Francisco de Matos Vieira, better known as Vieira Lusitano was a Portuguese court painter and engraver. His father was a maker of socks and stockings and he was originally meant to pursue an ecclesiastical career, but when he displayed an aptitude for art, his parents changed their plans. Word of his talents reached Carnide, where some gentlemen who operated a literary academy asked to meet him, during his presentation to them, he met a girl named Inês Helena de Lima e Melo, who would become his lifelong passion. Meanwhile, he had begun his studies, probably with André Gonçalves and his work came to the attention of Don Rodrigo Anes de Sá Almeida e Meneses, the Marquis of Abrantes, who had recently been appointed Ambassador to Rome. The Marquis offered to take Vieira with him, so he could continue his studies there, once there, aged only thirteen, he was apprenticed to Benedetto Luti, who immediately set him to studying and copying the frescoes in the Farnese Gallery. Meanwhile, the Marquis directed him to paint religious ceremonies, ornaments at the Basilica of Saint Peter, fixtures at the Portuguese Embassy, when it came time for the Marquis to return home, he wanted to take Vieira with him, but relented when Vieira begged to remain.
He was allowed to stay for two years and studied with Francesco Trevisani. Returning home after seven years, he was commissioned by King John V to paint a large Blessed Sacrament for the Corpus Christi procession. His relationship with Inês was not going well, however, as her parents felt that he was of social status. Despite this, they arranged a marriage by proxy, when her parents found out, they took her to a convent and forced her to take vows. Vieira tried to gain her release but, failing that, decided to appeal to the Pope himself and he remained in Rome for five years, pressing his petitions and continuing to paint. Finally acknowledging defeat, he returned to Lisbon in 1728, somehow, he arranged to have male clothing smuggled in to Inês so, dressed as a man, she simply walked out of the convent. When it was discovered that she was missing, her relatives hired a hooligan to avenge their honor, Vieira was shot as he walked down the street and seriously injured. When he recovered, he sought justice from King John V, but his wifes family was influential, fearing for his safety, Vieira entered the Paulist convent then, in 1732, went to Seville, to work for King Philip V.
Upon his return to Lisbon the following year, he was named Court Painter, in 1744, he was named a knight in the Order of Saint James of the Sword. During his tenure with the court, he not only painted portraits of the royal family, many of those works were destroyed in the earthquake of 1755. In 1775, his beloved Inês died, stricken with grief, he gave up painting and entered the Convento do Beato, where he remained until his death. While there, he composed a poem in lyrical cantos called O insigne pintor e leal esposo
Giuseppe Troni was an Italian court painter. He was initially a pupil of his father, Alessandro Trono and he was portrait painter to the court of Naples, and to the court in Turin. In 1785, he moved to Lisbon, in Lisbon, he would become famous once he became a court painter to the House of Braganza. He would paint there many famous portraits of the kings and princes of Portugal, walter Armstrong & Robert Edmund Graves, ed. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical, york St. #4, Covent Garden, Original from Fogg Library, Digitized May 18,2007, George Bell and Sons
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazils third-most populous state. Part of the city has designated as a World Heritage Site, named Rio de Janeiro. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822 and this is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, the home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.
The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the city is divided into 33 administrative regions. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabrals fleet, allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Botocudo, in 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony, Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc, on 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.
The kingdoms capital was transferred to the city, thus, as there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes. The first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, from the colonial period until the first independent decades, Rio de Janeiro was a city of slaves. There was an influx of African slaves to Rio de Janeiro, in 1819. In 1840, the number of slaves reached 220,000 people, the Port of Rio de Janeiro was the largest port of slaves in America. As a political center of the country, Rio concentrated the political-partisan life of the Empire and it was the main stage of the abolitionist and republican movements in the last half of the 19th century. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic, until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre, on the mouth of Guanabara Bay.
Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rios streetcar transit system after 1905, though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960
An empress regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire. A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers, a queen consort shares her husbands rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband. The husband of a queen regnant traditionally does not share his wifes rank, the concept of a king consort is not unheard of in contemporary or classical periods. A queen dowager is the widow of a king, a queen mother is a queen dowager who is the mother of a reigning sovereign. The Byzantine Empress Irene sometimes called herself basileus, rather than basilissa and Jadwiga of Poland was crowned as Rex Poloniae, King of Poland. Among the Davidic Monarchs of the Kingdom of Judah, there is mentioned a queen regnant, Athaliah. The much Hasmonean Queen Salome Alexandra was highly popular, accession of a regnant occurs as a nations order of succession permits. The scope of succession may be matrilineal, patrilineal, or both, or, open to general election when necessary, the right of succession may be open to men and women, or limited to men only or women only.
Historically, many realms forbade succession by women or through a line in obedience to the Salic law. No queen regnant ever ruled France, for example, only one woman, Maria Theresa, ruled Austria. As noted in the list below of widely known ruling queens, in the waning days of the 20th century and early days of the 21st, Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark and the UK amended their acts of succession to absolute primogeniture. In some cases the change does not take effect during the lifetimes of people already in the line of succession at the time the law was passed, in 2011, the 16 Realms of the Commonwealth agreed to remove the rule of male-preference primogeniture. Once the necessary legislation was passed, this means that had Prince William had a daughter first, in China, Wu Zetian became the Chinese empress regnant and established the Zhou Dynasty after dismissing her sons. It should be noted, that Empress Wu used the title huangdi and in many European sources, although the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan is currently barred to women, this has not always been the case, throughout Japanese history there have been eight empresses regnant.
Again, the Japanese language uses the term josei tennō for the position which would be empress regnant in English, monarch Order of succession Queen consort Rani Regent Salic law Sultana Monter, William. The Rise of Female Kings in Europe, 1300-1800, studies 30 women who exercised full sovereign authority in Europe
House of Braganza
The house came to rule the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves following the successful deposition of the Philippine Dynasty by John IV of Portugal, in 1640. The Braganzas were deposed from their thrones at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, when Emperor Pedro II was deposed in Brazil, in 1889, and when King Manuel II was deposed in Portugal, in 1910. The Constitutional branch died out with the death of King Manuel II in 1932, passing its claim to the Portuguese throne to the Miguelist Branch, by way of Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza. The House of Braganza originated with Afonso I, an son of King John I of Portugal, founder of the House of Aviz. With his newly consolidated place in the nobility of Portugal, Afonso commenced what would be a successful political and social career. In 1415 he took part in the Conquest of Ceuta, alongside his father, his brothers, by the time of his fathers death in 1433, Afonso had won favour with his brother, King Duarte I and the rest of high Portuguese society.
The Duke of Coimbras regency, soon proved unpopular, afonsos elevation to the dukedom, the highest level of nobility, marked the foundation of the House of Braganza, which was to become a key family in Portuguese history. As a result of the work and success of Afonso I, his children all secured successful positions. He was a diplomat, and served as the kings representative at the Council of Basel in 1436. In 1451, the Count of Ourém was made Marquis of Valença and escorted Infanta Leonor of Portugal to her husband Frederick III, later, in 1458, he participated in the capture and conquest of Alcácer-Ceguer. The Marquis of Valença, died in 1460, one year before his father, Afonso Is first daughter, Isabel of Braganza, married Infante João, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, thus relinking the House of Braganza to the Royal House of Portugal. Isabels strategic marriage proved successful, and produced four children, whose descendants would be some of the most important in Iberian history, Afonso Is last child and successor, Fernando I, Duke of Braganza, continued his legacy of prominence in the military and society.
When Fernando I was born, in 1403, his grandfather, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Fernando became an accomplished military man, participating in various Portuguese imperial campaigns. Fernando Is children, by his wife, Joana de Castro, Lady of Cadaval, of his nine children, all six who survived to adulthood established themselves either through positions or marriages, though the actions of King João II would seek to weaken their influence. Fernando Is first son and successor, Fernando II, was initially a bright and popular nobleman, but his conflict with King João II would see his and the Houses downfall. His second son, João of Braganza, 1st Marquis of Montemor-o-Novo, was a military man and was made Constable of Portugal. Fernandos third son, Afonso of Braganza, became a nobleman of society and was made 1st Count of Faro. The Dukes fourth son, Álvaro of Braganza, inherited the fiefs of his mother, becoming the 5th Lord of Ferreira, 4th Lord of Cadaval, fernandos eldest surviving daughter, Beatriz of Braganza, married Pedro de Meneses, 1st Marquis of Vila Real
John V of Portugal
Dom John V, known as the Magnanimous and the Portuguese Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Braganza who ruled as King of Portugal and the Algarves during the first half of the 18th century. John Vs reign saw the rise of the prestige of Portugal and its monarchy, John Vs reign saw an enormous influx of gold into the coffers of the royal treasury, supplied largely by the royal fifth that was received from the Portuguese colonies of Brazil and Maranhão. John nearly depleted his countrys tax revenues on ambitious architectural works, most notably Mafra Palace, disregarding traditional Portuguese institutions of governance, John V ruled as an absolute monarch. On the imperial front, John V pursued an expansionist policy, with significant territorial gains in Portuguese India, John V was a very pious man who devoted large parts of his day to prayer and religious study. He rewarded his long-awaited recognition as a monarch by Pope Benedict XIV with a fervent devotion to the Catholic Church. The Pope granted John V the style Most Faithful Majesty, which appealed to him greatly, Johns relationship with the papacy varied at different periods in his reign, there were both close relations and conflicts at different times during the reigns of five different popes.
John was born on 22 October 1689 at Ribeira Palace in Lisbon to King Pedro II and he was baptized on November 19 at the Royal Palace Chapel and given the name João Francisco António José Bento Bernardo. John was not his fathers first son, he had a brother, João, Prince of Brazil. Upon his baptism, John was not given the titles of the heir apparent to the Portuguese throne, Prince of Brazil and Duke of Braganza. This was intended as a sign of respect for his brothers death. John had a stimulating upbringing surrounded by some of the most brilliant minds of Europe at the time. It was agreed by the court that Johns care as a child was to be run by women only, a custom of the Portuguese court. Johns governess was Maria de Lencastre, the Marquise of Unhão, the political policies of Johns father had made the Portuguese court wealthy, the national economy stable, and the imperial military strong. This made a varied and interesting childhood possible for John. As a child, he was under the tutelage and heavy influence of the Jesuit Fathers Francisco da Cruz, John Seco, and Luís Gonzaga.
Father Luís Gonzaga was in charge of the education of all of King Pedros children, he taught them military education, astronomy, nautical studies and history. As the prince grew up, he was mentored in political affairs by Luís da Cunha and this was formalised when he and his brother Francisco, Duke of Beja, were admitted into the Order of Christ on 7 April 1696. Later that year, the king decided to confer on John the titles of the heir apparent, namely Prince of Brazil
John VI of Portugal
John VI, nicknamed the Clement, was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1816 to 1822. Although the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist de facto beginning in 1822, after the recognition of Brazilian independence under the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro of 1825, he continued as King of Portugal and the Algarves until his death in 1826. Under the same treaty, he became titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son. Born in Lisbon in 1767, the son of Maria I and Peter III of Portugal and he only became heir to the throne when his older brother José, Prince of Brazil, died of smallpox in 1788 at the age of 27. Before his accession to the Portuguese throne, John VI bore the titles Duke of Braganza and Duke of Beja, from 1799, he served as prince regent of Portugal, due to the mental illness of his mother, Queen Maria I. In 1816, he succeeded his mother as monarch of the Portuguese Empire, with no change in his authority. One of the last representatives of absolute monarchy in Europe, he lived during a turbulent period, throughout his period of rule, major powers, such as Spain and Great Britain, continually intervened in Portuguese affairs.
His marriage was no less conflictual, as his wife, Carlota Joaquina of Spain and he lost Brazil when his son Pedro declared independence, and his other son Miguel led a rebellion that sought to depose him. According to recent scholarly research, his death may well have been caused by arsenic poisoning, João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael was born 13 May 1767, during the reign of his grandfather, Joseph I of Portugal. He was the son of the future Queen Maria I, Josephs daughter, and her husband. At the time of Johns birth they were, Princess of Brazil and he was ten years old when his grandfather died and his mother ascended to the throne. His childhood and youth were lived quietly, as he was a mere infante in the shadow of his elder brother José, Prince of Brazil and 14th Duke of Braganza, the heir-apparent to the throne. Folklore has John as a rather uncultured youth, but according to Jorge Pedreira e Costa, still, a French ambassador of the time painted him in unfavorable colors, seeing him as hesitant and dim.
The record of this period of his life is too vague for historians to form any definitive picture, little is known of the substance of his education. He surely received instruction in religion, law and etiquette, and would presumably have learned history through reading the works of Duarte Nunes de Leão and João de Barros. In 1785, Henrique de Meneses, 3rd Marquis of Louriçal, arranged a marriage between John and the Infanta Carlota Joaquina of Spain, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain, like her betrothed, Carlota was a junior member of a royal family. Fearing a new Iberian Union, some in the Portuguese court viewed the marriage to a Spanish infanta unfavorably and she endured four days of testing by the Portuguese ambassadors before the marriage pact was confirmed. Because John and Carlota were related, and because of the brides youth, after being confirmed, the marriage capitulation was signed in the throne room of the Spanish court with great pomp and with the participation of both kingdoms
Prince of Beira
Prince of Beira is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent of the heir apparent to the throne of Portugal. The titles original use that it be granted on the eldest daughter of the monarch of Portugal. Tied with the title of Prince of Beira, is Duke of Barcelos, as heir to the Duke of Braganza, the current Prince of Beira is Prince Afonso, the eldest son of Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza. The titles name has its origins in the Beira province in central Portugal, the title was presumably created by King John IV of Portugal, the new monarch, first of the Braganza dynasty, sometime in the 1640s. It was firstly given to his eldest surviving daughter, Infanta Joanna of Portugal, 1st Princess of Beira. The title had no connection to being one for next heirs of the throne - King John IV had a second son, and soon a third, but the daughter kept Beira. However, Joanna died young in 1653, the title kept granted and regranted several times during the remaining Portuguese monarchy. However, the precedent of being granted to the monarchs eldest daughter in a situation where he had several living sons, was repeated some times in centuries.
The titles first connection with the position of the heir was from 1669 onwards, when it was held by the Infanta Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira, the only living child of King Peter II. She received it as the eldest daughter of the king, but as she was the heiress presumptive until 1688, according to the first tradition, the next holder would be infanta Barbara of Portugal, the eldest daughter of King John V of Portugal. In 1729, she married with Infante Fernando of Spain, the Prince of Asturias, then, on December 17,1734 the title was created anew by king John V of Portugal, in favour of his newborn eldest granddaughter Infanta Maria Francisca. She was the eldest daughter of the heir-apparent of the monarch and this was the first time when it was granted two generations down from the monarch. As the future Joseph I was to remain without sons, the new Princess of Beira would become the proclaimed heiress, in 1750 the newly ascended King Joseph I proclaimed his eldest daughter the official heiress and granted her the crown-princely title Princess of Brazil.
He in 1761 further granted Marias eldest son, Infante Dom José Francisco, for the first time, the title was held by a male. The situation now, was that the official heir held the Princedom of Brazil. The situation had been the same during 1734-50, when the monarchs heir-apparent was Prince of Brazil and this was to be repeated after that time, as monarchs granted Beira to the second heir-apparent whenever possible. The future King John VI himself never became Prince of Beira--he became Prince of Brazil, according to the first tradition, the next holder of Beira would be Infanta Mariana Vitória of Portugal, the eldest daughter of Maria I and Pedro III. She died two months after her eldest brother, in 1785, she was married to Infante Gabriel of Spain, whom she predeceased by some weeks
Palace of Ajuda
The Palace of Ajuda is a neoclassical monument in the civil parish of Ajuda in the city of Lisbon, central Portugal. Later, it was entrusted to José da Costa e Silva and Francisco Xavier Fabri, over time the project has undergone several periods when the construction was stopped or slowed due to financial constraints or political conflicts. Lack of financial resources would a result in the reduction of the projects scale, the construction of the Ajuda Palace, which began in 1796 and lasted until the 19th century, was a project plagued by various/diverse political and artistic/architectonic problems. It was invaded by Napoleons troops in 1807, and discontinued by Liberal forces who imposed a monarchy that reduced the power of the monarchy. Artistically, it was a convergence of the Baroque styles from Mafra, very connected to regal authority and these tastes were affected by successive interruptions, due to a lack of funds, political sanctions or disconnection between the workers and authorities who were responsible for the project.
On 1 November 1755, on the day of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the Royal Family was in Belém, and escaped the destruction of Lisbon by the earthquake and tsunami. Perturbed by the events, King Joseph refused to live under a residence of masonry, the Real Barraca, or Paço de Madeira was completed on 20 September 1761, owing to a risk of collapse, the theatre was reconstructed from 1767 to 1786 by Giacomo Azzolini. The court remained at this site for three decades, in a luxurious atmosphere of the golden age of enlightened despotism, until the Kings death in 1777. Since his successor, Queen Maria I of Portugal lived with Peter III in the Palace of Queluz at the time of Josephs death, the Royal Barraca was vacated. In November 1794, during the reign of Queen Mary I and the Prince-Regent, a more permanent dwelling was conceived by the architect José da Costa e Silva. Starting on 17 July 1795 the rubble and terrain was cleared, the first cornerstone was laid on 9 November under the direction of Manuel Caetano de Sousa.
It was conceived as a Baroque-late Rococo building, but the construction was interrupted shortly after, Manuel Caetano de Sousa designed an overcomplicated and intricate Baroque building. In 1802 Manuel Caetano de Sousa died, and by 26 June, Costa e Silva, Costa e Silva and Fabri respected what was already constructed, but introduced necessary alterations to change the Royal Palace into a more dignified and majestic building. Consequently, the plan was simplified and reduced to a core structured around two courtyards, with the level of ornamentation, but now much more refined. On 2 July 1802, the monarch solicited the Marquis of Alorna to study the paintings that would occupy its walls. In 1803, Carlos Amatucci completed the sculpture of Liberdade, by 1807, the painters and decorators had been contracted, but the arrival of Junots forces immediately stopped the build as the Royal Family fled to Brazil. Yet, Junot insisted that the building should continue, but in 1809, the French invasion of the Portuguese territory finally caused the suspension of the project.
By 1812, Francisco Fabri returned to chef the project, since José da Costa e Silva had joined the Royal Family in Brazil, fabris model was based on the Palace of Caserta in Naples, designed by Vavitelli
Joseph I of Portugal
Joseph I, The Reformer, was the King of Portugal and the Algarves from 31 July 1750 until his death. Among other activities, Joseph was devoted to hunting and the opera, indeed, he assembled one of the greatest collections of operatic scores in Europe. Joseph was the child of King John V of Portugal. Joseph had an older brother Pedro, an older sister Barbara, at the death of his elder brother, who died at the age of two in 1714, Joseph became Prince of Brazil as the heir apparent of the king, and Duke of Braganza. Mariana Victoria loved music and hunting, just like her husband, the history of Josephs reign is really that of Pombal himself. King Joseph declared his eldest daughter Maria Francisca as the heiress of the throne. By this time, the king did not believe he would father a son by his queen. One of the most difficult faced by the king was the Franco-Spanish invasion of Portugal. France and Spain sent an ultimatum in order to force Portugal to abandon its alliance with Great Britain and close her ports to British ships. D.
José I refused to submit and asked for British help since both the country and the army were in a poor condition, mainly because of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The Spanish and French troops suffered staggering losses when they were out from Portugal. But the Portuguese minister, the Marquis of Pombal and with the assistance of Count Lippe, dAranda, the Spanish General, was forced to retreat in disgrace. With the utter failure of the Spanish war machine everywhere, all the hopes which Choiseul had placed on the Spanish alliance vanished. Had I known, he wrote, what I now know, I should have been careful to cause to enter the war a power which by its feebleness can only ruin. The Treaty of Paris restored the status quo ante bellum, the rich and huge territory of Rio Grande do Sul would be retaken from the Spanish army during the undeclared war of 1763-1777. The reign of Joseph is noteworthy for the great Lisbon earthquake of 1 November 1755, the earthquake caused Joseph to develop a severe case of claustrophobia, and he was never again comfortable living within a walled building.
Consequently, he moved the court to an extensive complex of tents in the hills of Ajuda. The capital was rebuilt at great cost, and an equestrian statue of King Joseph still dominates the Praça do Comércio