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Joseph Black

Joseph Black was a Scottish physicist and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, carbon dioxide. He was Professor of Anatomy and Chemistry at the University of Glasgow for 10 years from 1756, Professor of Medicine and Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh from 1766, teaching and lecturing there for more than 30 years; the chemistry buildings at both the University of Edinburgh and the University of Glasgow are named after Black. Black was born in Bordeaux, the sixth of the 12 children of Margaret Gordon and John Black, his mother was from an Aberdeenshire family that had connections with the wine business and his father was from Belfast and worked as a factor in the wine trade. He was educated at home until the age of 12. In 1746 at the age of 18 he entered the University of Glasgow, studying there for four years before spending another four at the University of Edinburgh, furthering his medical studies. During his studies he wrote a doctorate thesis on the treatment of kidney stones with the salt magnesium carbonate.

Like most 18th-century experimentalists, Black's conceptualisation of chemistry was based on five'principles' of matter: Water, Earth and Metal. He added the principle of'Air' when his experiments confirmed the presence of carbon dioxide, which he called'fixed air'. Black's research was guided by questions relating to how the'principles' combined with each other in various different forms and mixtures, he used the term ` affinity' to describe the force. Throughout his career he used a variety of diagrams and formulas to teach his University of Edinburgh students how to manipulate'affinity' through different kinds of experimentation. In about 1750, while still a student, Black developed the analytical balance based on a light-weight beam balanced on a wedge-shaped fulcrum; each arm carried a pan on which standard weights was placed. It far exceeded the accuracy of any other balance of the time and became an important scientific instrument in most chemistry laboratories. In 1757, Black was appointed Regius Professor of the Practice of Medicine at the University of Glasgow.

In 1761 he deduced that the application of heat to ice at its melting point does not cause a rise in temperature of the ice/water mixture, but rather an increase in the amount of water in the mixture. Additionally, Black observed that the application of heat to boiling water does not result in a rise in temperature of a water/steam mixture, but rather an increase in the amount of steam. From these observations, he concluded that the heat applied must have combined with the ice particles and boiling water and become latent; the theory of latent heat marks the beginning of thermodynamics. Black's theory of latent heat was one of his more-important scientific contributions, one on which his scientific fame chiefly rests, he showed that different substances have different specific heats. The theory proved important not only in the development of abstract science but in the development of the steam engine. Black and James Watt became friends after meeting around 1757. Black provided significant financing and other support for Watt's early research in steam power.

Black's discovery of the latent heat of water would have been interesting to Watt, informing his attempts to improve the efficiency of the steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen and develop the science of thermodynamics. Black explored the properties of a gas produced in various reactions, he found that limestone could be heated or treated with acids to yield a gas he called "fixed air." He observed that the fixed air did not support either flame or animal life. Black found that when bubbled through an aqueous solution of lime, it would precipitate calcium carbonate, he used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. In 1766, treading in the footsteps of his friend and former teacher at the University of Glasgow, Black succeeded William Cullen as Professor of Medicine and Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh, his position at Glasgow University was filled by Alexander Stevenson. At this point he gave up research and devoted himself to teaching.

In this he was successful with audience attendance at his lectures increasing from year to year for more than thirty years. His lectures had a powerful effect in popularising chemistry and attendance at them came to be a fashionable amusement. Black was recognised as one of the most popular lecturers at the University, his chemistry course attracted an exceptionally high number of students, with many attending two or three times. In addition to introducing cutting-edge topics and meticulously selecting visually impressive experiments, Black employed a wide array of successful teaching tools that made chemistry accessible to his students, his students came from across the United Kingdom, its colonies and Europe, hundreds of them preserved his lectures in their notebooks and disseminated his ideas after they left university. He became one of the principal ornaments of the University, it could not be otherwise. His personal appearance and manners were those of a gentleman, peculiarly pleasing, his voice in lecturing was fine.

Orders of battle for Downfall

The units listed to participate in Operation Downfall—the planned Allied invasion of Japan— in August 1945 were: United States Sixth United States Army Yakushima and Koshikijima Islands 40th Infantry Division Tanegashima 158th Infantry Regiment Miyazaki — I Corps: 25th Infantry Division 33rd Infantry Division 41st Infantry Division Ariake — XI Corps: 1st Cavalry Division Americal Division 43rd Infantry Division 112th Cavalry Regiment KushikinoV Amphibious Corps: 2nd Marine Division 3rd Marine Division 5th Marine Division Sixth United States Army reserves 11th Airborne Division IX Corps: 77th Infantry Division 81st Infantry Division 98th Infantry Division. The American First Army's landings would have been opposed by the Japanese 52nd Army and the Eighth Army's landings by the Japanese 53rd Army. First General Army (Field Marshal Hajime Sugiyama Twelfth Area Army 36th Army - Urawa, Saitama 81st Division 93rd Division 201st Division 202nd Division 206th Division 214th Division 1st Armored Brigade 4th Armored Brigade 51st Army - Tsuchiura, Ibaraki 44th Division - Ogawa 151st Division - Mito 221st Division - Kashima 115th Independent Mixed Brigade - Shibasaki 116th Independent Mixed Brigade - Hokota 7th Independent Armored Brigade - Ogawa 52nd Army - Sakura, Chiba 3rd Imperial Guards Division - Naruto 147th Division - Mobara 152nd Division - Choshi 234th Division - Sōsa 3rd Independent Armored Brigade 8th Artillery Headquarters 53rd Army - Isehara, Kanagawa 84th Division - Odarawa 140th Division - Kamakura 316th Division - Isehara 117th Independent Mixed Brigade - Numazu 2nd Independent Armored Brigade - Tsudanuma 11th Artillery Headquarters - Hiratsuka Tokyo Bay Garrison - Choshi, Chiba 321st Division - Tokyo


Humanitas is a Latin noun meaning human nature and kindness. The Latin word humanitas corresponded to the Greek concepts of philanthrôpía and paideia which were amalgamated with a series of qualities that made up the traditional unwritten Roman code of conduct. Cicero used humanitas in describing the formation of an ideal speaker who he believed should be educated to possess a collection of virtues of character suitable both for an active life of public service and a decent and fulfilling private life. Insofar as humanitas corresponded to philanthrôpía and paideia, it was applicable to guiding the proper exercise of power over others. Hence Cicero's advice to his brother that "if fate had given you authority over Africans or Spaniards or Gauls and barbarous nations, you would still owe it to your humanitas to be concerned about their comforts, their needs, their safety." Echoing Cicero over a century Pliny the Younger defined humanitas as the capacity to win the affections of lesser folk without impinging on greater.

The concept was of great importance during the re-discovery of Classical Antiquity during the age of the Renaissance by the Italian umanisti, beginning with the illustrious Italian poet Petrarch, who revived Cicero's injunction to cultivate the humanities, understood during the Renaissance as grammar, poetry and moral philosophy. In 1333, in Liège, Petrarch had found and copied out in his own hand a manuscript of Cicero's speech, Pro Archia, which contained a famous passage in defense of poetry and litterae: Haec studia adolescentiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res ornant, adversis perfugium ac solacium praebent, delectant domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, rusticantur.. Petrarch liked this quotation and referred to it and where Cicero used the phrase "litterarum lumen", "the light of literature", Petrarch in the margin wrote lumen litterarum alongside and drew a sketch of a lamp or candle; the Liège manuscript is lost and so is Petrarch's copy, but Petrarch's copy "can be shown to be behind all but one of the manuscripts" and preserve Petrarch's marginal annotations.

Petrarch, in many respects a Medieval man, regretted that Cicero had not been a Christian and believed that he would have been one had he not died before the birth of Jesus. To Petrarch and the Renaissance umanisti who followed him, Cicero's humanitas was not seen as in conflict with Christianity or a Christian education. In this they followed the fifth century Church fathers such as Jerome and Augustine, who taught that Greek and Roman learning and literature were gifts of God and models of excellence, provided, of course, they were filtered and purified in order to serve Christianity. According to historian Peter Gay, the eighteenth-century French philosophes of the Enlightenment found Cicero's eclectic, Stoic-tinged paganism congenial:The ideal of humanitas was first brought to Rome by the philosophic circle around Scipio and further developed by Cicero. For Cicero, humanitas was a style of thought, not a formal doctrine, it asserted man’s importance as a cultivated being, in control of his moral universe.

The man who practiced humanitas was confident of his worth, courteous to others, decent in his social conduct, active in his political role. He was a man, who faced life with courageous skepticism: he knows that the consolations of popular religion are for more credulous beings than himself, that life is uncertain, that sturdy pessimism is superior to self-deceptive optimism. Man becomes man as he refines himself; the man who practiced humanitas cultivated his aesthetic sensibilities as he listened to his reason: "Cum musis,” wrote Cicero, “id est, cum humanitate et doctrina habere commercium". Virtue, Cicero insisted, is nothing but nature perfected and developed to its highest point, there is therefore a resemblance between man and God: "Est autem virtus nihil aliud quam in se perfecta et ad summum perducta natura. Cicero’s humanitas... reappeared in the first century in Seneca’s claim – made in the midst of a lament over Roman bestiality – that man is a sacred thing to man: “homo res sacra homini”.

In the beginning of his Meditations, the Emperor Marcus Aurelius elaborated a veritable catalog of qualities which, all together, made up the virtues which Cicero had called humanitas and which the philosophes hoped they possessed in good measure: modesty, self-control, beneficence, generosity, rationality and obedience to the dictates of nature. During the Aufklärung, the term "Humanität" was used to designate the intellectual and moral formation of "a better human being", it was used, for example, by theologian Jo

Solstice (album)

Solstice is an album by the American guitarist Ralph Towner, released on the ECM label in 1975. It features Towner with Eberhard Weber and Jon Christensen; the 1977 album, Solstice/Sound and Shadows, was released by Towner on ECM with the same quartet. Allmusic awarded the album with 4.5 stars and its review by Michael G. Nastos states: "Of the many excellent recordings he has offered, Solstice is Towner's crowning achievement as a leader fronting this definitive grouping of ECM stablemates who define the label's sound for the time frame, for all time". All compositions by Ralph Towner except. "Oceanus" – 11:04 "Visitation" – 2:36 "Drifting Petals" – 7:01 "Nimbus" – 6:31 "Winter Solstice" – 4:02 "Piscean Dance" – 4:15 "Red and Black" – 1:19 "Sand" – 4:10 Ralph Towner – 12-string and classical guitar, piano Jan Garbarektenor and soprano saxophone, flute Eberhard Weber – bass, cello Jon Christensen – drums, percussion The American hip hop group Atmosphere used a sample of Jon Christensen's drum introduction to "Piscean Dance" on a track called "Shoes", which features on their 2003 album Seven's Travels


Pyridoxamine is one form of vitamin B6. Chemically it is based on a pyridine ring structure, with hydroxyl, methyl and hydroxymethyl substituents, it differs from pyridoxine by the substituent at the 4-position. The phenol at position 3 and aminomethyl group at position 4 of its ring endow pyridoxamine with a variety of chemical properties, including the scavenging of free radical species and carbonyl species formed in sugar and lipid degradation and chelation of metal ions that catalyze Amadori reactions. Pyridoxamine can form weak complexes with a number of transition metal ions, with a preference for Cu2+ and Fe3+; the 3'-hydroxyl group of pyridoxamine allows for efficient hydroxyl radical scavenging. Pyridoxamine inhibits the Maillard reaction and can block the formation of advanced glycation endproducts, which are associated with medical complications of diabetes. Pyridoxamine is hypothesized to trap intermediates in the formation of Amadori products released from glycated proteins preventing the breakdown of glycated proteins by disrupting the catalysis of this process through disruptive interactions with the metal ions crucial to the redox reaction.

One research study found that pyridoxamine reacts with the carbonyl group in Amadori products, but inhibition of post-Amadori reactions is due in much greater part to the metal chelation effects of pyridoxamine. A variety of preclinical studies in animal models of diabetes indicated that pyridoxamine improved kidney histology comparable or superior to aminoguanidine; because of these results, pyridoxamine has been investigated for clinical utility in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Pyridoxamine inhibits the formation of advanced lipoxidation endproducts during lipid peroxidation reactions by reaction with dicarbonyl intermediates. In other preclinical research, pyridoxamine may be efficacious in treating diabetic neuropathy and retinopathy associated with diabetes and kidney stone disease. In one study, pyridoxamine was more effective at protecting from ionizing radiation-induced gastrointestinal epithelial apoptosis than amifostine due to pyridoxamine reactive oxygen species and reactive carbonyl species scavenging profile.

Pyridoxamine was marketed as a dietary supplement as the hydrochloride salt, pyridoxamine dihydrochloride. However, in the United States, the FDA ruled in January 2009 that pyridoxamine must be regulated as a pharmaceutical drug because it is the active ingredient in Pyridorin, a drug designed by Biostratum, Inc. to prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Pyridorin had success in early clinical trials, found to be effective in slowing the progression of diabetic neuropathy in a phase II trial on 224 patients. However, in 2005 Biostratum ran out of money and so was unable to begin a Phase III trial. Investors in Biostratum had realized that because Biostratum had no patent on pyridoxamine itself, that pyridoxamine was available for purchase as a dietary supplement, the company would be unable to charge enough money for the treatment for the investors to get a reasonable return on the investment they had made much less on the additional investment a Phase III trial would require. To solve this problem, Biostratum submitted a citizen petition to the FDA on July 29, 2005, seeking to disallow sales of pyridoxamine-containing supplements on the grounds that pyridoxamine, as the subject of an Investigational New Drug Application with the FDA, is a drug and not a dietary supplement.

This petition was opposed by the Council for Responsible Nutrition, a trade association of the dietary supplement industry. On January 12, 2009, the FDA ruled that products containing pyridoxamine are excluded from the definition of dietary supplements as defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994; the FDA stated that the status of Pyridorin as an investigational new drug, as a result of an application filed by BioStratum in July 1999 and effective on September 1, 1999, meant that "the marketing of pyridoxamine in a dietary supplement is equivalent to the marketing of an investigational new drug as a dietary supplement" because there was an "absence of independent, verifiable evidence that the substance was marketed as a food or a dietary supplement prior to its authorization for investigation as a new drug."In 2006, Biostratum licensed its rights in Pyridorin to another company, NephroGenex In 2008, NephroGenex restarted the clinical development of Pyridorin, which as of 2012 is still ongoing.

Pyridoxamine-oxaloacetate transaminase Pyridoxamine-pyruvate transaminase Pyridoxamine-phosphate transaminase List of investigational antipsychotics Clinical trials testing Pyridoxamine: Effect of Pyridorin in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy Effect of Pyridorin in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy Safety and Efficacy Study of Pyridorin in Patients With Nephropathy Due to Type 2 Diabetes

Grampound with Creed

Grampound with Creed is a civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The two major settlements in the parish are the ancient town of Grampound and the smaller village of Creed; the larger settlement, Grampound, is situated six miles west of St Austell at grid reference SW 935 483 and Creed is one mile south at SW 934 472. Grampound With Creed is bordered by St Stephen-in-Brannel parish to the north, St Ewe parish to the east and Cuby parish to the south. On the west, the parish is boundary; the population at the 2011 census was 682. In medieval times, Creed was taxed as part of Tybesta, a manor mentioned in the Domesday Book under the name TibesteuThe parish has been in the Registration District of St Austell since 1837 and used to be in the St Austell Union for poor law parish relief; the population of Grampound with Creed parish was 638 in the 2001 census. The ecclesiastical parish is in the Diocese of Truro; the parish church is dedicated to St Crida. Much of the church is medieval but the three-stage battlemented tower was added in 1733 and contains two medieval bells.

The other Anglican church in the parish is dedicated to St Nun. There were Wesleyan Methodist and Bible Christian chapels in Grampound. Grampound with Creed Parish Council