Ajuda is a Portuguese civil parish in the municipality of Lisbon. The population in 2011 was 15,617, in an area of 2.88 km². The parish of Ajuda, situated between the beach area of Belém and the foothills of the Monsanto was a place, not conditioned for agriculture. A legend tells of a shepherd experienced an apparition of the Virgin Mary while passing the area. News of the event spread and the area was visited by the faithful, many of whom settled there around a chapel built at the site of the vision; the small sanctuary was replaced by a church, the number of pilgrims grew to include members of the upper class and high nobility, who attended religious services. Queen Catherine of Austria, the consort of King John III of Portugal visited and prayed at the church, influencing members of the nobility to build residences in the area. Ajuda became an ecclesiastical parish in 1551. During the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, Ajuda did not escape the destruction, losing many of the buildings constructed over the centuries.
This included the Convento de Nossa Senhora da Boa Hora, reconstructed by the Augustine monks in 1756. The Royal Family too had to abandon the Palácio da Ribeira, began living, along the court, in the Quinta de Cima in Ajuda in wooden buildings, locally called the Real Barraca; the level of insecurity after the earthquake and tsunami forced many to install themselves in Ajuda. The village consisted of five separate agglomerations clustered around the roadways: Calçada da Ajuda. In 1762, Ajuda became a part of the municipality of Lisbon and dropped pretenses of a suburban locality; the parish was an agglomeration of houses, quarries, earthen stoves and windmills. In 1768, the Marquis of Pombal, as part of his reconstruction initiatives, built the Botanical Gardens in the area of Horta da Quinta de Cima, it was around that time, between 1766 and 1787, that Pina Manique had constructed the Ajuda Cemetery, where many of the Royal servants were buried. The Real Barraca was subsequently replaced by the Ajuda National Palace.
It would become the official residence of King Carlos I. Between 1852 and 1885 Ajuda became integrated into the municipality of Belém, but was re-inserted by the end of the 19th century. Since the late part of the 20th century, the population has decreased, due to the exodus to the suburbs and periphery of the city. Palácio Nacional da Ajuda - initiated by Manuel Caetano de Sousa, the project was begun in 1795, but under the directorship of Francisco Xavier Fabri and José da Costa e Silva the actual construction began in 1802, with many neo-classical influences and remodelled by Francisco Rosa; until 1910 it was the official residence of the King of Portugal. Jardim Botânico da Ajuda located in Calçada da Ajuda opposite to the Palácio Nacional da Ajuda, it was built in 1768, during the time of King Joseph I, with the aim to his grandchildren learning about the various collection of plants from Africa and America. It is the oldest Botanical Garden in Portugal, it is open every day from 9:00 am to 8:00 pm.
Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg
Eleonore Magdalene of Neuburg was a Holy Roman Empress, German Queen, Archduchess consort of Austria, Queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia as the third and last wife of Leopold I. She was the paternal grandmother of Empress Maria Theresa. Reputed to be one of the most educated and the virtuous women of her time, she took part in the political affairs during the reign of her husband and sons, she served as Interim Regent for a few months in 1711 and was during this timer period that the Treaty of Szatmár was signed, which recognized the rights of her descendants in the Kingdom of Hungary. Before her marriage and during her widowhood she led an ascetic and monastic life, being involved in charity work. Eleonore was born in Düsseldorf on the night of 6 January 1655, as the oldest of 17 children born from Philip William, Count Palatine of Neuburg and Duke of Jülich-Berg and his second wife Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt. On her father's side her grandparents were Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg and his first wife Magdalene of Bavaria and on her mother's side her grandparents were George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt and his wife Sophia Eleonore of Saxony.
After birth, the princess was baptized Eleonore Magdalene Therese by the abbot of Altenburg Abbey. To celebrate her birth, the court chaplain and poet, Jesuit Jakob Balde composed a Latin poem in hexameters called the "Song of genius Eleonore", which he translated to German. Subsequently, he became the spiritual mentor of Eleonore until his death. In August 1655 she, together with her parents, moved from Düsseldorf to Neuburg. On 11 September 1661 at the Neuburg Hofkirche, the princess was anointed by Marquard II Schenk von Castell, Prince-bishop of Eichstätt. Eleonore was raised in a pious environment and received a good education: she was fluent in Latin and Italian, translated to German biblical and religious texts, was well versed in theology, she was fond to music and arts and dancing, but her special passion was reading. Since September 1672 Eleonore lived at Benrath Castle, under the guidance of a maid of honour, she began her training in etiquette. From her early childhood, Eleonore displayed a pious nature and a fervent adherence to Roman Catholicism.
She was four years old when she saw a Crucifixion scene and Eleonore burst into tears in sympathy with Jesus. In addition, every day she participated in religious services, visited the sick. Among the poor, Eleonore asked them to treat her as a commoner, rather than a person of noble birth, because she thought that all people were precious to God. On 2 February 1669 she entered the Brotherhood of Our Lady of Sorrows at the Cross; the special protection provided by Eleonore to the Carmelite monasteries in Düsseldorf and Neuburg reflected her wish to be a Carmelite nun, but her parents refused to give their consent. Five monarchs asked for her hand, all were refused by Eleonore. One of her rejected suitors was the widower James, Duke of York, the future King of England and Scotland, who proposed in 1671. In April 1676 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor lost his second wife, immediately began to search for a new one, urged by the need of a male heir. From his previous marriages he had six children, but all except the oldest daughter, Archduchess Maria Antonia, died shortly after birth.
This time Eleonore was chosen, over Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Princess Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark and many other potential candidates. Thanks to the intense diplomatic efforts of Eleonore's father, he gained to his side Francesco Bonvisi, Papal nuncio in Vienna, King Charles II of Spain. However, the opponents of the Count Palatine of Neuburg in the Imperial court, spread rumours that Eleonore suffered from poor health and was physically unattractive. However, these rumours did not stop the Emperor, who needed an heir and knew not only about Eleonore's family reputed fertility but about her fervent Catholicism and pious nature. In addition, the Count Palatine showed Leopold I a portrait of his daughter, made for this purpose; the marriage negotiations began in April 1676. To this end, an emissary send by the Count Palatine arrived to Vienna managed to win the support of Empress Dowager Eleonora Gonzaga and a number of notable courtiers, including Chancellor Johann Paul Freiherr von Hocher.
In August 1676 the personal physician of the Emperor arrived in Neuburg and examined Eleonore to establish her fertility. Back in Vienna the following month, he gave the official conclusion. Leopold I took the final decision about the marriage only in the second half of October. For Eleonore, the news that she would become the new Empress did not make her happy, as she had still wished to become a nun. On 25 November 1676 the official betrothal took place; the bride and groom were third cousins, thus a papal dispensation was granted by Pope Innocent XI to allow the marriage. Eleonore's dowry was fixed at 100,000 florins; the first meeting between Leopold I and Eleonore took place two days before the wedding and they made a favourable impression on each other. The wedding took place in Passau on 14 December 1676; the wedding was somewhat private. The ceremony was still elaborate and th
Maria Anna of Spain
Infanta Maria Anna of Spain was a Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia by marriage to Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor. She acted as regent on several occasions during the absences of her spouse. Daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria, prior to her Imperial marriage she was considered a possible wife for Charles, Prince of Wales. In the imperial court in Vienna she continued to be influenced by her native Spanish culture and to promote the strengthening of relations between the Imperial and Spanish branches of the House of Habsburg. Infanta Maria Anna of Spain was born in the Palace of El Escorial, near Madrid, on 18 August 1606 as the fourth child and third daughter of King Philip III of Spain and his wife Margaret of Austria, Archduchess of the Inner Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg. Of her seven siblings, only four survived infancy: Anna, Philip IV of Spain and Ferdinand. Maria Anna's parents had a close kinship: her father was her mother's first cousin once-removed.
On her father's side she was the granddaughter of King Philip II of Spain, his fourth wife and niece Archduchess Anne of Austria, on her mother's side she was the granddaughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria and his wife Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria. From early childhood, Maria Anna has played an important role in the matrimonial projects of her father. In adolescence she was betrothed to Archduke John-Charles, eldest son and heir of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife Maria Anna of Bavaria. In 1622, King James I of England received an offer from the Spanish King Philip IV to strengthen the relations of their countries through a dynastic marriage between Charles, Prince of Wales, Infanta Maria Anna. London and Madrid began active negotiations; the possible marriage between the Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, was known in history under the name "Spanish Match", caused an internal political crisis in both England and Scotland. In 1623 the Prince of Wales, accompanied by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, visited Madrid to meet his intended bride.
However, Maria Anna did not wish to marry a Charles would not convert to Catholicism. At the end, the wedding never took place not only for political reasons but because of the reluctance of the new Spanish King to conclude a dynastic marriage with the House of Stuart. Charles married Henrietta Maria of France. At the end of 1626 Maria Anna was betrothed to the younger brother of her first fiancé, new heir of Emperor Ferdinand II; the formal engagement was preceded by a series of negotiations which were conducted in 1625. That same year, Prince Ferdinand was crowned King of Hungary, in 1627 King of Bohemia. In the negotiations were included all the life aspects of the Infanta at the court of her future spouse. Despite the desire of the groom that Maria Anna's confessor would be the Jesuit Ambrosio Penalosa, the appointment went to Capuchin Diego Quiroga. In the marriage contract signed by both parties in 1628, it was noted that Maria Anna could retain her rights of inheritance over the Spanish throne, while her older sister Infanta Anna, married to King Louis XIII of France in 1615, was forced to renounce to her rights.
Maria Anna had left Madrid for Vienna in December 1629. The travel took more than a year. En route by sea, in Genoa complications arose due to an epidemic of the plague that erupted in the Italian Peninsula. For this reason, the cortege was unable to stop in Bologna, where Cardinal Antonio Barberini, was waiting for the Infanta to give her the Golden Rose; the cortege moved to Naples, where Maria Anna received the award. Leaving the Kingdom of Naples, the Infanta crossed the Papal States, having made a pilgrimage to the Basilica della Santa Casa. On this section of her journey Maria Anna was accompanied by Roman aristocracy, led by another nephew of Pope Urban VIII, Taddeo Barberini, Prince of Palestrina. On 26 January 1631 she arrived in Trieste, where she met Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, her future brother-in-law, who escort the Infanta to the Vienna court; that day, Maria Anna was married to King Ferdinand of Hungria-Bohemia per procura with Archduke Leopold Wilhelm serving as the proxy.
Before the official wedding, King Ferdinand, not trusting the previous portraits that he had seen of the Infanta, decided to secretly watch his bride. The Royal oberhofmeister asked for an audience with Maria Anna. Struck by the beauty of the Infanta, King Ferdinand revealed his identity and began a conversation with Maria Anna in Spanish; the love and respect that the future emperor felt for his wife lasted through all their marriage. He had illegitimate children. In Vienna on 20 February 1631 Maria Anna was formally married with King Ferdinand of Hungary-Bohemia, with festivities lasting a month; the marriage was described as friendly. Maria Anna was described as happy-tempered and intelligent, she able to ease the feelings of the melancholic Ferdinand. Maria Anna arrived at the Imperial court in Vienna with the Spanish fashion, theatre and music; as the wife of the heir, she maintained good relations with all the members of her husband's fa
Duke of Braganza
The title Duke of Braganza in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal. Starting in 1640, when the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal, the male heir of the Portuguese Crown were known as Duke of Braganza, along with their style Prince of Beira or Prince of Brazil; the tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders after the establishment of the Portuguese Republic on 5 October 1910 to signify their claims to the throne. The Duke of Braganza holds one of the most important dukedoms in Portugal. Created in 1442 by King Afonso V of Portugal for his uncle Afonso, Count of Barcelos, it is one of the oldest fiefdoms in Portugal; the fifth Duke of Braganza is important to historians of international trade as when he died in 1563, the contents of the family's main palace in Vila Vicosa, were inventoried in their entirety. Because Portugal had established a global trade network for sixty-odd years by the time of the Duke's death, was "in the process of establishing their military and commercial presence, merchants and crown officials had developed sophisticated, transcontinental trading practices that involved all sorts of global commodities, the inventory is a priceless resource to art historians as it lists artefacts originating in Mozambique, the western coast of India, China, Japan and Brazil.
Slaves were included in the inventory. By 1640, Portugal was on the verge of rebellion against Spanish-based Habsburg rule, a new Portuguese king had to be found; the choice fell upon John, 8th Duke of Braganza, who had a claim to the throne of Portugal both through his grandmother Catherine of Guimarães, a legitimate granddaughter of King Manuel I, through his great-great-grandfather, the 4th duke of Braganza, a nephew of King Manuel I. John was a modest man without particular ambitions to the crown. Legend has it that his wife Luisa of Guzman urged him to accept the offer by saying, "I'd rather be queen for one day than duchess for a lifetime", he accepted the leadership of the rebellion against Spain, successful, was acclaimed King John IV of Portugal on 1 December 1640. After the accession of the House of Braganza to the Portuguese throne in 1640 as a replacement for the Philippine Dynasty of Spanish Habsburgs, the Dukedom of Braganza became linked to the crown. "Duke of Braganza" became the traditional title of the heir to the Portuguese throne, together with or alternate to "Prince of Beira", much as "Prince of Wales" is in the United Kingdom.
After the 8th Duke had ascended the royal throne, he elevated his son and heir Teodósio to the newly created rank of Prince of Brazil in 1645, but granted the Duchy of Braganza to his brother, the Infante Duarte, who died in 1649 in Spanish captivity. It was granted to the king's second son, the future Afonso VI of Portugal. From this time onwards, the title "Duke of Braganza" was kept for the heir apparent of the throne – in its strictest sense. Although the other title for an unavoidable heir, that of "Prince of Brazil", was from time to time granted to female heirs, the Dukedom of Braganza was always reserved only for the male heir except for two extraordinary creations, in 1683 and 1711; these two creations are deemed invalid by some legalists, who accordingly number the dukes in a way that Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, the last Duke of Braganza during the period of Portuguese monarchy, is reckoned to be the 21st Duke. The present table reflects a numbering; when Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicated his throne in 1831, he claimed the title of Duke of Braganza.
On 1 February 1908 King Charles I of Portugal was murdered along with his eldest son and heir, Luís Filipe, the last individual during the monarchy to carry that title. Carlos was succeeded by Manuel II of Portugal but for a short time: on 5 October 1910, a republic was instituted, the king was exiled. King Manuel II settled in England. After the foundation of the Portuguese Republic in 1910, the tradition of the heir to the throne being titled Duke of Braganza was revived by various pretenders to signify their claims to the throne. In the last years of the deposed king Manuel II of Portugal, the dukedom of Bragança was claimed by Miguel, Duke of Braganza, son of the exiled king Miguel I of Portugal, living in the Austrian Empire, his branch of the Braganza family became heirs to the crown in 1932, when Manuel II died without children. These Braganzas were allowed to return to the country in 1950 and have lived there since. Presently, the acknowledged duke of Braganza and Portuguese heir is Duarte Pio de Bragança.
Unlike other European republics which attempt to prevent the presence of former royal houses in their lands, republican Portugal and its claimants to the throne have long been reconciled, a fact shown when among the guests at the wedding of Duarte Pio was the President of the Portuguese Republic and the country's prime minister. In contrast to Duarte Pio and his family's claim, Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança has made claim to the title of Duchess of Braganza and Queen of Portugal, since 1932. Portuguese nobility Duke of Barcelos Duke of Guimarães List of dukes of Braganza House of Braganza Duchy of Braganza Genealogy of the Dukes of Braganza in Portuguese A full transcription of the inventory is available at www.cham.fcsh.unl.pt "Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil", Vol. II, pages 433/449
Prince of Beira
Prince of Beira is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent of the heir apparent to the throne of Portugal. The title's original use that it be granted on the eldest daughter of the reigning monarch of Portugal. Tied with the title of Prince of Beira, is Duke of Barcelos, as heir to the Duke of Braganza and Prince of Brazil; the current Prince of Beira is Prince Afonso, the eldest son of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza. The title's name has its origins in the Beira province in central Portugal; the title was created by King John IV of Portugal, the new monarch, first of the Braganza dynasty, sometime in the 1640s. It was firstly given to his eldest surviving daughter, Infanta Joanna of Portugal, 1st Princess of Beira, it was the King's intention that the male heir apparent would be Prince of Brazil and also Duke of Braganza, whereas Princess of Beira was quite similar to that of French Madame Royale or the British Princess Royal. The title had no original connection to being one for next heirs of the throne - King John IV had a second son, soon a third, but the daughter kept Beira and the boys received dukedoms.
However, Joanna died young in 1653. Afterwards, the title kept granted and regranted several times during the remaining Portuguese monarchy. However, the precedent of being granted to the monarch's eldest daughter in a situation where he had several living sons, was repeated sometimes in centuries; the title's first connection with the position of the heir was from 1669 onwards, when it was held by the Infanta Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira, the only living child of King Peter II. She received it as the eldest daughter of the king, but as she was the heiress presumptive until 1688, a new tradition got its groundwork. According to the first tradition, the next holder would be infanta Barbara of Portugal, the eldest daughter of King John V of Portugal. In 1729, she married with Infante Fernando of the Prince of Asturias. On December 17, 1734 the title was created anew by king John V of Portugal, in favour of his newborn eldest granddaughter Infanta Maria Francisca, she was the eldest daughter of the heir-apparent of the monarch.
This was the first time. As the future Joseph I was to remain without sons, the new Princess of Beira would become the proclaimed heiress and to ascend the throne. In 1750 the newly ascended King Joseph I proclaimed his eldest daughter the official heiress and granted her the "crown-princely" title Princess of Brazil, he in 1761 further granted Maria's eldest son, Infante Dom José Francisco, the title Prince of Beira. For the first time, the title was held by a male; this created a new tradition. The situation now was that the king's official heir held the Princedom of Brazil, Prince of Beira was Brazil's heir-apparent; the situation had been the same during 1734-50, when the monarch's heir-apparent was Prince of Brazil, Brazil's obvious heir was Princess of Beira. This was to be repeated after that time, as monarchs granted Beira to the second heir-apparent whenever possible; the future King John VI himself never became Prince of Beira--he became Prince of Brazil and Duke of Braganza directly at the death of his elder brother.
According to the first tradition, the next holder of Beira would be Infanta Mariana Vitória of Portugal, the eldest daughter of Maria I and Pedro III. She died two months after her eldest brother. In 1785, she was married to Infante Gabriel of Spain, their three children were granted Infantes of Portugal in addition to that of Spain by their grandmother. The others going having died, the eldest son, Infante Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal married his Portuguese cousin Teresa, Princess of Beira, left issue. Queen Maria I and her regent, the future King John VI, granted the Beira in turn to John's heirs-apparent, the second of them, Infante Dom Pedro Francisco survived to become in 1816 the Prince of Brazil, the last Portuguese heir-apparent to hold that title. King John VI followed the first tradition and Beira was granted to his eldest daughter Infanta Dona Maria Teresa, firstly wife of her short-lived cousin Infante Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal and secondly wife of the first Carlist pretender, Infante don Carlos of Spain.
Teresa's only child was her son with Pedro Carlos, Infante don Sebastian of Spain and Portugal, from whom the dukes of Marchena, Durcal and Hernani descend. In the second tradition, when born in 1821, the Prince of Brazil's eldest son João Carlos was granted Beira in 1821 after birth, he being the third in the heir-apparent line, but he died the following year, some months before Brazil's secession. Emperor Pedro's next son, born in 1825, rec
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. Ferdinand was born in Graz, the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg and his first wife, Maria Anna of Bavaria, was baptised as Ferdinand Ernst. Educated by the Jesuits, he became Archduke of Austria in 1621, King of Hungary in 1625, King of Bohemia in 1627. In 1627 Ferdinand enhanced his authority and set an important legal and military precedent by issuing a Revised Land Ordinance that deprived the Bohemian estates of their right to raise soldiers, reserving this power for the monarch. Following the death of Albrecht von Wallenstein in 1634, he was made titular head of the Imperial Army in the Thirty Years' War; that year he joined with his cousin, the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand, nominally responsible for the capture of Donauwörth and Regensburg, for the defeat of the Swedes at the Battle of Nördlingen. Leader of the peace party at court, he helped negotiate the Peace of Prague with the Protestant states Saxony in 1635.
Having been elected King of the Romans in 1636, he succeeded his father as Holy Roman Emperor in 1637. He hoped to make peace soon with France and Sweden, but the war dragged on ending in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, negotiated by his envoy Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, a diplomat, made a count in 1623 by his father Ferdinand II. During the last period of the war, in 1644 Ferdinand III gave all rulers of German states the right to conduct their own foreign policy – the emperor hoped to gain more allies in the negotiations with France and Sweden; this edict, contributed to the gradual erosion of the imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire. After 1648 the emperor was engaged in carrying out the terms of the treaty and ridding Germany of the foreign soldiery. In 1656 he sent an army into Italy to assist Spain in her struggle with France, he had just concluded an alliance with Poland to check the aggressions of Charles X of Sweden when he died on 2 April 1657. On 20 February 1631, Ferdinand III married Maria Anna of Spain.
She was the youngest daughter of Philip III of Margaret of Austria. They were first cousins, they were parents to six children: Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans Maria Anna "Mariana", Archduchess of Austria. Married her maternal uncle Philip IV of Spain. Philip August, Archduke of Austria Maximilian Thomas, Archduke of Austria Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Maria, Archduchess of Austria On 2 July 1648 in Linz, Ferdinand III married his second wife, Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria, she was a daughter of Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, Claudia de' Medici. They were first cousins as male-line grandchildren of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Maria Anna of Bavaria, they had a single son: Archduke of Austria. He was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights from 1662 to his death. On 30 April 1651, Ferdinand III married Eleonora Gonzaga, she was a daughter of Duke of Rethel. They were parents to four children: Theresia Maria Josefa, Archduchess of Austria Eleonora Maria of Austria, who married first Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki, King of Poland, Charles Léopold, Duke of Lorraine.
Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, who married Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine. Ferdinand Josef Alois, Archduke of Austria Ferdinand III was a well-known patron of music and a composer, he studied music under Giovanni Valentini, who bequeathed his musical works to him, had close ties with Johann Jakob Froberger, one of the most important keyboard composers of the 17th century. Froberger lamented the emperor's death and dedicated to him one of his most celebrated works, Lamentation faite sur la mort très douloureuse de Sa Majesté Impériale, Ferdinand le troisième; some of Ferdinand's own compositions survive in manuscripts: masses, motets and other sacred music, as well as a few secular pieces. His Drama musicum was praised by Athanasius Kircher, the extant works, although influenced by Valentini, show a composer with an individual style and a solid technique. Recordings of Ferdinand's compositions include: Jesu Redemptor Omnium. Deus Tuorum. Humanae Salutis. With Schmelzer: Lamento Sopra La Morte de Ferdinand III.
Joseph I: Regina Coeli. Leopold I: Sonata Piena. Wiener Akademie, dir. Martin Haselböck, CPO 1997. Ferdinand III: Hymnus "Jesu Corona Virginum". On Musik für Gamben-Consort. Klaus Mertens, Hamburger Ratsmusik, dir. Simone Eckert CPO 2010 Ferdinand III, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Slavonia, Serbia, Lodomeria and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Styria, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol and Goritia, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, the Higher and Lower Lusace, Lord of the Marquisate of Slavonia, of Port Nao
Prince of Brazil
Prince of Brazil was the title held by the heir-apparent to the Kingdom of Portugal, from 1645 to 1815. Tied with the title of Prince of Brazil was the title Duke of Braganza and the various subsidiary titles of the Dukedom of Braganza; the title's name has its origins in the Viceroyalty of a colony of the Portuguese Empire. The title was abandoned and changed to that of Prince Royal in the wake of Brazil's elevation from the status of a colony to the rank of a Kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Brazil would break from the United Kingdom and become the independent Empire of Brazil; the heirs presumptive of Brazil were known as The Prince Imperial of Brazil or The Princess Imperial of Brazil, with the style of Imperial Highness. Other members of the Brazilian Imperial Family were known by the title of Prince or Princess prefixed to their given names, with the style of Highness; the Portuguese title of Prince of Brazil, that existed as a title of the Portuguese heir apparent only while Brazil was still a colony of Portugal, should therefore not be confused with the ranks of Brazilian Prince or Brazilian Princess, that stem from the era of the Empire of Brazil.
Until the reign of King John IV of Portugal, the heir-apparent to the throne of Portugal had used the title of Prince of Portugal. After his succession to the throne, John IV sought to give his heir a more prestigious and noble title, Prince of Brazil, alongside granting the heir of Portugal the title of Duke of Braganza; the title was created by King John IV of Portugal on 27 October 1645 in favor of his eldest son and heir Teodósio, to replace the title Prince of Portugal. The eldest son and heir of the Prince of Brazil was styled Prince of Duke of Barcelos; when Brazil was elevated to the status of a Kingdom within the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, the title was replaced by Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. When Brazil broke away from the United Kingdom to become an independent Empire, the title of the Portuguese heir apparent was again changed to Prince Royal of Portugal and the Algarves