The Seneca are a group of indigenous Iroquoian-speaking people native to North America who lived south of Lake Ontario. They were the nation located farthest to the west within the Six Nations or Iroquois League in New York before the American Revolution. In the 21st century, more than 10,000 Seneca live in the United States, which has three federally recognized Seneca tribes. Two are in New York: the Seneca Nation of New York, with two reservations in western New York near Buffalo; the Seneca-Cayuga Nation is located in Oklahoma, where their ancestors were relocated from Ohio during Indian Removal. 1,000 Seneca live in Canada, near Brantford, Ontario, at the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation. They are descendants of Seneca who resettled there after the American Revolution, as they had been allies of the British and forced to cede much of their lands. A legend of the Seneca tribe states that the tribe originated in a village called Nundawao, near the south end of Canandaigua Lake, at South Hill.
Close to South Hill stands the 865 foot -high Bare Hill, known to the Seneca as Genundowa. Bare Hill is part of the Bare Hill Unique Area, which began to be acquired by the state in 1989. Bare Hill had been the site of a pre-Seneca indigenous fort; the first written reference to this fort was made in 1825 by David Cusick in his history of the Seneca Indians. The traces of an ancient fort, covering about an acre, surrounded by a ditch, by a formidable wall, are still to be seen on top of Bare Hill, they indicate defenses raised by Indian hands, or more belong to the labors of a race that preceded the Indian occupation. The wall is now about tumbled down, the stones seem somewhat scattered, the ground is overgrown with brush. In the early 1920s, the material that made up the Bare Hill fort was used by the Town of Middlesex highway department for road fill; the Seneca traditionally lived in what is now New York state between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. The dating of an oral tradition mentioning a solar eclipse yields 1142 AD as the year for the Seneca joining the Iroquois.
Some recent archaeological evidence indicates their territory extended to the Allegheny River in present-day northwestern Pennsylvania after the Iroquois destroyed both the Wenrohronon and Erie nations in the 17th century, who were native to the area. The Seneca were by far the most populous of the Haudenosaunee nations, numbering about four thousand by the seventeenth century. Seneca villages were located as far east as current-day Schuyler County, south into current Tioga and Chemung counties and east into Tompkins and Cayuga counties, west into the Genesee River valley; the villages were the headquarters of the Seneca. While the Seneca maintained substantial permanent settlements and raised agricultural crops in the vicinity of their villages, they hunted through extensive areas, they prosecuted far-reaching military campaigns. The villages, where hunting and military campaigns were planned and executed, indicate the Seneca had hegemony in these areas. Major Seneca villages were protected with wooden palisades.
Ganondagan, with 150 longhouses, was the largest Seneca village of the 17th century, while Chenussio, with 130 longhouses, was a major village of the 18th century. The Seneca had two branches; each branch distinct, they were individually incorporated and recognized by the Iroquois Confederacy Council. The western Seneca lived predominately in and around the Genesee River moving west and southwest along the Erie and Niagara rivers south along the Allegheny River into Pennsylvania; the eastern Seneca lived predominantly south of Seneca Lake. They moved east into Pennsylvania and the western Catskill area; the west and north were under constant attack from their powerful Iroquoian brethren, the Huron To the South, the Iroquoian-speaking tribes of the Susquehannock threatened constant warfare. The Algonkian tribes of the Mohican blocked access to the Hudson River in the northeast. In the southeast, the Algonkian tribes of the Lenape people threatened war from eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and the Lower Hudson.
The Seneca used the Genesee and Allegheny rivers, as well as the Great Indian War and Trading Path, to travel from southern Lake Ontario into Pennsylvania and Ohio. The eastern Seneca had territory just north of the intersection of the Chemung, Susquehanna and Delaware rivers, which converged in Tioga; the rivers provided passage deep into all parts of eastern and western Pennsylvania, as well as east and northeast into the Delaware Water Gap and the western Catskills. The men of both branches of the Seneca wore the same head gear. Like the other Haudenosaunee, they wore hats with dried cornhusks on top; the Seneca had one feather sticking up straight. Traditionally, the Seneca Nation's economy was based on hunting and gathering activities and the cultivation of varieties corn and squash; these vegetables were the staple of the Haudenosaunee diet and were called "the three sisters". Seneca women grew and harvested varieties of the three sisters, as well as gathering and processing medicinal plants, berries and fruit.
Seneca women held sole ownership of the homes. The women tended to any domesticated animals such as dogs and turkeys; the Iroquois had a matrilineal kinship system. Women we
The Beaver Wars known as the Iroquois Wars' or the French and Iroquois Wars, encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in eastern North America. During the 17th century, the Beaver Wars were battles for economic welfare throughout the St. Lawrence River valley in Canada and the lower Great Lakes region; the wars were between the Iroquois trying to take control of the fur trade from the Hurons, the northern Algonquians, their French allies. From medieval times, Europeans had obtained furs from Scandinavia. American pelts began coming on the market during the 16th century—decades before the French and Dutch established permanent settlements and trading posts on the continent—after Basque fishermen chasing cod off Newfoundland's Grand Banks bartered with local Indians for beaver robes to help fend off the numbing Atlantic chill. By virtue of their location, these tribes wielded considerable influence in European-Indian relations from the early seventeenth century onwards.
The Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between European markets and the tribes of the lower Great Lakes region. They were a confederacy of five nations—Mohawk, Onondaga and Seneca, inhabiting the lands in upstate New York along the shores of Lake Ontario east to Lake Champlain and Lake George on the Hudson river, the lower-estuary of the St Lawrence river; the Iroquois Confederation, led by the dominant Mohawk, mobilized against the Algonquian-speaking tribes and Iroquoian speaking Huron and related tribes of the Great Lakes region. The Iroquois were armed by their Dutch and much English trading partners; the wars were brutal and are considered one of the bloodiest series of conflicts in the history of North America. As the Iroquois destroyed several large tribal confederacies—including the Mahican, Neutral, Erie and northern Algonquins, they became dominant in the region and enlarged their territory, realigning the tribal geography of North America.
The Iroquois gained control of the New England frontier and Ohio River valley lands as hunting ground, from about 1670 onward. Both Algonquian and Iroquoian societies were disrupted by these wars; the conflict subsided with the loss by the Iroquois of their Dutch allies in the New Netherland colony after England took it over in 1664, with Fort Amsterdam and the town of New Amsterdam, renaming it New York, with French objective of gaining the Iroquois as an ally against English encroachment. After the Iroquois became trading partners with the English, their alliance was a crucial component of the English western and northern expansion leading to the French and Indian War; the English/British used the Iroquois conquests as a claim to the old Northwest Territory, of the United States, northwest of the Ohio River and around the Great Lakes. The expeditions of French explorer Jacques Cartier in the 1540s made the first written records of the Native Americans in North America. French explorers and fishermen had traded in the region near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River estuary a decade before for valuable furs.
Cartier wrote of encounters with a people classified as the St. Lawrence Iroquoians known as the Stadaconan or Laurentian people, who occupied several fortified villages, including Stadacona and Hochelaga. Cartier recorded an ongoing war between the Stadaconans and another tribe known as the Toudaman, who had destroyed one of their forts the previous year, resulting in 200 deaths. Wars and politics in Europe distracted French efforts at colonization in the St. Lawrence Valley until the beginning of the 17th century, when they founded Quebec in 1608; when the French returned to the area, they found the sites of both Stadacona and Hochelaga abandoned destroyed by an unknown enemy. Based on analysis of political and economic conditions at the time, some anthropologists and historians have suggested that the Mohawk Nation of the Iroquois Confederacy destroyed and drove out the St. Lawrence Iroquoians; when the French returned, they found no inhabitants in this part of the upper river valley. The Iroquois and the Iroquoian-speaking Huron used it as hunting ground.
The causes remain unclear.. This was in response to the formation of the League of the Iroquois; when the French returned in 1601, the St. Lawrence Valley had been the site of generations of blood feud-style warfare, as characterized the relations of the Iroquois with all neighboring peoples. In 1603, when Samuel de Champlain visited Tadoussac near the St. Lawrence, the Montagnais and Huron immediately recruited him and his small company of French adventurers to assist in attacking their Iroquois enemies upriver. Before 1603, Champlain had formed an offensive alliance against the Iroquois, he decided. He had a commercial rationale: the northern Natives provided the French with valuable furs and the Iroquois, based in present-day New York, interfered with that trade; the first deliberate battle with the Iroquois in 1609 was fought at Champlain's initiative. Narrative makes it plain Champlain deliberately went along with a war party down Lake Champlain, further, this battle created 150 years of mistrust that poisoned any chances that French-Iroquois alliances would be durable and long lived.
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
Battle of Jumonville Glen
The Battle of Jumonville Glen known as the Jumonville affair, was the opening battle of the French and Indian War, fought on May 28, 1754, near present-day Hopwood and Uniontown in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. A company of colonial militia from Virginia under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Washington, a small number of Mingo warriors led by Tanacharison, ambushed a force of 35 Canadiens under the command of Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville; the British colonial force had been sent to protect a fort under construction under the auspices of the Ohio Company at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A larger French Canadien force had driven off the small construction crew, sent Jumonville to warn Washington about encroaching on French-claimed territory. Washington was alerted to Jumonville's presence by Tanacharison, they joined forces to surround the Canadien camp; some of the Canadiens were killed in the ambush, most of the others were captured. Jumonville was among the slain, although the exact circumstances of his death are a subject of historical controversy and debate.
Since Britain and France were not at war, the event had international repercussions, was a contributing factor in the start of the Seven Years' War in 1756. After the action, Washington retreated to Fort Necessity, where Canadien forces from Fort Duquesne compelled his surrender; the terms of Washington's surrender included a statement admitting. This document and others were used by the French and Canadiens to level accusations that Washington had ordered Jumonville's slaying. Throughout the 1740s and early 1750s, British and Canadien traders had come into contact in the Ohio Country, including the upper watershed of the Ohio River in what is now western Pennsylvania. Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from this area, in 1753 began construction of a series of fortifications in the area; the French action drew the attention of not just the British, but the Indian tribes of the area. Despite good Franco-Indian relations, British traders had become successful in convincing the Indians to trade with them in preference to the Canadiens, the planned large-scale advance was not well received by all.
In particular, Tanacharison, a Mingo chief known as the "Half King", became decidedly anti-French as a consequence. In a meeting with Paul Marin de la Malgue, commander of the French and Canadien construction force, the latter lost his temper, shouted at the Indian chief, "I tell you, down the river I will go. If the river is blocked up, I have the forces to burst it open and tread under my feet all that oppose me. I despise all the stupid things you have said." He threw down some wampum that Tanacharison had offered as a good will gesture. Marin died not long after, command of the operations was turned over to Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. Virginia Royal Governor Robert Dinwiddie sent militia Major George Washington to the Ohio Country as an emissary in December 1753, to tell the French to leave. Saint-Pierre politely informed Washington that he was there pursuant to orders, that Washington's letter should have been addressed to his commanding officer in Canada, that he had no intention of leaving.
Washington returned to Williamsburg and informed Governor Dinwiddie that the French refused to leave. Dinwiddie commissioned Washington a lieutenant colonel, ordered him to begin raising a militia regiment to hold the Forks of the Ohio, a site Washington had identified as a fine location for a fortress; the governor issued a captain's commission to Ohio Company employee William Trent, with instructions to raise a small force and begin construction of the fort. Dinwiddie issued these instructions on his own authority, without asking for funding from the Virginia House of Burgesses until after the fact. Trent's company arrived on site in February 1754, began construction of a storehouse and stockade with the assistance of Tanacharison and the Mingos; that same month a force of 800 Canadien militia and French troupes de la marine departed Montreal for the Ohio River valley under the command of the Canadien Claude-Pierre Pécaudy de Contrecœur, who took over command from Saint-Pierre. When Contrecœur learned of Trent's activity, he led a force of about 500 men to drive them off.
On April 16, Contrecœur's force arrived at the forks. The French began construction of the fort they called Fort Duquesne. In March 1754, Governor Dinwiddie ordered Washington back to the frontier with instructions to "act on the, but in Case any Attempts are made to obstruct the Works or interrupt our by any Persons whatsoever, You are to restrain all such Offenders, & in Case of resistance to make Prisoners of or kill & destroy them". Historian Fred Anderson describes Dinwiddie's instructions, which were issued without the knowledge or direction of the British government in London, as "an invitation to start a war". Washington was paid volunteers as he could along the way. By the time he left for the frontier on April 2, he had recruited fewer than 160 men. Along their march through the forests of the frontier, Washington was joined by more men at Winchester. At this point he learned from Captain Trent of the French advance. Trent brought a messa
The Meskwaki are a Native American people known by Western society as the Fox tribe. They have been linked to the Sauk people of the same language family. In the Meskwaki language, the Meskwaki call themselves Meshkwahkihaki, which means "the Red-Earths", related to their creation story, their homelands were in the Great Lakes region. The tribe coalesced in the St. Lawrence River Valley in Canada. Under French colonial pressures, it migrated to the southern side of the Great Lakes to territory that much was organized by European Americans as the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa; the Meskwaki suffered damaging wars with French and their Native American allies in the early 18th century, with one in 1730 decimating the tribe. In the 19th century, Euro-American colonization and settlement proceeded by the United States, they forced the Meskwaki/Fox west into the tall grass prairie in the American Midwest. In 1851 the Iowa state legislature passed an unusual act to allow the Fox to buy land and stay in the state.
Other Sac and Fox were removed to Indian territory in what became Kansas and Nebraska. In the 21st century, two federally recognized tribes of "Sac and Fox" have reservations, one has a settlement; the name is derived from the Meskwaki creation myth, in which their culture hero, created the first humans out of red clay. They called themselves Meshkwahkihaki in Meskwaki, meaning "the Red-Earths"; the name Fox was derived from a French mistake during the colonial era: hearing a group of Indians identify as "Fox", the French applied what was a clan name to the entire tribe who spoke the same language, calling them "les Renards." The English and Anglo-Americans adopted the French name, using its translation in English as "Fox." This name was used by the United States government from the 19th century. The Meskwaki used Triodanis perfoliata as an emetic in tribal ceremonies to make one "sick all day long." They traditionally smoked it at purification and other spiritual rituals. They smudge Symphyotrichum novae-angliae and use it to revive unconscious people, They used Agastache scrophulariifolia, an infusion of the root being used as a diuretic, used a compound of the plant heads medicinally.
They eat the fruits of Viburnum prunifolium raw, cook them into a jam. They make the flowers of Solidago rigida into a lotion and use them on bee stings and for swollen faces. Meskwaki are of Algonquian origin from the prehistoric Woodland period culture area; the Meskwaki language is a dialect of the language spoken by the Sauk and Kickapoo, within the Algonquian languages family. This broad group includes many tribes around the Great Lakes; the Meskwaki and Sauk peoples are two distinct tribal groups. Linguistic and cultural connections between the two tribes have made them associated in history. Under US government recognition treaties, officials treat the Sac and Meskwaki as a single political unit, despite their distinct identities; the Meskwaki lived along the Saint Lawrence River in present-day Ontario, northeast of Lake Ontario. The tribe may have numbered as many as 10,000, but years of war with the Huron, whom French colonial agents supplied with arms, exposure to new European infectious diseases reduced their numbers.
In response to these pressures, the Meskwaki migrated west, first to present-day eastern Michigan in the area between Saginaw Bay and Detroit west of Lake Huron. They moved further west into what is now Wisconsin; the Meskwaki gained control of the Fox River system in central Wisconsin. This river became vital for the colonial New France fur trade through the interior of North America between northern French Canada, via the Mississippi River, the French ports on the Gulf of Mexico; as part of the Fox–Wisconsin Waterway, the Fox River allowed travel from Lake Michigan and the other Great Lakes via Green Bay to the Mississippi River system. At first European contact in 1698, the French estimated the number of Meskwaki as about 6,500. By 1712, the number of Meskwaki had declined to 3,500; the Meskwaki fought against the French, in what are called the Fox Wars, for more than three decades to preserve their homelands. The Meskwaki resistance to French encroachment was effective; the King of France signed a decree commanding the complete extermination of the Meskwaki, the only edict of its kind in French history.
The First Fox War with the French lasted from 1712-1714. This first Fox War was purely economic in nature, as the French wanted rights to use the river system to gain access to the Mississippi. After the Second Fox War of 1728, the Meskwaki were reduced to some 1500 people, they found shelter with the Sac. In the Second Fox War, the French increased their pressure on the tribe to gain access to the Fox and Wolf rivers. Nine hundred Fox: 300 warriors and the remainder women and children, tried to break out in Illinois to reach the English and Iroquois to the east, but a combined French and hundreds of allied Native American force outnumbered them. On September 9, 1730, most of the Fox warriors were killed; the Sauk and Meskwaki allied in 1735 in defense against their allied Indian tribes. Descendants spread through southern Wisconsin, along the present-day Illinois-Iowa border. In 1829 the US government estimated. Both tribes relocated southward from Wisconsin into Iowa and Missouri. There are accounts of Meskwaki as far sou
Canada (New France)
Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier. The word "Canada" at this point referred to the territory along the Saint Lawrence River known as the Canada river, from Grosse Island in the east to a point between Quebec and Three Rivers, although this territory had expanded by 1600. French explorations continued "unto the Countreys of Canada and Saguenay" before any permanent settlements were established. Though a permanent trading post and habitation was established at Tadoussac in 1600, at the confluence of the Saguenay and Saint Lawrence rivers, it was under a trade monopoly and thus not constituted as an official French colonial settlement; as a result, the first official settlement was not established within Canada until the founding of Quebec by Samuel de Champlain in 1608. The other four colonies within New France were Hudson's Bay to the north and Newfoundland to the east, Louisiana far to the south.
Canada, the most developed colony of New France, was divided into three districts, Québec, Trois-Rivières, Montréal, each with its own government. The governor of the District of Quebec was the governor-general of all New France. Although the terms "Canada" and "New France" are sometimes used interchangeably, "New France represents a much broader portion of North American territory than the Great Lakes-St Lawrence colony of Canada"; the Seven Years' War saw Great Britain defeat the French and their allies and take possession of Canada. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, which formally ended the conflict, France renounced its claim to Canada in exchange for other colonies and the colony became the British colony of Quebec. A 1740 survey of the population of the St. Lawrence River valley counted about 44,000 colonists, the majority born in Canada. Of those, 18,000 lived under the Government of Quebec, 4,000 under the Government of Trois-Rivières and 22,000 under the Government of Montreal; the population was rural.
Île Royale had 4,000 inhabitants, Île Saint-Jean had 500 inhabitants. Acadia had 8,000 inhabitants. Dependent on Canada were the Pays d'en Haut, a vast territory north and west of Montreal, covering the whole of the Great Lakes and stretching as far into the North American continent as the French had explored. Before 1717, when it ceded territory to the new colony of Louisiana, it stretched as far south as the Illinois Country. North of the Great Lakes, a mission, Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, was established in 1639. Following the destruction of the Huron homeland in 1649 by the Iroquois, the French destroyed the mission themselves and left the area. In what are today Ontario and the eastern prairies, various trading posts and forts were built such as Fort Kaministiquia, Fort Frontenac, Fort Saint Pierre, Fort Saint Charles and Fort Rouillé; the mission and trading post at Sault Ste. Marie would be split by the Canada–US border; the French settlements in the Pays d'en Haut among and south of the Great Lakes were Fort Niagara, Fort Crevecoeur, Fort Saint Antoine, Fort St. Joseph, Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, Fort Michilimackinac, Fort Miami, Fort La Baye, Fort Beauharnois.
Today, the term Les Pays-d'en-Haut refers to a regional county municipality in the Laurentides region of Quebec, north of Montreal, while the former Pays d'en Haut was part of the District of Montreal. In its civil law and the cultural aspects of the majority of its population, the successor to the French colony of Canada is the Province of Quebec; the term Canada may refer to today's Canadian federation created in 1867, or the historical Province of Canada, a British colony comprising southern Ontario and southern Quebec. For Francophone Quebecers, preserving their distinctiveness from English Canada has been important since the rise of contemporary Quebec nationalism dating from the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Francophone Quebecers will therefore use the term New France when referring to Canada, the term Canadien, at one time used to refer to the French-speaking populations of colonial Canada, was replaced by the term Canadien-Français, more by Québécois. Descendants of the original French-speaking "Canadien" population of Canada now living outside of Quebec are now referred to by reference to their current province of residence, such as Franco-Ontarian.
Francophone populations in the Maritime provinces apart from northwestern New Brunswick are, more to be descended from the settlers of the French colony of Acadia, therefore still call themselves Acadians. New France Name of Canada Former colonies and territories in Canada Illinois Country Monarchs of Canadian territories Territorial evolution of Canada – after 1867 Quebec History of Quebec Timeline of Quebec history
Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons. An assassination may be prompted by political or military motives, it is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military, insurgent or secret police group's command to carry out the homicide. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times; the word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Muslims. Founded by Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Persia from the 8th to the 14th centuries, expanded by capturing forts in Syria; the group killed members of the Abbasid, Seljuq and Christian Crusader elite for political and religious reasons. Although it is believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.
The earliest known use of the verb "to assassinate" in printed English was by Matthew Sutcliffe in A Briefe Replie to a Certaine Odious and Slanderous Libel, Lately Published by a Seditious Jesuite, a pamphlet printed in 1600, five years before it was used in Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, it dates back at least as far as recorded history. In the Old Testament, King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra, his student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great's generals and Philip. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later; the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC.
Whilst many assassinations were performed by individuals or small groups, there were specialized units who used a collective group of people to perform more than one assassination. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir, dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the Pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantines against the Seljuk Turks; this account is, contentious among historians, it being most asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination.
In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, the French kings Henry III and Henry IV were all ended by assassins. In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. In Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister has been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11, 1812. In Japan, a group of assassins called the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu killed a number of people, including Ii Naosuke, the head of administration for the Tokugawa shogunate, during the Boshin War. Most of the assassinations in Japan were committed with bladed weaponry, a trait, carried on into modern history. A video-record exists of the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma.
In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents' lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated on September 10, 1935. Robert F. Kennedy, a Senator and a presidential candidate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968 in the United States. In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, carried out by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian national and a member of the Serbian nationalist insurgents, is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich died after an attack by British-trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid, knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the United States to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral