Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Auxerre is the capital of the Yonne department and the fourth-largest city in Burgundy. Auxerre's population today is about 39,000. Residents of Auxerre are referred to as Auxerrois. Auxerre is a commercial and industrial centre, with industries including food production and batteries, it is noted for its production of Burgundy wine, including world-famous Chablis. In 1995 Auxerre was named "Town of Art and History". Auxerre was a flourishing Gallo-Roman centre called Autissiodorum, through which passed one of the main roads of the area, the Via Agrippa which crossed the Yonne here. In the third century it became a provincial capital of the Roman Empire. In the 5th century it received a Cathedral. In the late 11th-early 12th century the existing communities were included inside a new line of walls built by the feudal counts of Auxerre. Bourgeois activities accompanied the traditional land and wine cultivations starting from the twelfth century, Auxerre developed into a commune with a Town Hall of its own.
The Burgundian city, which became part of France under King Louis XI, suffered during the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of Religion. In 1567 it was captured by the Huguenots, many of the Catholic edifices were damaged; the medieval ramparts were demolished in the 18th century. In the 19th century numerous heavy infrastructures were built, including a railway station, a psychiatric hospital and the courts, new quarters were developed on the right bank of the Yonne. Up until the early 20th century, Auxerre was one of the most prosperous cities in the departement, but the local authorities of that period refused the railway, subsequently set in the village of Migennes, signed the economic decline of the town. Cathedral of St. Étienne. In Gothic style, it is renowned for its three doorways with remarkable bas-reliefs; the stained glass windows in the choir and the apsidal chapel are among the finest in France. The 11th century crypt houses the remains of the former Romanesque cathedral. Abbey of Saint-Germain, existing from the ninth century.
The crypt has some of the most ancient mural paintings in France, houses the tomb of the bishops of Auxerre. Interesting are the chapter room, the cellar and the cloister; the Clock tower, located in the Old Town The church of St. Pierre en Vallée, established over a 6th-century abbey. In the style of late Gothic architecture, it has a tower similar to that of the cathedral. Portions of the decorations and inner chapels were financed by local winegrowers. Church of St. Eusèbe, founded in the 7th century; the nave was rebuilt in the 13th century. William of Auxerre, early High Scholastic theologian from Auxerre Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, born in Auxerre, experimental physicist, politician Paul Bert, born in Auxerre and politician Théodore Frédéric Gaillardet, born in Auxerre, publisher of French-language newspaper Courrier des Etats-Unis in New York City, mayor of Plessis-Bouchard, France Eugène Hatin and bibliographer Saint Helladius, bishop of Auxerre Paul Monceaux, born in Auxerre, historian Benoît Mourlon, footballer Jean Paul Rappeneau, born in Auxerre, film director.
Guy Roux, coach of AJ Auxerre for more than 40 years, holding the French record of 894 games in Ligue 1 Gougère: Baked choux pastry made of dough mixed with cheese. Kir: A traditional aperitive mixed drink from Burgundy – Bourgogne Aligoté and blackcurrant liquor. Boeuf bourguignon: a typical main dish made of beef and vegetables. Truffe bourguignonne: Truffles from Burgundy. Chablis wine: One of the best white wines in the country, made of Chardonnay in the Chablis AOC Saint-Bris AOC: The one and only white wine in Burgundy made of Sauvignon grapes Sauvignon blanc and Sauvignon gris Irancy: Perhaps the best red wine from the surrounding area - light and flavourful, made of Pinot noir Bourgogne côte d'Auxerre: Belongs to the Burgundy AOC, it is a light and fruity wine made of Chardonnay for the white wine and Pinot noir for the red. Crémant de Bourgogne: Sparkling wine following the tradition of Champagne, Crémant de Bourgogne has a strong production in and around Auxerre. Bourgogne Aligoté: Dry wine.
Aligoté is the second most popular grape variety grown in Burgundy after Chardonnay. The whole region of Burgundy produces over 200 million bottles per year. Auxerre is twinned with: County of Auxerre Bishopric of Auxerre Cathédrale Saint-Étienne d'Auxerre Lady of Auxerre Saint Germanus of Auxerre Remigius of Auxerre William of Auxerre Communes of the Yonne department AJ Auxerre, the local football club INSEE Goyau, Georges. "Sens". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Auxerre Town Hall Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Auxerre". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Joseph-Louis Lagrange was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer. He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, both classical and celestial mechanics. In 1766, on the recommendation of Leonhard Euler and d'Alembert, Lagrange succeeded Euler as the director of mathematics at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin, where he stayed for over twenty years, producing volumes of work and winning several prizes of the French Academy of Sciences. Lagrange's treatise on analytical mechanics, written in Berlin and first published in 1788, offered the most comprehensive treatment of classical mechanics since Newton and formed a basis for the development of mathematical physics in the nineteenth century. In 1787, at age 51, he moved from Berlin to Paris and became a member of the French Academy of Sciences, he remained in France until the end of his life. He was involved in the decimalisation in Revolutionary France, became the first professor of analysis at the École Polytechnique upon its opening in 1794, was a founding member of the Bureau des Longitudes, became Senator in 1799.
Lagrange was one of the creators of the calculus of variations, deriving the Euler–Lagrange equations for extrema of functionals. He extended the method to take into account possible constraints, arriving at the method of Lagrange multipliers. Lagrange invented the method of solving differential equations known as variation of parameters, applied differential calculus to the theory of probabilities and attained notable work on the solution of equations, he proved. His treatise Theorie des fonctions analytiques laid some of the foundations of group theory, anticipating Galois. In calculus, Lagrange developed a novel approach to interpolation and Taylor series, he studied the three-body problem for the Earth and Moon and the movement of Jupiter's satellites, in 1772 found the special-case solutions to this problem that yield what are now known as Lagrangian points. But above all, he is best known for his work on mechanics, where he transformed Newtonian mechanics into a branch of analysis, Lagrangian mechanics as it is now called, presented the so-called mechanical "principles" as simple results of the variational calculus.
Born as Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Lagrange was of French descent. His paternal great-grandfather was a French army officer who had moved to Turin, the de facto capital of the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia at Lagrange's time, married an Italian, his mother was from the countryside of Turin. He was raised as a Roman Catholic, his father, who had charge of the king's military chest and was Treasurer of the Office of Public Works and Fortifications in Turin, should have maintained a good social position and wealth, but before his son grew up he had lost most of his property in speculations. A career as a lawyer was planned out for Lagrange by his father, Lagrange seems to have accepted this willingly, he studied at the University of Turin and his favourite subject was classical Latin. At first he had no great enthusiasm for mathematics, it was not until he was seventeen that he showed any taste for mathematics – his interest in the subject being first excited by a paper by Edmond Halley which he came across by accident.
Alone and unaided he threw himself into mathematical studies. Charles Emmanuel III appointed Lagrange to serve as the "Sostituto del Maestro di Matematica" at the Royal Military Academy of the Theory and Practice of Artillery in 1755, where he taught courses in calculus and mechanics to support the Piedmontese army's early adoption of the ballistics theories of Benjamin Robins and Leonhard Euler. In that capacity, Lagrange was the first to teach calculus in an engineering school. According to Alessandro Papacino D'Antoni, the academy's military commander and famous artillery theorist, Lagrange proved to be a problematic professor with his oblivious teaching style, abstract reasoning, impatience with artillery and fortification-engineering applications. In this Academy one of his students was François Daviet de Foncenex. Lagrange is one of the founders of the calculus of variations. Starting in 1754, he worked on the problem of tautochrone, discovering a method of maximising and minimising functionals in a way similar to finding extrema of functions.
Lagrange wrote several letters to Leonhard Euler between 1756 describing his results. He outlined his "δ-algorithm", leading to the Euler–Lagrange equations of variational calculus and simplifying Euler's earlier analysis. Lagrange applied his ideas to problems of classical mechanics, generalising the results of Euler and Maupertuis. Euler was impressed with Lagrange's results, it has been stated that "with characteristic courtesy he withheld a paper he had written, which covered some of the same ground, in order that the young Italian might have time to complete his work, claim the undisputed invention of the new calculus". Lagrange published his method in two memoirs of the Turin Society in 1762 and 1773. In 1758, with the aid of his pupils, Lagrange established a society, subsequently incorporated as the Turin Aca
École polytechnique is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb southwest of Paris. It is one of the most prestigious and selective French scientific and engineering schools, called grandes écoles in French, it is known for its ingénieur polytechnicien scientific degree program, equivalent to both a bachelor and master of science. Its entrance exam, the X-ENS exam, is renowned for its selectivity with a little over 500 admitted students out of the 53 848 students enrolled in the preparatory programs for the French scientific and engineering schools entrance exams; the school was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution, was a military academy under Napoleon I in 1804. Although Polytechnique is no longer a military academy, the school is still supervised by the French ministry of defense, though only a small number of its students choose to pursue a military career. Located in the Latin Quarter of central Paris, the school's main buildings were moved in 1976 to Palaiseau on the Saclay Plateau.
Polytechnique has engaged in several partnerships to improve its international renown. It is a founding member of ParisTech, a grouping of leading engineering colleges in the Paris region established in 2007. In 2014 it became a founding member of the confederal University of Paris-Saclay. Among its alumni are three Nobel prize winners, three Presidents of France and many CEOs of French and international companies; as of 2018, it is associated with 4 Fields Medal winners and is currently ranked as the world's third-best small university by Times Higher Education's World University Rankings. Every year, many outstanding Polytechnique students earn admissions to the most prestigious academic institutions and graduate programs in the USA and in the UK demonstrating the recognition of the school and its best performing students internationally. During the 19th century, the specific model of École Polytechnique inspired the foundation of other well-known schools named "Polytechnic," such as Polytechnique Montréal, Athens Polytechnic, MIT, EPFL and Caltech.
The history of the École Polytechnique dates back over 200 years, to the time of the French Revolution. In 1794, the École centrale des travaux publics was founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge at the time of the National Convention, it was renamed École polytechnique one year later. In 1805, Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte settled the École on Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the Quartier Latin, in central Paris, as a military academy and gave its motto Pour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire. In 1814, students took part in the Battle of Paris against the Sixth Coalition. In 1830, fifty students participated in the July Revolution. In 1848, Polytechnique students were the leaders of the French Revolution of 1848, they were an important part of the post-revolutionary process, with one student becoming part of the post-revolution government. They were given the right to wear a sword as a recognition. During the First World War, students were mobilized and the school building was transformed into a hospital.
More than two hundred students were killed fighting for France during the war. During the Second World War, Polytechnique was moved away to Lyon in the free zone. More than four hundred polytechniciens were killed during the war, as part of Free French and French Resistance operations, or in Nazi camps. In 1970, École Polytechnique became a state-supported civilian institution, under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence. In 1972, women were admitted for the first time. In 1976, École Polytechnique moved from Paris to Palaiseau. In 1994, celebration of the bicentennial was chaired by President François Mitterrand. In 2000, a new cursus was set in place, passing to four years and reforming the polytechnicien curriculum. In 2005, École Polytechnique started awarding master's degrees. In 2007, it became a founding member of UniverSud ParisTech. In December 2014, it became a founding member of University of Paris-Saclay. In 1794, Polytechnique was hosted in the Palais Bourbon. One year it moved to Hôtel de Lassay, an hôtel particulier in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.
Napoleon moved Polytechnique to the Quartier Latin in 1805 when he set the school under a military administration. The Paris' campus is located near the Panthéon, in rue Descartes, 5, it is nicknamed "Carva" by the students. At 15 kilometres from Paris, the campus of the École Polytechnique is a privileged setting, it offers about 164 ha teaching facilities, student housing, food services and hospitality and an exceptional range of sports facilities to the 4,600 people who live on a daily basis campus. The nearest regional train station is Gare de Lozère. A number of buses connect the École Polytechnique with the larger RER and TGV station Massy-Palaiseau; the campus is close to other great scientific institutions in Saclay and Gif. The campus will be at the heart of the Engineering and Innovation sector of the confederal "University of Paris in Saclay". Major works are in progress to connect it to an automatic metro line direct to Paris. Polytechnique is a higher education establishment running under the supervision of the F
A caricature is a rendered image showing the features of its subject in a simplified or exaggerated way through sketching, pencil strokes, or through other artistic drawings. In literature, a caricature is a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others. Caricatures can be insulting or complimentary and can serve a political purpose or be drawn for entertainment. Caricatures of politicians are used in editorial cartoons, while caricatures of movie stars are found in entertainment magazines; the term is derived from the Italian caricare -- to load. An early definition occurs in the English doctor Thomas Browne's Christian Morals, published posthumously in 1716. Expose not thy self by four-footed manners unto monstrous draughts, Caricatura representations. With the footnote: When Men's faces are drawn with resemblance to some other Animals, the Italians call it, to be drawn in Caricatura Thus, the word "caricature" means a "loaded portrait".
Until the mid 19th century, it was and mistakenly believed that the term shared the same root as the French'charcuterie' owing to Parisian street artists using cured meats in their satirical portrayal of public figures. Some of the earliest caricatures are found in the works of Leonardo da Vinci, who sought people with deformities to use as models; the point was to offer an impression of the original, more striking than a portrait. Caricature took a road to its first successes in the closed aristocratic circles of France and Italy, where such portraits could be passed about for mutual enjoyment. While the first book on caricature drawing to be published in England was Mary Darly's A Book of Caricaturas, the first known North American caricatures were drawn in 1759 during the battle for Quebec; these caricatures were the work of Brig.-Gen. George Townshend whose caricatures of British General James Wolfe, depicted as "Deformed and crass and hideous", were drawn to amuse fellow officers. Elsewhere, two great practitioners of the art of caricature in 18th-century Britain were Thomas Rowlandson and James Gillray.
Rowlandson was more of an artist and his work took its inspiration from the public at large. Gillray was more concerned with the vicious visual satirisation of political life, they were, great friends and caroused together in the pubs of London. In a lecture titled The History and Art of Caricature, the British caricaturist Ted Harrison said that the caricaturist can choose to either mock or wound the subject with an effective caricature. Drawing caricatures can be a form of entertainment and amusement – in which case gentle mockery is in order – or the art can be employed to make a serious social or political point. A caricaturist draws on the natural characteristics of the subject. Sir Max Beerbohm and published caricatures of the famous men of his own time and earlier, his style of single-figure caricatures in formalized groupings was established by 1896 and flourished until about 1930. His published works include Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen, The Poets' Corner, Rossetti and His Circle.
He published in fashionable magazines of the time, his works were exhibited in London at the Carfax Gallery and Leicester Galleries. George Cruikshank created political prints that attacked leading politicians, he went on to create social caricatures of British life for popular publications such as The Comic Almanack and Omnibus. Cruikshanks' New Union Club of 1819 is notable in the context of slavery, he earned fame as a book illustrator for Charles Dickens and many other authors. Honoré Daumier created over 4,000 lithographs, most of them caricatures on political and everyday themes, they were published in the daily French newspapers Mort Drucker joined Mad in 1957 and became well known for his parodies of movie satires. He combined a comic strip style with caricature likenesses of film actors for Md, he contributed covers to Time, he has been recognized for his work with the National Cartoonists Society Special Features Award for 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, their Reuben Award for 1987. Alex Gard created more than 700 caricatures of show business celebrities and other notables for the walls of Sardi's Restaurant in the theater district of New York City: the first artist to do so.
Today the images are part of the Billy Rose Theatre Collection of The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts. Al Hirschfeld was best known for his simple black and white renditions of celebrities and Broadway stars which used flowing contour lines over heavy rendering, he was known for depicting a variety of other famous people, from politicians, musicians and television stars like the cast of Star Trek: The Next Generation. He was commissioned by the United States Postal Service to provide art for U. S. stamps. Permanent collections of Hirschfeld's work appear at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art in New York, he boasts a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. S. Jithesh is known for his speedy style of Celebrity Caricaturing Stage Shows."Cartoons take shape in no time". The Hindu. Chennai, India. February 28, 2010.</ref> He performs a'Caricature Stage Show', a blend of poetry and socio-political satire
Description de l'Égypte
The Description de l'Égypte was a series of publications, appearing first in 1809 and continuing until the final volume appeared in 1829, which aimed to comprehensively catalog all known aspects of ancient and modern Egypt as well as its natural history. It is the collaborative work of about 160 civilian scholars and scientists, known popularly as the savants, who accompanied Napoleon's expedition to Egypt in 1798 to 1801 as part of the French Revolutionary Wars, as well as about 2000 artists and technicians, including 400 engravers, who would compile it into a full work; the full title of the work is Description de l'Égypte, ou Recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition de l'armée française. 160 civilian scholars and scientists, known as the savants, many drawn from the Institut de France, collaborated on the Description. Collectively they comprised the Commission des Sciences et Arts d'Égypte. About a third of them would also become members of the Institut d'Egypte.
In late August 1798, on the order of Napoleon known as N. P. the Institut d'Égypte was founded in the palace of Hassan-Kashif on the outskirts of Cairo, with Gaspard Monge as president. The structure of the institute was based on the Institut de France; the institute housed a library, laboratories and the savants' various Egyptian collections. The workshop was important, supplying both the army as well as the savants with necessary equipment. Many new instruments were constructed as well, to replace those lost during the sinking of the French fleet in August 1798 at Aboukir Bay and the Cairo riot of October 1798. One of the goals of the Institute was to propagate knowledge. To this end, the savants published a journal, La Decade Egyptienne, as well as a newspaper, the Courier de L'Egypte, which disseminated information about the French occupation and the activities of the French army, the Commission des Sciences et Arts d'Égypte, the Institute itself; the vision of a single comprehensive publication amalgamating all that the French discovered in Egypt was conceived in November 1798, when Joseph Fourier was entrusted with the task of uniting the reports from the various disciplines for publication.
When the French army left Egypt in 1801, the savants took with them large quantities of unpublished notes and various collections of smaller artefacts that they could smuggle unnoticed past the British. In February 1802, at the instigation of Jean Antoine Chaptal, the French Minister of the Interior, by decree of Napoleon, a commission was established to manage the preparation of the large amount of data for a single publication; the final work would draw data from the already-published journal La Decade, the newspaper Courier de L'Égypte, the four-volume Mémoires sur l'Égypte and an abundance of notes and illustrations from the various scholars and scientists. The huge volume of information to be published meant adopting an haphazard modus operandi: when sufficiently many plates or text on a particular subject were ready, the information was published. Despite this, publication of the first edition took over 20 years; the first test volumes of engravings were presented to Napoleon in January 1808.
Published by order of the emperor, successive volumes would be published by order of the king, the last by order of the government. A second edition was published by Charles Louis Fleury Panckoucke; the text was expanded in more volumes and printed in a smaller format, new pulls were taken from the plates, these were bound with many of the large format plates folded in the smaller format volumes. The typographical quality of the texts, the beauty of engravings, the unusual formats makes Description de l'Égypte an exceptional work; the first edition consists of nine volumes of text, one volume with description of the plates and ten volumes of plates. Two additional volumes in Mammut size contain plates from Antiquites and Etat Moderne and one volume of map plates, making for twenty-three volumes in all. Variants in the number of volumes do exist; the second edition consists of thirty-seven volumes, with twenty-four volumes bound in twenty-six books of text, volume number ten being the description of the plates and ten volumes of plates, plus one volume of maps.
The second edition was made at less cost, is in black and white. The ten volumes of plates consists of 894 plates, made from over 3000 drawings, most of them located in Histoire Naturelle volume I and II; some of these plates contain over 100 individual engravings of fauna on a single plate. 38 of the plates are hand coloured. Some variants of the work may contain a few more plates; the plates have been republished in different works, most notable by "Bibliotheque Image", Taschen GmbH, "Institut d'Orient" in 1988 and a subsequent edition in 1990. Description de l'Égypte has been credited with starting the field of Egyptology, although one historian has argued that the general conception and often-repeated idea that this is a unique and unprecedented work is inaccurate, it was incorrectly reported that the original manuscript of the Description de l'Égypte was destroyed in a fire at the Institut d'Égypte (Egyptian Scientific Ins