Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist and translator, a key figure in Spanish-language and universal literature. His best-known books, Ficciones and El Aleph, published in the 1940s, are compilations of short stories interconnected by common themes, including dreams, philosophy, mirrors, fictional writers, mythology. Borges' works have contributed to philosophical literature and the fantasy genre, have been considered by some critics to mark the beginning of the magic realist movement in 20th century Latin American literature, his late poems converse with such cultural figures as Spinoza, Camões, Virgil. Born in Buenos Aires, Borges moved with his family to Switzerland in 1914, where he studied at the Collège de Genève; the family travelled in Europe, including Spain. On his return to Argentina in 1921, Borges began publishing his poems and essays in surrealist literary journals, he worked as a librarian and public lecturer. In 1955, he was appointed director of the National Public Library and professor of English Literature at the University of Buenos Aires.
He became blind by the age of 55. Scholars have suggested that his progressive blindness helped him to create innovative literary symbols through imagination. By the 1960s, his work was translated and published in the United States and Europe. Borges himself was fluent in several languages. In 1961, he came to international attention when he received the first Formentor prize, which he shared with Samuel Beckett. In 1971, he won the Jerusalem Prize, his international reputation was consolidated in the 1960s, aided by his works being available in English, by the Latin American Boom and by the success of García Márquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude. He dedicated The Conspirators, to the city of Geneva, Switzerland. Writer and essayist J. M. Coetzee said of him: "He, more than anyone, renovated the language of fiction and thus opened the way to a remarkable generation of Spanish American novelists." Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo was born into an educated middle-class family on 24 August 1899.
They were in comfortable circumstances but not wealthy enough to live in downtown Buenos Aires so the family resided in Palermo a poorer neighbourhood. Borges's mother, Leonor Acevedo Suárez, came from a traditional Uruguayan family of criollo origin, her family had been much involved in the European settling of South America and the Argentine War of Independence, she spoke of their heroic actions. His 1929 book, Cuaderno San Martín, includes the poem "Isidoro Acevedo", commemorating his grandfather, Isidoro de Acevedo Laprida, a soldier of the Buenos Aires Army. A descendant of the Argentine lawyer and politician Francisco Narciso de Laprida, de Acevedo Laprida fought in the battles of Cepeda in 1859, Pavón in 1861, Los Corrales in 1880. De Acevedo Laprida died of pulmonary congestion in the house where his grandson Jorge Luis Borges was born. Borges's own father, Jorge Guillermo Borges Haslam was a lawyer, wrote a novel El caudillo in 1921. Borges Haslam was born in Entre Ríos of Spanish and English descent, the son of Francisco Borges Lafinur, a colonel, Frances Ann Haslam, an Englishwoman.
Borges Haslam grew up speaking English at home. The family traveled to Europe. Borges Haslam wed Leonor Acevedo Suarez in 1898 and their offspring included the painter Norah Borges, sister of Jorge Luis Borges. At age nine, Jorge Luis Borges translated Oscar Wilde's The Happy Prince into Spanish, it was published in a local journal. Borges Haslam was a psychology teacher who harboured literary aspirations. Borges said his father "tried to become a writer and failed in the attempt", despite the 1921 opus El caudillo. Jorge Luis Borges wrote, "as most of my people had been soldiers and I knew I would never be, I felt ashamed, quite early, to be a bookish kind of person and not a man of action."Jorge Luis Borges was taught at home until the age of 11, was bilingual in Spanish and English, reading Shakespeare in the latter at the age of twelve. The family lived in a large house with an English library of over one thousand volumes. In 1914, the family moved to Geneva and spent the next decade in Europe.
Borges Haslam was treated by a Geneva eye specialist, while Jorge Luis and his sister Norah attended school. He read Thomas Carlyle in English, he began to read philosophy in German. In 1917, when he was eighteen, he met writer Maurice Abramowicz and began a literary friendship that would last for the remainder of his life, he received his baccalauréat from the Collège de Genève in 1918. The Borges family decided that, due to political unrest in Argentina, they would remain in Switzerland during the war. After World War I, the family spent three years living in various cities: Lugano, Majorca and Madrid, they remained in Europe until 1921. At that time, Borges discovered the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer and Gustav Meyrink's The Golem which became influential to his work. In Spain, Borges fell in with and became a member of the avant-garde, anti-Modernismo Ultraist literary movement, inspired by Guillaume Apollinaire and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, close to the Imagists, his first poem, "Hymn to the Sea," written in the style of Wal
The University of Rouen is a French university, in the Academy of Rouen. Located not in Rouen, but in the suburb of Mont-Saint-Aignan, the University of Rouen opened in 1966 as an off-shoot of the University of Caen, it is a large public university with over 25,000 students enrolled. According to U. S. News & World Report, University of Rouen made #835 on the Best Global Universities list out of 1,250 universities being judged. University of Rouen was compared to 66 other French universities and was ranked #45; these rankings are based on the reputation of the university as well as the extent and quality of the research performed at each location. First transcatheter aortic valve implantation in the world performed by Prof. Alain Cribier in 2002. Students do not live on campus at University of Rouen, as housing is not available through the university. Nearby apartments are available and booked through the state agency CROUS. List of public universities in France by academy
Robert Edward Chambliss known as Dynamite Bob, was a white supremacist terrorist convicted in 1977 of murder for his role as conspirator in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in 1963. A member of the United Klans of America, Chambliss also firebombed the houses of several black families in Alabama. A May 13, 1965 memo to Federal Bureau of Investigation director J. Edgar Hoover identified Chambliss, Bobby Frank Cherry, Herman Frank Cash and Thomas E. Blanton, Jr. as suspects in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing that killed four young African-American girls. The investigation was closed in 1968. Years it was found that the FBI had accumulated evidence against the named suspects that had not been revealed to the prosecutors by order of J. Edgar Hoover. Edgar Hoover stopped and shut down the investigation in 1968; the files were used by Alabama attorney general Bill Baxley to reopen the case in 1971. In 1977 Chambliss was convicted of murder for the bombing and sentenced to several terms of life imprisonment.
He died in Lloyd Noland Hospital and Health Center in Birmingham on October 29, 1985, still proclaiming his innocence. He was 81. Chambliss served his time in a prison near Alabama. Sikora, Frank; until Justice Rolls Down: The Birmingham Church Bombing Case. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 9780817352684. African-American history Civil Rights Movement Birmingham campaign Mass racial violence in the United States