great Plains trading network served by Kaw people as intermediaries. In 1673 French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's 1673 map noted that the Kanza and Pawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas; the Osage called the Europeans I'n-Shta-Heh because of their facial hair. As experienced warriors, the Osage allied with the French, with whom they traded, against th
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Crowley's Ridge is an unusual geological formation that rises 250 to 550 feet above the alluvial plain of the Mississippi embayment in a 150-mile line from southeastern Missouri to the Mississippi River near Helena, Arkansas. It is the most prominent feature in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain between Cape Girardeau and the Gulf of Mexico; this narrow rolling hill region rising above the flat plain is the sixth, smallest, natural division of the state of Arkansas. It is protected within Ozark–St. Francis National Forest. Most of the major cities of the Arkansas Delta region lie along Crowley's Ridge, it was named after Benjamin Crowley, known as the first American settler to reach the area, sometime around 1820. The Civil War Battle of Chalk Bluff was fought on Crowley's Ridge on May 1–2, 1863; the ridge is composed of the windblown glacially derived sediment known as loess. It contrasts with the flat table land around it and with the black soil that makes up the delta; the ridge varies from half a mile to 12 miles wide and reaches an elevation of 550 feet near its northern extremity.
The highest point on the ridge in Arkansas is "Legacy Mountain" at the Craighead County solid waste site south of Jonesboro. The formation is thought to have been an island between the Mississippi River and Ohio River, isolated as a long low hilly ridge after the rivers changed course millions of years ago. Recent research, questions the fluvial origin. Loess deposits are found along both sides of the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley; these loess deposits are a classic example of periglacial loess. Crowley's Ridge is a natural loess accumulation point. A comparable example of this type of deposit is the Loess Hills in northwestern Missouri and southwestern Iowa. There is evidence that the area's elevation has increased over the years, suggesting that uplift is still taking place; this alternative explanation posits a link between the nearby New Madrid Seismic Zone. The flora and fauna of the ridge seem more related to the Tennessee hills to the east than to the Ozark Mountains to the west; this unique habitat has been protected by the establishment of several state and city parks, the St. Francis National Forest, recreational lakes, in 1997 a national scenic byway, the Crowley's Ridge Parkway.
The soils in this area are sometimes rich. The land discouraging row-crop agriculture; these soils are eroded. There is some commercial agriculture in the loessal plains area of the ridge; the ridge is surrounded by the fertile lands of the delta region. The vegetation is predominantly oak and hickory forests, similar to vegetation found in the Appalachian Mountains. Examples are the American beech. Ferns and flowers abound here, including the American bell flower, crimson catchfly, butterfly weed, cardinal flower, blue lobelia, verbena, wild hydrangea, hibiscus and yellow jasmine; the low-lying areas around the ridge were once much swampier, the ridge provided a natural and more healthful place for settlers to establish homes. The ridge became a natural north-south communications link for the region, since travel along the ridge was much easier than through the swampy lowlands; the region adjacent to the ridge is covered with thick deltaic soils, few fossils are found except in gravel pits. These pits sometimes reveal the teeth of large mastodons and horses, which roamed the continent as as 10,000 years ago.
Crowley's Ridge contains important exposures of fossiliferous Tertiary sediments and contains the only documented Miocene exposures in the state. A silicified conifer stump weighing several tons was unearthed near Wittsburg, many more were found around Piggott. Mastodon bones were found within the city limits of Helena at the southern end of the ridge. Near Forrest City, in the bed of Crow Creek, a deposit of oyster shells estimated to be nearly 7,000,000 cubic yards in size was discovered. Crowley's Ridge is named after Benjamin Crowley, the first American settler of the Ridge near Paragould, Arkansas. Crowley is buried in the Shiloh Cemetery in Greene County, a monument marks the spot; the cemetery is part of Crowley's Ridge State Park. Next to Crowley's grave, other early settlers of the ridge are buried in unmarked graves; the Forrest L. Wood Crowley’s Ridge Nature Center in Jonesboro, Arkansas features self-guided exhibits about area's topography and natural history and wildlife of Crowley’s Ridge.
Operated by the Arkansas Fish and Game Commission and opened in 2004, the Center includes an exhibit area, discovery room, observation tower, meeting rooms and gift shop. Outside there are trails through trails through wetlands and prairie, a 1/4 mile universally accessible trail and boardwalk around a pond; the Center offers nature education programs. It is named after Forrest L. Wood, a former commissioner and supporter of the AGFC. Ridges of Arkansas U. S. Interior Highlands Semo.edu: Crowley's Ridge USGS GNIS webpage—U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Crowleys Ridge Arkansas State Parks: official Crowley's Ridge State Park website Encyclopedia of Arkansas history and culture.net: Crowley's Ridge State Park St. Francis National Forest at Crowley's Ridge — at southernmost end of ridge, adjacent to Mississippi River. Crowley's Ridge Natue Center