Joseph Chamberlain

Joseph Chamberlain was a British statesman, first a radical Liberal after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives. He split both major British parties in the course of his career. Chamberlain made his career in Birmingham, first as a manufacturer of screws and as a notable mayor of the city, he was a radical Liberal Party member and an opponent of the Elementary Education Act 1870 on the basis that it could result in subsidising Church of England schools with local ratepayers' money. As a self-made businessman, he had contempt for the aristocracy, he entered the House of Commons at 39 years of age late in life compared to politicians from more privileged backgrounds. Rising to power through his influence with the Liberal grassroots organisation, he served as President of the Board of Trade in Gladstone's Second Government. At the time, Chamberlain was notable for his attacks on the Conservative leader Lord Salisbury, in the 1885 general election he proposed the "Unauthorised Programme", not enacted, of benefits for newly enfranchised agricultural labourers, including the slogan promising "three acres and a cow".

Chamberlain resigned from Gladstone's Third Government in 1886 in opposition to Irish Home Rule. He helped to engineer a Liberal Party split and became a Liberal Unionist, a party which included a bloc of MPs based in and around Birmingham. From the 1895 general election the Liberal Unionists were in coalition with the Conservative Party, under Chamberlain's former opponent Lord Salisbury. In that government Chamberlain promoted the Workmen's Compensation Act 1897, he served as Secretary of State for the Colonies, promoting a variety of schemes to build up the Empire in Asia and the West Indies. He had major responsibility for causing the Second Boer War in South Africa and was the government minister most responsible for the war effort, he became a dominant figure in the Unionist Government's re-election at the "Khaki Election" in 1900. In 1903, he resigned from the Cabinet to campaign for tariff reform, he obtained the support of most Unionist MPs for this stance, but the Unionists suffered a landslide defeat at the 1906 general election.

Shortly after public celebrations of his 70th birthday in Birmingham, he was disabled by a stroke, ending his public career. Despite never becoming Prime Minister, he was one of the most important British politicians of his day, as well as a renowned orator and municipal reformer. Historian David Nicholls notes that his personality was not attractive: he was arrogant and ruthless and much hated, he never succeeded in his grand ambitions. However, he was a proficient grassroots organizer of democratic instincts, played the central role in winning the Second Boer War, he is most famous for setting the agenda of British colonial, foreign and municipal policies, for splitting both major political parties. Chamberlain was born in Camberwell to Caroline Harben, daughter of Henry Harben, Joseph, a successful shoe manufacturer, his younger brother was Richard Chamberlain also a Liberal politician. He was educated at University College School 1850–1852, excelling academically and gaining prizes in French and mathematics.

The elder Chamberlain was not able to provide advanced education for all his children, at the age of 16 Joseph was apprenticed to the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers and worked for the family business making quality leather shoes. At 18 he joined his uncle's screw-making business, Nettlefolds of Birmingham, in which his father had invested; the company became known as Nettlefold and Chamberlain when Chamberlain became a partner with Joseph Nettlefold. During the business's most prosperous period it produced two-thirds of all metal screws made in England, by the time of Chamberlain's retirement from business in 1874 it was exporting worldwide. Chamberlain married Harriet Kenrick, the daughter of Archibald Kenrick, in July 1861, their daughter Beatrice Chamberlain was born in May 1862. Harriet, who had had a premonition that she would die in childbirth, became ill two days after the birth of their son Austen in October 1863, died three days later. Chamberlain devoted himself to business, while bringing up Beatrice and Austen with the Kenrick parents-in-law.

In 1868 Chamberlain married Harriet's cousin Florence Kenrick, daughter of Timothy Kenrick. Chamberlain and Florence had four children: the future Prime Minister Neville in 1869, Ida in 1870, Hilda in 1871 and Ethel in 1873. On 13 February 1875 Florence gave birth to their fifth child, but she and the child died within a day; the teaching of these four children was taken on by their elder half sister Beatrice, destined to make her mark as an educationalist. In 1888 Chamberlain married for the third time in Washington, D. C, his bride was Mary Crowninshield Endicott, daughter of the US Secretary of War, William Crowninshield Endicott. They had no children, but she eased his acceptance into upper-class society in the second half of his career. Chamberlain became involved in Liberal politics, influenced by the strong radical and liberal traditions among Birmingham shoemakers and the long tradition of social action in Chamberlain's Unitarian church. There was pressure to redistribute parliamentary seats to cities and to enfranchise a greater proportion of urban men.

In 1866, Earl Russell's Liberal administration submitted a Reform Bill to create 400,000 new voters, but the Bill was opposed by the "Adullamite" Liberals for disrupting the social order, criti

Pig-nosed turtle

The pig-nosed turtle known as the pitted-shelled turtle or Fly River turtle, is a species of turtle native to northern Australia and southern New Guinea. C. insculpta is the only living member of the genus Carettochelys, the subfamily Carettochelyinae, the family Carettochelyidae, though several extinct carettochelyid species have been described from around the world. Some literature claims two subspecies; the pig-nosed turtle is unlike any other species of freshwater turtle. The feet are flippers; the nose looks like that of a pig, having the nostrils at the end of a fleshy snout, hence the common name. The carapace is grey or olive, with a leathery texture, while the plastron is cream-coloured. Males can be distinguished from females by their narrower tails. Pig-nosed turtles can grow with a weight of over 20 kg. Unlike the soft-shelled turtles of the family Trionychidae, pig-nosed turtles retain a domed bony carapace beneath their leathery skin, rather than a flat plate, they retain a solid plastron, connected to the carapace by a strong bony bridge, rather than the soft margin of the trionychids.

Pig-nosed turtles are not aquatic. Little is known about their general behaviour, their known extreme aggression in captivity suggests the species is markedly more territorial than most other turtles and tortoises. They seem to display a degree of social structure during the cooler dry season around the hydrothermal vents that line some river systems they inhabit. C. insculpta is omnivorous, eating a wide variety of plant and animal matter, including the fruit and leaves of figs, as well as crustaceans and insects. Females of C. insculpta reach maturity at 18 or more years, males around 16 years. They lay their eggs late in the dry season on sandy river banks; when the offspring are developed, they will stay inside the eggs in hibernation until conditions are suitable for emergence. Hatching may be triggered when the eggs have been flooded with water or by a sudden drop in air pressure signaling an approaching storm. Using environmental triggers, along with vibrations created by other hatching turtles in the same clutch, gives a better chance for survival.

Using a universal trigger rather than waiting for incubation to finish means they all hatch at the same time. This provides safety in numbers. C. insculpta is native to freshwater streams and rivers of the Northern Territory of Australia, as well as to the island of New Guinea, where it is believed to occur in all the larger, some smaller, southward-flowing rivers. C. insculpta experienced a population decline of more than 50% in the thirty years between 1981 and 2011. Although the turtles are protected in Indonesia under Law No. 5/1990 on Natural Resources and Ecosystems Conservation, smuggling occurs. Some 11,000 turtles captured from smugglers were released into their habitats in the Wania River, Papua Province, Indonesia, on 30 December 2010. In March 2009, more than 10,000 turtles retrieved from smugglers were released into the Otakwa River in Lorentz National Park. 687 pig-nosed turtles were seized at an Indonesian airport in March 2013. They were destined for Hong Kong. Pig-nosed turtles have become available through the exotic pet trade, with a few instances of captive breeding.

While juveniles are small and grow their high cost and large potential size makes them suitable only for experienced aquatic turtle keepers. They tend to be prone to stress, they get sick which can cause problems with their feeding, but they are known to eat commercially available processed turtle pellets or trout chow, as well as various fruits and vegetables. Breeding is an option to the hobbyist, as adults are aggressive and will attack each other in all but the largest enclosures. Wild populations of this turtle are declining because of illegal capture for the pet trade, it is estimated that between 2003 and 2013, more than 80,000 individuals were confiscated in 30 seizures in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Boulenger, George Albert. Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, Crocodiles in the British Museum. New Edition. London: Trustees of the British Museum.. X + 311 pp. + Plates I-III.. Goin, Coleman J.. Introduction to Herpetology, Third Edition. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Xi + 378 pp. ISBN 0-7167-0020-4.. Species Carettochelys insculpta at The Reptile DatabaseIUCN Red list of Threatened Species: Carettochelys insculptaGondwanan Turtle Information Australian Dept of the Environment website on Pig-nosed Turtle Accessed 10 July 2007 The Pig-nosed Turtle, Carettochelys insculpta at California Turtle & Tortoise Club


14ymedio is the first independent digital media outlet in Cuba. It was founded on May 21, 2014, by the Cuban blogger and activist Yoani Sánchez and the Cuban journalist Reinaldo Escobar; the project started with a group of 12 reporters, whose objective was to produce a digital media outlet with different types of news. The newspaper contains news about Cuba and the world, in topics related to national politics, international politics, culture, society and technology, sports, it publishes editorials, opinion articles, interviews. The name ‘14ymedio’ characterizes the project in several ways. First, the number'14' is because the newspaper was born "on the fourteenth floor, in the fourteenth year of the new millennium"; the letter'Y' has been a constant characteristic in other projects of Yoani Sánchez, its founder, who founded “Generación Y”. Given the political situation in Cuba, where the government controls all media and blocks access to websites that are hostile to its administration, the newspaper operates without access to the internet.

The team uploads the information by using Wifi access from hotels. Most Cubans do not have access to the publication, since only 2.6 million people out of the 11.2 million total population has internet access, many of them can only see the intranet, owned and controlled by the government. 14ymedio starts as personal project of its founder: Yoani Sánchez, the founder'Generación Y', a blog that now has about a thousand published texts and more than a million comments. Its main objective is "to inform, to open space for debate, to respect those who think differently, to harmonize free speech with civic responsibility". For its initial funding, the newspaper received $150.000 in private investment. The first edition of 14ymedio was focused on a wide variety of topics, including politics and society, it offered a critique to the Cuban healthcare system and questioned the status of baseball as the national sport. Its cover included the story "Red Dawn: Havana is killing out there", by Víctor Ariel González, in which violence in the capital of the island is discussed.

Three hours after 14ymedio published its first edition on the internet, the site was hacked. Those who tried to access the site were redirected to a webpage titled “Yoani$landia”, which mentioned that Cubans are tired about the fact that Yoani Sánchez tries to portray herself as the'Mother Teresa of Calcutta' of the Cuban dissidents. Internet technicians on tested it was ETECSA, the communications monopoly of the Cuban government, that hacked the page. From places outside Cuba, users can access the site without any restriction. Recognizing that restricting access to the site was an initiative of the Cuban government, Yoani Sánchez published in her Twitter account: “Wrong strategy from the Cuban government. There is nothing more attractive than the forbidden"; the actions of the Cuban government against 14ymedio have provoked various reactions in the international arena. The Inter American Press Association blamed the Cuban government for restricting the access to the site and promoting censorship.

They claimed that the government's actions show that Cuban rulers still believe that "freedom of expression is a grant and not a human right". Roberta Jacobson, the Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, condemned the blockade on her Twitter account too. Despite these actions against the newspaper, 14ymedio has not stopped publishing daily since the day of its release; the site showed consistency in its publications and growth in terms of the number of people it reached. By May 2014, 14ymedio had reached 11,500 on Twitter. 14ymedio has been internationally recognized by a variety of leading international newspapers and media outlets. Al-Jazeera highlighted that 14ymedio is "the first independent media outlet in Cuba in 50 years to test the Castro regime's tolerance for dissent". BBC considered that 14ymedio will "contribute with information so that Cubans can decide with more maturity their own destinies", while Vice News described the newspaper as "a new player in town in the homogenous media landscape of the communist island, testing the limits of the government’s strict controls on the digital sphere”.

14ymedio publishes more than a dozen of articles per day. It publishes both original content and international news that come from other agencies, such as: International news, through agreements and partnerships with other news agencies National news and pictures Debates, which include a wide variety of topics ranging from domestic and international politics to social and cultural events Photogalleries, which show the reality of Cuba through pictures Interviews with national and international figures such as Joe Biden, Mario Vargas Llosa, Lech Walesa, etc. Cultural events, through a comprehensive cultural agenda with events that are happening every month in Havana and other provinces Market prices, where the prices of basic goods in various markets of Cuba are published14ymedio reports in real time on national and international events that may be relevant to those living in Cuba, it seeks to inform those living outside Cuba about the situation in the island. When Cuba and the United States announced the normalization of their diplomatic relations in December 2014, 14ymedio was the only independent newspaper present in Cuba, reporting on the news and reactions in real time.

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