Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
Charles Emmanuel I, known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was nicknamed Testa d'feu for military aggression, he was born in the Castle of Rivoli in Piedmont, the only child of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry. He became duke on 30 August 1580. Well-educated, intelligent, he spoke Italian and Spanish, as well as Latin, he proved an able warrior although hunchbacked. Being ambitious and confident, he pursued a policy of expansion for his duchy, seeking to expand it into a kingdom. In the autumn of 1588, taking advantage of the civil war weakening France during the reign of his first cousin Henry III, he occupied the Marquisate of Saluzzo, under French protection; the new king, Henry IV, demanded the restitution of that land, but Charles Emmanuel refused, war ensued. The broader conflict involving France and Spain ended with the Peace of Vervins, which left the current but separate question of Saluzzo unsolved. After the Duke started talks with Spain, Henry threatened to return to war until, with the Treaty of Lyon, Saluzzo went to Savoy in exchange for Bresse and other territories over the Alps.
By terms of the treaty, the eradication of Protestants was to be carried on in the duchy. In 1602 Charles Emmanuel attacked the city of Geneva. On 11 December that year he led his troops to the city during the night and they surrounded the city walls by two in the morning; the Savoyard cuirassiers were ordered to dismount and climb the city walls in full armour as a shock tactic. However, the alarm was raised by a night watchman and Geneva's militia rose to meet the invaders; the attempted raid was a disastrous failure, 54 Savoyards were killed, many more were captured. Charles Emmanuel's army retreated in a panic and the Savoyard prisoners were executed; the heavy helmets worn by Charles Emmanuel's troops, with visors made in a stylized imitation of a human face, were known as "Savoyard" helmets after this notorious incident. A number of these suits of armour were kept as trophies; the Geneva militia's successful defence of the city's walls is still celebrated as an act of heroism during the annual festival of L'Escalade.
With the Treaty of Bruzolo, Charles Emmanuel allied with France against Spain, but the assassination of Henry IV changed the situation, as the treaty was not recognized by Marie de' Medici, who assumed regency for Henry's son Louis XIII, a minor. Charles Emmanuel obtained the help of French troops to free Alba from the Spaniards, as the new king resumed his father's alliance with Savoy, his sister Christine Marie was married to Charles Emmanuel's son, Victor Amadeus in 1619. In the First Genoese-Savoyard War of 1625, Charles Emmanuel tried with the help of France to obtain access to the Mediterranean Sea at the expense of Genoa. After Spanish intervention, the status-quo was restored in the Treaty of Monçon. However, when the French occupied Casale Monferrato during the War of the Mantuan Succession, Charles Emmanuel allied with Spain; when Richelieu invaded Piedmont and conquered Susa, the duke changed sides again and returned to an alliance with France. However, when Philip IV of Spain sent two invasion forces from Genoa and Como, Charles Emmanuel declared himself neutral, in 1630 Richelieu ordered a French army to march into Savoy to force the duke to comply with the pacts.
The French troops, soon backed by another army, occupied Avigliana. The Savoy army under Victor Amadeus was defeated in Lower Valsusa. Charles Emmanuel was one of the most wanted candidates for the crown of a restored Serbian kingdom, hypothetically presumed after a Christian crusade against the Ottoman Empire during planning for the Great Conspiracy of the late 16th and early 17th centuries under the auspices of Serbian Patriarch Jovan, Herzegovinian Duke Grdan and other chiefs of the Serb clans. At the 1608 Council of monastery Morača, during a gathering of representatives of the Serb clans and the Serbian Church, Charles was elected King of Serbia and invited to convert to Eastern Orthodoxy and to vow to protect Orthodox Christianity; the conspirators, bearing in mind the failures of the 1590 decade, did not want to expose themselves in any action before direct support from the West was forthcoming. Thus no broad uprising of the Balkan Christian peoples against the rule of the Ottoman Turks was sparked, as Charles Emmanuel lacked the financial resources to take the crown and restore the Serbian statehood extinguished in the 15th century.
The duke died of a stroke at Savigliano in late July 1630. He was succeeded by his son Victor Amadeus. In 1584 he married his first cousin-once-removed, Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain, daughter of Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth of Valois, who bore him ten children: Filippo Emanuele, Prince of Piedmont. Vittorio Amedeo, had issue. Emanuele Filiberto, Spanish Viceroy of Sicily. Margherita, married Francesco IV Gonzaga of Mantua. Isabella, married Alfonso III d'Este, Hereditary Prince of Modena. Maurizio, a cardinal. Maria Apollonia, a nun in Rome. Francesca Catherina, a nun in Biella. Tommaso Francesco, Prince of Carignano married Marie de Bourbon, had issue. In Riva di Chieri on 28 November 1629, he secretly married his long-time and official mistress, Marguerite de Rossillon, Marchesa di Riva di Chieri (bap. 24 December 1599 – 10 November
Maria Anna of Spain
Infanta Maria Anna of Spain was a Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia by marriage to Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor. She acted as regent on several occasions during the absences of her spouse. Daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria, prior to her Imperial marriage she was considered a possible wife for Charles, Prince of Wales. In the imperial court in Vienna she continued to be influenced by her native Spanish culture and to promote the strengthening of relations between the Imperial and Spanish branches of the House of Habsburg. Infanta Maria Anna of Spain was born in the Palace of El Escorial, near Madrid, on 18 August 1606 as the fourth child and third daughter of King Philip III of Spain and his wife Margaret of Austria, Archduchess of the Inner Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg. Of her seven siblings, only four survived infancy: Anna, Philip IV of Spain and Ferdinand. Maria Anna's parents had a close kinship: her father was her mother's first cousin once-removed.
On her father's side she was the granddaughter of King Philip II of Spain, his fourth wife and niece Archduchess Anne of Austria, on her mother's side she was the granddaughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria and his wife Princess Maria Anna of Bavaria. From early childhood, Maria Anna has played an important role in the matrimonial projects of her father. In adolescence she was betrothed to Archduke John-Charles, eldest son and heir of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife Maria Anna of Bavaria. In 1622, King James I of England received an offer from the Spanish King Philip IV to strengthen the relations of their countries through a dynastic marriage between Charles, Prince of Wales, Infanta Maria Anna. London and Madrid began active negotiations; the possible marriage between the Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, was known in history under the name "Spanish Match", caused an internal political crisis in both England and Scotland. In 1623 the Prince of Wales, accompanied by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, visited Madrid to meet his intended bride.
However, Maria Anna did not wish to marry a Charles would not convert to Catholicism. At the end, the wedding never took place not only for political reasons but because of the reluctance of the new Spanish King to conclude a dynastic marriage with the House of Stuart. Charles married Henrietta Maria of France. At the end of 1626 Maria Anna was betrothed to the younger brother of her first fiancé, new heir of Emperor Ferdinand II; the formal engagement was preceded by a series of negotiations which were conducted in 1625. That same year, Prince Ferdinand was crowned King of Hungary, in 1627 King of Bohemia. In the negotiations were included all the life aspects of the Infanta at the court of her future spouse. Despite the desire of the groom that Maria Anna's confessor would be the Jesuit Ambrosio Penalosa, the appointment went to Capuchin Diego Quiroga. In the marriage contract signed by both parties in 1628, it was noted that Maria Anna could retain her rights of inheritance over the Spanish throne, while her older sister Infanta Anna, married to King Louis XIII of France in 1615, was forced to renounce to her rights.
Maria Anna had left Madrid for Vienna in December 1629. The travel took more than a year. En route by sea, in Genoa complications arose due to an epidemic of the plague that erupted in the Italian Peninsula. For this reason, the cortege was unable to stop in Bologna, where Cardinal Antonio Barberini, was waiting for the Infanta to give her the Golden Rose; the cortege moved to Naples, where Maria Anna received the award. Leaving the Kingdom of Naples, the Infanta crossed the Papal States, having made a pilgrimage to the Basilica della Santa Casa. On this section of her journey Maria Anna was accompanied by Roman aristocracy, led by another nephew of Pope Urban VIII, Taddeo Barberini, Prince of Palestrina. On 26 January 1631 she arrived in Trieste, where she met Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, her future brother-in-law, who escort the Infanta to the Vienna court; that day, Maria Anna was married to King Ferdinand of Hungria-Bohemia per procura with Archduke Leopold Wilhelm serving as the proxy.
Before the official wedding, King Ferdinand, not trusting the previous portraits that he had seen of the Infanta, decided to secretly watch his bride. The Royal oberhofmeister asked for an audience with Maria Anna. Struck by the beauty of the Infanta, King Ferdinand revealed his identity and began a conversation with Maria Anna in Spanish; the love and respect that the future emperor felt for his wife lasted through all their marriage. He had illegitimate children. In Vienna on 20 February 1631 Maria Anna was formally married with King Ferdinand of Hungary-Bohemia, with festivities lasting a month; the marriage was described as friendly. Maria Anna was described as happy-tempered and intelligent, she able to ease the feelings of the melancholic Ferdinand. Maria Anna arrived at the Imperial court in Vienna with the Spanish fashion, theatre and music; as the wife of the heir, she maintained good relations with all the members of her husband's fa
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
William V, Duke of Bavaria
William V, called the Pious, was Duke of Bavaria from 1579 to 1597. William V was born in the son of Albert V and Archduchess Anna of Austria, he showed keen attachment to the Jesuit Counter Reformation tenets. His title'the Pious' was given to him because he devoted his daily routine to masses, prayer and devotional reading, he took part in public devotions and pilgrimages. William V's residence as crown prince was the ancient fortified Wittelsbach seat Trausnitz Castle in Landshut, its upgrading from a Gothic fortification into a renaissance complex of representational proportions including the construction of an arcaded inner court were achieved in the decade between 1568 and 1578. Like his Wittelsbach father and grandfather, William V was a strong supporter of the counter-reformation, he secured the archbishopric of Cologne for his brother Ernest with his campaign in 1583. The Spanish army, under the command of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma expelled the Calvinist contender for the Electorate, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, Ernst secured sole possession of both the Electorate and the Archdiocese of Cologne.
This dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly 200 years. Two of William V's sons followed ecclesiastical careers: Philipp Wilhelm of Bavaria became the Bishop of Regensburg and a Cardinal, Ferdinand of Bavaria succeeded his uncle as Archbishop of Cologne. In 1591, Philipp Wilhelm expelled Salzburg from the Berchtesgaden Provostry, the future possession of his son Ferdinand. During William V's reign, non-Catholics were forced to leave Bavaria, the so-called Geistlicher Rat, an ecclesiastical council, was formed to advise William V on theological affairs, independent of the traditional privy council or the treasury, which administered secular affairs; the Geistlicher Rat supervised and disciplined the duchy’s Catholic clergy through regular visitations. William V is responsible for numerous executions due to Witch-hunt in his duchy; the Jesuit St. Michael's Church and college of the Jesuits were built in Munich between 1583 and 1597 as spiritual centers for the counter-reformation.
William V's spending on Church-related projects, including funding missionaries outside Bavaria — as far away as Asia and the Americas—put tremendous strain on the Bavarian treasury. The Italian confidence man Marco Bragadino, promising to make copious amounts of gold to erase the Dukes's debts was called upon by William V in 1590, executed after he had failed. William V abdicated on 15 October 1597 in favour of his son, Maximilian I and retired into a monastery where he spent the remainder of his life in contemplation and prayer, he was buried at St. Michael's Church, Munich; as crown prince in Landshut, William V patronised the arts. His court architect Friedrich Sustris was in charge of the decoration and remodelling of Trausnitz Castle in Landshut; when he ascended to rule, Sustris undertook the expansion of the Munich Residenz, the construction of the adjoining college, the palace Wilhelminische Veste in Munich, St. Michael's Church. In 1589, William V built the Hofbräu Brewery; the Old Schleissheim Palace was founded by William V in 1598 as a renaissance country house and hermitage located close to Dachau Palace.
The sculptors Hans Krumpper and Hubert Gerhard along with painters Peter Candid and Hans von Aachen were engaged at his court. Married Renata of Lorraine in Munich on 22 February 1568, they had 10 children: Christoph. Christine. Maximilian I, future Duke and Elector of Bavaria Maria Anna of Bavaria, 1574–1616, married Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1600 Philipp Wilhelm, Bishop of Regensburg from 1595, Cardinal from 1597 Ferdinand and prince-elector of Cologne Eleonore Magdalene. Karl. Albert VI, in 1612 married Leuchtenberg Magdalene of Bavaria, her tomb is in Hofkirche Neuburg a.d. Donau), in 1613 married Wolfgang Wilhelm, Pfalzgraf von Neuburg Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910 edition genealogy
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand III was Holy Roman Emperor from 15 February 1637 until his death, as well as King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria. Ferdinand was born in Graz, the eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg and his first wife, Maria Anna of Bavaria, was baptised as Ferdinand Ernst. Educated by the Jesuits, he became Archduke of Austria in 1621, King of Hungary in 1625, King of Bohemia in 1627. In 1627 Ferdinand enhanced his authority and set an important legal and military precedent by issuing a Revised Land Ordinance that deprived the Bohemian estates of their right to raise soldiers, reserving this power for the monarch. Following the death of Albrecht von Wallenstein in 1634, he was made titular head of the Imperial Army in the Thirty Years' War; that year he joined with his cousin, the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand, nominally responsible for the capture of Donauwörth and Regensburg, for the defeat of the Swedes at the Battle of Nördlingen. Leader of the peace party at court, he helped negotiate the Peace of Prague with the Protestant states Saxony in 1635.
Having been elected King of the Romans in 1636, he succeeded his father as Holy Roman Emperor in 1637. He hoped to make peace soon with France and Sweden, but the war dragged on ending in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, negotiated by his envoy Maximilian von und zu Trauttmansdorff, a diplomat, made a count in 1623 by his father Ferdinand II. During the last period of the war, in 1644 Ferdinand III gave all rulers of German states the right to conduct their own foreign policy – the emperor hoped to gain more allies in the negotiations with France and Sweden; this edict, contributed to the gradual erosion of the imperial authority in the Holy Roman Empire. After 1648 the emperor was engaged in carrying out the terms of the treaty and ridding Germany of the foreign soldiery. In 1656 he sent an army into Italy to assist Spain in her struggle with France, he had just concluded an alliance with Poland to check the aggressions of Charles X of Sweden when he died on 2 April 1657. On 20 February 1631, Ferdinand III married Maria Anna of Spain.
She was the youngest daughter of Philip III of Margaret of Austria. They were first cousins, they were parents to six children: Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans Maria Anna "Mariana", Archduchess of Austria. Married her maternal uncle Philip IV of Spain. Philip August, Archduke of Austria Maximilian Thomas, Archduke of Austria Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Maria, Archduchess of Austria On 2 July 1648 in Linz, Ferdinand III married his second wife, Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria, she was a daughter of Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, Claudia de' Medici. They were first cousins as male-line grandchildren of Charles II, Archduke of Austria, Maria Anna of Bavaria, they had a single son: Archduke of Austria. He was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights from 1662 to his death. On 30 April 1651, Ferdinand III married Eleonora Gonzaga, she was a daughter of Duke of Rethel. They were parents to four children: Theresia Maria Josefa, Archduchess of Austria Eleonora Maria of Austria, who married first Michael Korybut Wiśniowiecki, King of Poland, Charles Léopold, Duke of Lorraine.
Maria Anna Josepha of Austria, who married Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine. Ferdinand Josef Alois, Archduke of Austria Ferdinand III was a well-known patron of music and a composer, he studied music under Giovanni Valentini, who bequeathed his musical works to him, had close ties with Johann Jakob Froberger, one of the most important keyboard composers of the 17th century. Froberger lamented the emperor's death and dedicated to him one of his most celebrated works, Lamentation faite sur la mort très douloureuse de Sa Majesté Impériale, Ferdinand le troisième; some of Ferdinand's own compositions survive in manuscripts: masses, motets and other sacred music, as well as a few secular pieces. His Drama musicum was praised by Athanasius Kircher, the extant works, although influenced by Valentini, show a composer with an individual style and a solid technique. Recordings of Ferdinand's compositions include: Jesu Redemptor Omnium. Deus Tuorum. Humanae Salutis. With Schmelzer: Lamento Sopra La Morte de Ferdinand III.
Joseph I: Regina Coeli. Leopold I: Sonata Piena. Wiener Akademie, dir. Martin Haselböck, CPO 1997. Ferdinand III: Hymnus "Jesu Corona Virginum". On Musik für Gamben-Consort. Klaus Mertens, Hamburger Ratsmusik, dir. Simone Eckert CPO 2010 Ferdinand III, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Hungary, Dalmatia, Slavonia, Serbia, Lodomeria and Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Styria, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Higher and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol and Goritia, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, the Higher and Lower Lusace, Lord of the Marquisate of Slavonia, of Port Nao
Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon. She was a member of the powerful House of Medici. Following the assassination of her husband in 1610, which occurred the day after her coronation, she acted as regent for her son, King Louis XIII of France, until 1617, when he came of age, she was noted for her ceaseless political intrigues at the French court and extensive artistic patronage. She was born as Maria at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family sometimes referred to as the'cadet' branch, she did descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. She was a Habsburg through her mother, a direct descendant of Joanna of Castile and Philip I of Castile. Marie was one of seven children.
A portrait of Marie as a young girl shows her with a high forehead. Her wavy hair was light brown in colour, she had honey-brown eyes and fair skin; the painter was from the school of Santi di Tito. She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois; the wedding ceremony was held in Florence, was celebrated by four thousand guests with lavish entertainment, including examples of the newly invented musical genre of opera, such as Jacopo Peri's Euridice. Henry did not attend the ceremony, the two were therefore married by proxy. Marie brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns, her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year. Her husband was 47 at the marriage and had a long succession of mistresses. Dynastic considerations required him to take a second wife, his first spouse Margaret of Valois never having produced children by Henry or by her lovers. Henry chose Marie de' Medici because Henry "owed the bride's father, Francesco de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who had helped support his war effort, a whopping 1,174,000 écus and this was the only means Henry could find to pay back the debt...."The marriage was successful in producing children, but it was not a happy one.
The queen feuded with Henry's mistresses in language. She quarreled with her husband's leading mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac d'Entragues, whom he had promised he would marry following the death of his former "official mistress", Gabrielle d'Estrées; when he failed to do so, instead married Marie, the result was constant bickering and political intrigues behind the scenes. Catherine referred to Maria as "the fat banker's daughter". Although the king could have banished his mistress, supporting his queen, he never did so. She, in turn, showed great sympathy and support to her husband's banished ex-wife Marguerite de Valois, prompting Henry to allow her back into the realm. Marie was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris, she banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court. During her husband's lifetime Marie showed little sign of political acumen, her abilities scarcely improved after she assumed the regency.
Stubborn and of limited intellect, she was influenced by her maid Leonora "Galigai" Dori. Dori conspired with her unscrupulous Italian husband, Concino Concini, created Marquis d'Ancre and a Marshal of France though he had never fought a battle; the Concinis had Henry IV's able minister, the Duke of Sully and Italian representatives of the Roman Catholic Church hoped to force the suppression of Protestantism in France by means of their influence. Half-Habsburg herself, Marie abandoned the traditional anti-Habsburg French foreign policy, she lent support to Habsburg Spain by arranging the marriage of her daughter Elisabeth to the future Philip IV of Spain. Marie overturned the Treaty of Bruzolo, an alliance signed between Henry's representatives and Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. Under the regent's lax and capricious rule, the princes of the blood and the great nobles of the kingdom revolted; the queen, too weak to assert her authority, consented to buy them off on 15 May 1614. The opposition to the regency was led by Henri de Bourbon, Duke of Enghien, who pressured Marie into convoking the Estates General in 1614 and 1615.
In 1616 Marie's rule was strengthened by the addition to her councils of Armand Jean du Plessis, who had come to prominence at the meetings of the Estates General. However, her son Louis XIII several years into his legal majority, asserted his authority the next year; the king overturned the pro-Habsburg, pro-Spanish foreign policy pursued by his mother, ordered the assassination of Concini, exiled the queen to the Château de Blois and appointed Richelieu to his bishopric. After two years of virtual imprisonment "in the wilderness", as she put it, Marie escaped from Blois in the night of 21/22 February 1619 and became the figurehead of a new aristocratic revolt headed by Louis's brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans, whose forces Louis dispersed. Through the mediation of Richelieu the king was reconciled with his mother, allowed to hold a small court at Angers, she resumed her place in the royal council