The University of Glasgow is a public research university in Glasgow, Scotland. Founded by papal bull in 1451, it is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities. Along with the universities of Edinburgh, St Andrews, the university was part of the Scottish Enlightenment during the 18th century. In common with universities of the pre-modern era, Glasgow educated students from wealthy backgrounds, however, it became a pioneer in British higher education in the 19th century by providing for the needs of students from the growing urban and commercial middle class. Glasgow University served all of these students by preparing them for professions: the law, civil service and the church, it trained smaller but growing numbers for careers in science and engineering. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £626.5 million of which £180.8 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £610.1 million. It is a member of Universitas 21, the Russell Group and the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities.
The university was located in the city's High Street. Additionally, a number of university buildings are located elsewhere, such as the Veterinary School in Bearsden, the Crichton Campus in Dumfries. Alumni or former staff of the university include James Wilson, philosopher Francis Hutcheson, engineer James Watt and economist Adam Smith, physicist Lord Kelvin, surgeon Joseph Lister, seven Nobel laureates, three British Prime Ministers; the University of Glasgow ranked 60th and 67th globally in the 2019 CWTS Leiden and 2020 QS World University Ranking and came nationally among the top 10 universities in the UK. The university is a member of the Russell Group, an association of leading British institutions in teaching and research. Due to the high educational standards, the strict entrance requirements in the "Universities and Colleges Admissions Service", as well as the reputation in the research world, the university receives numerous applications from students from all over the world; as the University of Glasgow belongs to the top 1% in the world, it is part of a small group of leading international universities.
According to the Research Excellence Framework 2014, 81% of the research achievements were rated as "internationally excellent" and achieved the 10th position on research volume in the United Kingdom. The University of Glasgow was founded in 1451 by a charter or papal bull from Pope Nicholas V, at the suggestion of King James II, giving Bishop William Turnbull, a graduate of the University of St Andrews, permission to add a university to the city's Cathedral, it is the second-oldest university in Scotland after St Andrews and the fourth-oldest in the English-speaking world. The universities of St Andrews and Aberdeen were ecclesiastical foundations, while Edinburgh was a civic foundation; as one of the ancient universities of the United Kingdom, Glasgow is one of only eight institutions to award undergraduate master's degrees in certain disciplines. The university has been without its original Bull since the mid-sixteenth century. In 1560, during the political unrest accompanying the Scottish Reformation, the chancellor, Archbishop James Beaton, a supporter of the Marian cause, fled to France.
He took with him, for safe-keeping, many of the archives and valuables of the Cathedral and the university, including the Mace and the Bull. Although the Mace was sent back in 1590, the archives were not. Principal Dr James Fall told the Parliamentary Commissioners of Visitation on 28 August 1690, that he had seen the Bull at the Scots College in Paris, together with the many charters granted to the university by the monarchs of Scotland from James II to Mary, Queen of Scots; the university enquired of these documents in 1738, but was informed by Thomas Innes and the superiors of the Scots College that the original records of the foundation of the university were not to be found. If they had not been lost by this time, they went astray during the French Revolution when the Scots College was under threat, its records and valuables were moved for safe-keeping out of the city of Paris. The Bull remains the authority. Teaching at the university began in the chapterhouse of Glasgow Cathedral, subsequently moving to nearby Rottenrow, in a building known as the "Auld Pedagogy".
The university was given 13 acres of land belonging to the Black Friars on High Street by Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563. By the late 17th century its building centred on two courtyards surrounded by walled gardens, with a clock tower, one of the notable features of Glasgow's skyline – reaching 140 feet in height – and a chapel adapted from the church of the former Dominican friary. Remnants of this Scottish Renaissance building parts of the main facade, were transferred to the Gilmorehill campus and renamed as the "Pearce Lodge", after Sir William Pearce, the shipbuilding magnate who funded its preservation; the Lion and Unicorn Staircase was transferred from the old college site and is now attached to the Main Building. John Anderson, while professor of natural philosophy at the university, with some opposition from his colleagues, pioneered vocational education for working men and women during the Industrial Revolution. To continue this work in his will, he founded Anderson's College, associated with the university before merging with other institutions to become the University of Strat
Serbian Venezuelan is a Venezuelan citizen of Serbian descent or Serbia-born person who resides in Venezuela. The Serbian population settled in the country was configured by political emigrants, that arrived at Venezuela after the Second World War, due to disagreements with the Yugoslav communist regime; the estimated population of serbs-Venezuelans range between 1,000 - 2,000. In 1955, it's founded the Serbian Orthodox Christian Community in Caracas they built the Serbian Orthodox Church in 1966, where the consecration was attended by King Peter II of Yugoslavia; the Serbian Social Club of Aragua state was founded in 1965 by a group of immigrants arrived in the country from Yugoslavia in order to preserve and promote the customs, religion and folklore of Serbia, with all the community based in the country without distinction of race or creed, sharing in the same space with the activities of the St. John the Baptist Church which belongs to the newly founded Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Buenos Aires and South America.
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The Pittsburgh Catholic is the weekly Catholic newspaper for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh, published for lay people and priests. It labels itself as the oldest Catholic newspaper in continuous publication; the newspaper was established in 1844 by Michael O'Connor. According to its website, the Catholic has a total market of 111,250 Catholics; the Catholic is available for free at most churches and Catholic outlets or centers in the Diocese of Pittsburgh, as churches purchase the newspaper in bulk for 21 cents per copy. Articles include news about events occurring throughout the diocese, articles on local diocesan schools, features on community and charity programs orchestrated by local Catholic organizations and commentary on contemporary media, question-and-answer forums by priests to explain church doctrine, editorials on Church issues; the former Bishop of Pittsburgh, Donald Wuerl, was seen as a conservative bishop. As a result, the Pittsburgh Catholic is a conservative publication as well.
However, because the newspaper is oriented towards the local region, it contains extensive commentary on national issues. According to the Pittsburgh Business Times Book of Lists, the Pittsburgh Catholic is the largest weekly publication in western Pennsylvania and the second-largest newspaper in western Pennsylvania; the Pittsburgh Catholic is a member of the Catholic Press Association. Its general manager, Robert P. Lockwood, was nominated as finalist for the association's annual St. Francis de Sales Award. Official Website of the Pittsburgh Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh Website