SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Joseph Csaky

Joseph Csaky was a Hungarian avant-garde artist and graphic artist, best known for his early participation as a sculptor in the Cubist movement. Joseph Csaky was one of the first sculptors in Paris to apply the principles of pictorial Cubism to his art. A pioneer of modern sculpture, Csaky is among the most important sculptors of the early 20th century, he was an active member of the Section d'Or group between 1911 and 1914, associated with Crystal Cubism, Purism, De Stijl, Abstract art, Art Deco throughout the 1920s and 1930s. Csaky fought alongside French soldiers during World War I and in 1922 became a naturalized French citizen, he was a founding member of l'Union des Artistes modernes in 1929. During World War II, Csaky joined forces with the French underground movement in Valençay. In the late 1920s, he collaborated with some other artists in designing furniture and other decorative pieces, including elements of the Studio House of the fashion designer Jacques Doucet. After 1928, Csaky moved away from Cubism into a more figurative or representational style for nearly thirty years.

He exhibited internationally across Europe, but some of his pioneering artistic innovation was forgotten. His work today is held by French and Hungarian institutions, as well as galleries and private collections both in France and abroad. József Csáky was born in Szeged, Hungary part of the dual monarchy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A provincial southern city, Szeged is now the third-largest in the country. Csaky moved with his family to Budapest at an early age, where he frequented galleries. In 1905 Csaky was accepted at the Academy of Applied Arts in Budapest, where he studied under the direction of the sculptor Mátrai Lajos, ifj. for one and a half years. His interest centered around figure drawing, dissatisfied with the local traditional art training and fellow students left the school to study in the workshop of the photographer-painter László Kimnach, in Buda. In 1907, for six and a half months, he worked in the Zsolnay Factory in Pécs, making ceramic ashtrays and vases, he worked as a metal founder in Budapest, at one point with a taxidermist.

Attracted by its reputation for lights and great artists, Csaky made the decision to move to Paris France, did so with only forty francs in his pocket. He traveled by foot, walking fifty or sixty kilometers per day during the summer of 1908. In Paris a'new world' opened up for him, he made a living by doing odd jobs: working as a peddler, stone cutter, posing as a model for students at a local art school, making 20 francs a week. He posed for individual artists in their own studios, making more money and leaving plenty of time free to pursue his own work. By autumn of 1908 he shared a studio space at Cité Falguière with Joseph Brummer, a Hungarian friend who had opened the Brummer Gallery with his brothers and was studying art. Within three weeks of Csaky's arrival in Paris, Brummer showed the newcomer a sculpture he was working on: an exact copy of an African sculpture from the Congo. Brummer told Csaky that another artist in Paris, a Spaniard named Pablo Picasso, was painting in the spirit of'Negro' sculptures.

Shortly after, Csaky found a studio at the artists' collective La Ruche in Montparnasse. The building had been constructed by Gustave Eiffel, was adapted as artists' studios by the sculptor Alfred Boucher. Among other émigré artists at La Ruche were Alexander Archipenko, Wladimir Baranoff-Rossine, Sonia Delaunay. In the early years of the 20th century, other artists who lived there for a time included Guillaume Apollinaire, Ossip Zadkine, Moise Kisling, Marc Chagall, Max Pechstein, Fernand Léger, Jacques Lipchitz, Max Jacob, Blaise Cendrars, Chaim Soutine, Robert Delaunay, Amedeo Modigliani, Constantin Brâncuși, Diego Rivera, attracted to Paris from across Europe and Mexico. With his discovery of the work of Auguste Rodin laying the groundwork for an oeuvre characterized by a mastery of sculptural techniques, Csaky's work in stone carving would evolve. Csaky's work of this time is distinguished by a Cubist understanding of volumetric and spatial relationships, with the integration of armature and open space, the rhythmic use of geometry.

Planes are faceted into abstract architectonic forms. His sculptural interpretation of Cubist painting is marked by elements employed in non-Western sculpture. Soon Csaky and his new Parisian girlfriend Jeanne moved into a studio together on rue Didot, near the Pasteur Institute and Montparnasse Cemetery, they married. "Thinking back on my life now," Csaky would write, "I am amazed by the speed of the events. A few months before I had been a poor and helpless fellow who had found himself in a strange country all alone, not speaking the language, and all of a sudden, from one minute to the next, I became a man with an orderly life, a place of his own and a wife, an honest, good working woman." This relationship did not last long. The two retained a friendship. Csaky rented a small attic studio on rue Dalou. In 1910 Csaky won the Ferenc József Art Scholarship in Szeged, giving him enough money to attend l'Académie de La Palette, a private school in Paris where the painters Jean Metzinger, André Dunoyer de Segonzac and Henri Le Fauconnier taught.

He was able to devote himself full-time to art. "Csaky, after Archipenko, was the first sculptor to join the cubists, with whom he exhibited from 1911 on. The

Squirrel and G-Man Twenty Four Hour Party People Plastic Face Carnt Smile (White Out)

Squirrel and G-Man Twenty Four Hour Party People Plastic Face Carnt Smile was the first album by British band Happy Mondays. It was produced by John Cale; the album features many characteristics that would be further developed on the band's second LP Bummed, such as Shaun Ryder's nonsensical lyrics combined with funk rhythms. The title and title track were adapted for the 2002 film 24 Hour Party People, which told the story of Factory Records and the Manchester music community, including the Happy Mondays themselves. All tracks are written by Happy Mondays. "Kuff Dam" – 3:06 "Tart Tart" – 4:25 "'Enery" – 2:22 "Russell" – 4:53 "Olive Oil" – 2:36 "Weekend S" – 2:23 "Little Matchstick Owen" – 3:42 "Oasis" – 3:45 "24 Hour Party People" – 4:40 "Cob 20" – 4:20The album was released without the track "24 Hour Party People". In its place was a track entitled "Desmond", which borrowed from "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da" by The Beatles. A few hundred copies of the album were released with the "Desmond" track, but the usage was not cleared and Michael Jackson, then-owner of The Beatles' back catalogue, forced the removal of the track from future pressings, with "24 Hour Party People" taking its place.

"Little Matchstick Owen's Rap" is listed on the compact disc and cassette editions but does not appear on the album itself. This missing track is only available; the lyrics to "Russell" are taken from the blurb on the back of the Russell Grant book Your Sun Signs, which Shaun Ryder was reading during recording sessions. Paul Daviskeyboards Mark "Bez" Berrypercussion Paul Ryderbass Shaun Ryder – vocals Gary Whelandrums Mark "Cow" Day – guitar John Cale – production

Kaisariani Monastery

The Kaisariani Monastery is an Eastern Orthodox monastery built on the north side of Mount Hymettus, near Athens, Greece. The monastery was established in Byzantine times in ca. 1100, the date of construction of the surviving church. The site has a far longer history as a cult center: in Antiquity, it was a site dedicated to Aphrodite, before being taken over by Christians in the 5th/6th centuries. Remains of a large early Christian basilica lie to the west, over which a smaller church was built in the 10th/11th centuries; the monastery is mentioned by Pope Innocent III after the Fourth Crusade, but seems to have remained in Greek Orthodox hands, unlike other churches and monasteries that were taken over by Latin clergy. A further, now ruined single-aisled church, was built to the southwest during the Frankish period. When, in 1458, the Turks occupied Attica, Sultan Mehmed II went to the monastery and, according to Jacob Spon, a French doctor from Lyon, where he was given the key to the city.

In 1678, Patriarch Dionysius IV of Constantinople defined the monastery as Stauropegic, to say and independent of the metropolitan bishop: its only obligation was to perform funeral rites. On, in 1792, Patriarch Neophytos VII of Constantinople retracted the monastery's privileges. From 1824 onwards, the monastery was "submitted to abject treatment. What had been instrumental in enlightening mankind and saving souls, was now being used as a palace for cows and horses". During its apogee, it had hosted many significant spiritual figures of the time, such as Theophanis in 1566 and Ioannis Doriano in 1675, the Abbot Izekel Stephanaki, knowledgeable in Greek literature and history, more Platonic philosophy. From 1722 until 1728, Theophanis Kavallaris taught courses in grammar and sciences there. Kaisariani Monastery's library was renowned and most owned documents from antiquity's libraries. According to the demogerontes of the time, "the manuscripts were sold to the English as membranes whereas the rest of the documents were used in the metropolis` kitchens."

During the Turkish siege of the Acropolis, the manuscripts were transported to the Acropolis of Athens and were used to ignite fuses. The fertile surrounding lands belonged to the monastery, as did various other holdings, such as St. John the Baptist, next to the Kaisariani road or those in Anavyssos; the monks' income was substantiated by the produce from their olive groves, grape vines and beehives. In a letter, dated 1209, Michael Hionati reports that "the produce from the beehives was given to the Hegumen of Kaisariani Monastery. However, four years he complains about not having received any income from the monastery: the Abbot gave, as an excuse that the beehives had been destroyed; the monks were renowned for concocting medicine from various herbs. A high wall surrounds the buildings, the catholicon, the refectory, the bathhouse and the cells, so that today, they seem quite well protected. In its original design, there were two entrances, the main entrance on the eastern side and a larger one on the other side.

The monastery was built on the ruins of a lay building. The drawing of Kaisariani Monastery, done in 1745 by a Russian pilgrim named Barski, depicts the following buildings: the catholicon on the eastern side of the wall around the abbey, the bathhouse on the south side and, bordering it, the monks' cells with the Benizelou tower and the refectory in the western wing. Beside the vegetable garden on the southwestern side of the monastery, you can see the monks' cemetery and a newer church; the katholikon is with half-hexagonal apses. The narthex and frescoes of the katholikon, date to Ottoman times, as do most of the other buildings of the monastery, with the exception of the olive oil press a bath, which appears to be contemporary with the katholikon; the buildings are all disposed around a courtyard. The catholicon was on the eastern side, the refectory and the kitchen, on the western side and the bathhouse, transformed into the monastery's olive oil extractor during the Turkish rule, the monks' cells in front of which there was an open arcade.

The catholicon is dedicated to the Presentation of the Theotokos in the Temple and had the basic cross shape, faithful to Greek tradition, according to M. Sotiriou, or the semicircular quadripartite according to Anastassios Orlandos; the entrance of the temple was located on its western side without being separated by a narthex. There was another entrance on the northern side: with a Roman architrave; the narthex, built before 1602, is a vaulted ceiling with a cupola and lunette in the middle. The oldest fresco is located on the external southern wall of the catholicon that now includes St. Anthony's chapel, it is of the Theotokos, turned to the left in prayer. Its sweeping brushstrokes suggest a 14th-century rural technique; the church and its narthex are decorated with frescoes, dating from the Ottoman period. The wealthy Benizelos family subsidized the frescoes, painted in 1682 by Ioannis Ypatos, from the Peloponnese, according to the inscription on the western wall; the cupola represents Christ Pantokrator.

On the bi-partite rosette, are depicted: the Preparation of the Throne, the Virgin, John the Forerunner, the angels and a composite fresco of the Four Evangelists are represented. On the chapel's lunette, the Virgin Platytera enthroned, with angels seated on either side. Although the frescoes do not distinguish themselves with an