English-speaking Quebecers are terms used to refer to English speaking members of Quebec. Anglo-Quebecers are a minority due to the official language of the French-speaking province of Quebec, Canada; the English-speaking community in Quebec constitutes an official linguistic minority population under Canadian law. It has been found. According to the 2011 Canadian census, 599,225 in Quebec declare English as a mother tongue. In other findings: when asked, 834,950 respondents reported to use English as their home language, 1,058,250 that comprise the Canadian Official Language Minority, having English as their First Official Canadian language spoken; those who identify as English-speaking Quebeckers have been found to have origins in England, Scotland, New Zealand, elsewhere. The origins of English-speaking Quebeckers include English-speaking countries with similar religions, such as Catholicism or Protestantism, large emigration from other Canadian provinces, waves of international immigration, strong English language education program in Quebec schools.
This makes estimating the population of those. Statistics Canada uses census data to keep track of minority language communities in Canada, it has recorded mother tongue since 1921, home language since 1971, first official language learned since 1991. In addition, conversational knowledge of English and French is documented. A considerable number of census respondents in each category cite equal proficiency and use of different languages. In this case, census respondents are divided evenly among the language groups involved; as allophone immigrants arrive with knowledge of either English or French and integrate into these two linguistic groups, first official language learned is used to determine the Official Language minority population. It is used by the federal government and Quebec anglophone community organizations to determine the demand for minority language services, it classifies members of immigrant groups who learn English before French as English-speaking. Half of the people proficient since childhood in both English and French are placed into each linguistic community.
The English-speaking population has shown an accelerated decline in population between 1971 and 2001. During this interval, the number of mother tongue anglophones has decreased from 788,830 to 591,365 representing a drop in its share of the Quebec population from 13.1% to 8.3%. This is attributed to an exodus of anglophones to other provinces and raised questions about the sustainability of the community. Immigration from other countries and integration of allophones helped to alleviate the impact of this trend. In 2001, one in three immigrants to Quebec was settled in Montreal; this made the decrease in home-language anglophones less pronounced in the Montreal area. This situation is changing as the vast majority of immigrants now adopt French as their first language: three quarters of linguistic transfers of allophones arriving between 2001 and 2006 allophones arriving have been towards French instead of English; the 2006 census showed an increase of the Anglophone population in Quebec. The rise of 16,000 people represents a growth rate of +2.7%, higher than that for the Francophone population for the same period.
This increase is attributed to a much reduced net outmigration of Anglophones, with some 34,000 departures vs 26,000 arrivals. Emigration to other Canadian provinces was perceived as the biggest challenge facing the continued presence of English-language communities in Quebec outside Montreal, during the 1976 to 2001 period. English-speakers accounted for half the out-migrants from Quebec as they are mobile compared to their francophone neighbours because they share a language and cultural identity with most other Canadians and North Americans. In a survey on the matter, English-speaking Quebecers cited limited economic prospects and politics as primary reasons for leaving; these political factors are cited as having led to fewer Canadians from other provinces settling in Quebec. Anglophones are less to migrate within the province than Francophones and Allophones; this is due to a strong sense of belonging among those in the Montreal area, the relative lack of English-language services and institutions outside Montreal, a weak sense of identification with Quebec.
Despite a lull in this outflux during an economic boom and break from separatist governments in 2003, this outmigration had returned to established levels by 2006 and is projected to continue at these rates over the next five years. At the time, this forecast made researcher Jack Jedwab predict a continued long term decline of the community, it has been found that large proportion of Quebec's English-speaking population resides in or near Montreal. Most reside on the Island of Montreal in the West Island and in the western half of Montreal's urban core, where there is a network of English language educational, cultural and medical institutions; the earliest English-speaking people arrived in Montreal at
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
Irish Canadians are Canadian citizens who have full or partial Irish heritage including descendants who trace their ancestry to immigrants who originated in Ireland. 1.2 million Irish immigrants arrived from 1825 to 1970, at least half of those in the period from 1831–1850. By 1867, they were the second largest ethnic group, comprised 24% of Canada's population; the 1931 national census counted 1,230,000 Canadians of Irish descent, half of whom lived in Ontario. About one-third were Catholic in 1931 and two-thirds Protestant; the Irish immigrants were majority Protestant before the famine years of the late 1840s, when far more Catholics than Protestants arrived. Larger numbers of Catholics headed to the United States; the 2006 census by Statistics Canada, Canada's Official Statistical office, revealed that the Irish were the 4th largest ethnic group, with 4,354,000 Canadians with full or partial Irish descent or 15% of the country's total population. This was a large and significant increase of 531,495 since the 2001 census, which counted 3,823,000 respondents quoting Irish ethnicity.
According to the National Household Survey 2011, the population of Irish ancestry has increased since 2006 to 4,544,870. The first recorded Irish presence in the area of present-day Canada dates from 1536, when Irish fishermen from Cork traveled to Newfoundland. After the permanent settlement in Newfoundland by Irish in the late 18th and early 19th century, overwhelmingly from Waterford, increased immigration of the Irish elsewhere in Canada began in the decades following the War of 1812 and formed a significant part of The Great Migration of Canada. Between 1825 and 1845, 60% of all immigrants to Canada were Irish. Between 1830 and 1850, 624,000 Irish arrived. Besides Upper Canada, Lower Canada, the Maritime colonies of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick Saint John, were arrival points. Not all remained. Few returned to Ireland. During the Great Famine, Canada received the most destitute Irish Catholics, who left Ireland in grave circumstances. Land estate owners in Ireland would either evict landholder tenants to board on returning empty lumber ships, or in some cases pay their fares.
Others left on ships from the overcrowded docks in Cork. Most of the Irish immigrants who came to Canada and the United States in the nineteenth century and before were Irish speakers, with many knowing no other language on arrival; the great majority of Irish Catholics arrived in Grosse Isle, an island in Quebec in the St. Lawrence River, which housed the immigration reception station. Thousands died or arrived sick and were treated in the hospital in the summer of 1847. From Grosse-Île, most survivors were sent to Quebec City and Montreal, where the existing Irish community mushroomed; the orphaned children were adopted into Quebec families and accordingly became Québécois, both linguistically and culturally. At the same time, ships with the starving docked at Partridge Island, New Brunswick in desperate circumstances. A large number of the families that survived continued on to settle in Canada West and provided a cheap labor pool and colonization of land in a expanding economy in the decades after their arrival.
In comparison with the Irish who went to the United States or Britain, many Irish arrivals in Canada settled in rural areas, in addition to the cities. The Catholic Irish and Protestant Irish were in conflict from the 1840s. In Ontario, the Irish fought with the French for control of the Catholic Church, with the Irish successful. In that instance, the Irish sided with the Protestants to oppose the demand for French-language Catholic schools. Thomas D'Arcy McGee, an Irish-Montreal journalist, became a Father of Confederation in 1867. An Irish Republican in his early years, he would moderate his view in years and become a passionate advocate of Confederation, he was instrumental in enshrining educational rights for Catholics as a minority group in the Canadian Constitution. In 1868, he was assassinated in Ottawa. Historians are not sure what his motivations were. One theory is that a Fenian, Gaylord O'Neiel Whelan, was the assassin, attacking McGee for his recent anti-Raid statements. Others argue.
After Confederation, Irish Catholics faced more hostility from Protestant Irish in Ontario, under the political sway of the entrenched anti-Catholic Orange Order. The anthem "The Maple Leaf Forever", written and composed by Scottish immigrant and Orangeman Alexander Muir, reflects the pro-British Ulster loyalism outlook typical of the time with its disdainful view of Irish Republicanism; this only amplified with Fenian Raids of the time. As the Irish became more prosperous and newer groups arrived on Canada's shores, tensions subsided through the remainder the latter part of the 19th century. In the years between 1815, when vast industrial changes began to disrupt the old life-styles in Europe, Canadian Confederation in 1867, when immigration of that era passed its peak, more than 150,000 immigrants from Ireland flooded into Saint John, New Brunswick; those who came in the earlier period were tradesmen, many stayed in Saint John, becoming the backbone of its builders
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The voyageurs were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years. The emblematic meaning of the term applies to places and times where transportation of materials was over long distances; this major and challenging task of the fur trading business was done by canoe and by French Canadians. The term in its fur trade context applied, at a lesser extent, to other fur trading activities. Being a voyageur included being a part of a licensed, organized effort, one of the distinctions that set them apart from the coureurs des bois. Additionally, they were set apart from engagés, who were much smaller merchants and general laborers. Immigrants, engagés were men who were obliged to go anywhere and do anything their masters told them as long as their indentureship was still in place; until their contract expired, engagés were at the full servitude of their master, most a voyageur. Less than fifty percent of engagés whose contracts ended chose to remain in New France.
The voyageurs were regarded as legendary in French Canada. They were heroes celebrated in music. For reasons of promised celebrity status and wealth, this position was coveted. James H. Baker was once told by an unnamed retired voyageur: I could carry, paddle and sing with any man I saw. I have been twenty-four years a canoe man, forty-one years in service. I have saved the lives of ten voyageurs, have had six running dogs. I spent all of my money in pleasure. Were I young again, I would spend my life the same way over. There is no life so happy as a voyageur's life! Despite the fame surrounding the voyageur, their life was one of toil and not nearly as glorious as folk tales make it out to be. For example, they had to be able to carry two 90-pound bundles of fur over portage; some carried up to four or five, there is a report of a voyageur carrying seven for half of a mile. Hernias were common and caused death. Most voyageurs would start working when they were twenty-two and they would continue working until they were in their sixties.
They never made enough money to consider an early retirement from what was a physically grueling lifestyle. Europeans traded alongside the coast of North America with Native Americans; the early fur trade with Native Americans, which developed alongside the coasts of North America, was not limited to the beaver. Beavers were not valued and people preferred "fancy fur" or "fur, used with or on the pelt; the fur trade was viewed as secondary to fishing during this era. The earliest North American fur trading did not include long distance transportation of the furs after they were obtained by trade with the First Nations. Soon, coureurs des bois achieved business advantages by travelling deeper into the wilderness and trading there. By 1681, the King of France decided to control the traders by publishing an edict that banned fur and pelt trading in New France; as the trading process moved deeper into the wilderness, transportation of the furs became a larger part of the fur trading business process.
The authorities began a process of issuing permits. Those travellers associated with the canoe transportation part of the licensed endeavour became known as voyageurs, a term which means "traveler" in French; the fur trade was thus controlled by a small number of Montreal merchants. New France began a policy of expansion in an attempt to dominate the trade. French influence extended west and south. Forts and trading posts were built with the help of traders. Treaties were negotiated with native groups, fur trading became profitable and organized; the system became complex, the voyageurs, many of whom had been independent traders became hired laborers. By the late 1600s, a trade route through and beyond the Great lakes had been opened; the Hudson's Bay Company opened in 1670. The North West Company opened in 1784, exploring as far north as Lake Athabasca; the American Fur Company and operated by John Jacob Astor was founded in 1808. This company, by 1830, grew to control the American fur industry. In the late 1700s, demand in Europe grew for marten, lynx and beaver furs, expanding the trade, adding thousands to the ranks of voyageurs.
From the beginning of the fur trade in the 1680s until the late 1870s, the voyageurs were the blue-collar workers of the Montreal fur trade. At their height in the 1810s, they numbered as many as three thousand. For the most part, voyageurs were the crews hired to man the canoes that carried trade goods and supplies to trading locations where they were exchanged for furs, "rendezvous posts", they transported the furs back to Lachine near Montreal, also to points on the route to Hudson Bay. Some voyageurs stayed in the back country over the winter and transported the trade goods from the posts to farther-away French outposts; these men were known as the hivernants. They helped negotiate trade in native villages. In the spring they would carry furs from these remote outposts back to the rendezvous posts. Voyageurs served as guides for explorers; the majority of these canoe men we
Bytown is the former name of Ottawa, Canada's capital city. It was founded on September 26, 1826, incorporated as a town on January 1, 1850, superseded by the incorporation of the City of Ottawa on January 1, 1855; the founding was marked by a sod turning, a letter from Governor General Dalhousie which authorized Lieutenant Colonel John By to divide up the town into lots. Bytown came about as a result of the construction of the Rideau Canal and grew due to the Ottawa River timber trade. Bytown's first mayor was John Scott, elected in 1847. Bytown was located where the Rideau Canal meets the Ottawa River and consisted of two parts centered around the canal, Upper Town and Lower Town. Upper Town, situated to the west of the canal, was situated in the area of the current downtown and Parliament Hill. Lower Town was on the east side of the canal where today's Byward Market and general area of Lower Town still exists; the two areas of town were connected over the Rideau Canal by the Sappers Bridge, constructed in 1827.
The town took its name from John By who, as a Colonel in the British Royal Engineers, was instrumental in the construction of the canal. The name "Bytown" came about, somewhat as a "jocular reference" during a small dinner party of some officers, it appears on official correspondence dated 1828. Joseph Bouchette in the summer of 1828 wrote: The streets are laid out with much regularity, of a liberal width that will hereafter contribute to the convenience and elegance of the place; the number of houses now built is about 150. On the elevated banks of the Bay, the Hospital, an extensive stone building, three Barracks stand conspicuous. Colonel By laid out the streets of Bytown, a pattern that exists today. Wellington Street, Rideau Street and Sparks Street were some of the earliest streets in use. Sappers Bridge connected Sparks Street to Rideau Street at that time. Nicholas Sparks owned Bytown's land west of the canal, except for the lands north of Wellington, which were considered "Ordnance" lands.
The area east of Bank Street to the canal was acquired by the military and not used for houses for around two decades, after which it was returned to him. The Ottawa River timber trade spurred the growth of Bytown, it saw an influx of immigrants, entrepreneurs hoping to profit from the squared timber that would be floated down the Ottawa River to Quebec. Bytown had seen some trouble in the early days, first with the Shiners' War in 1835 to 1845, the Stony Monday Riot in 1849; some early buildings that still stand had been erected in Bytown. In 1826, Thomas McKay was contracted to build the commissariat building, now the Bytown Museum. McKay built Rideau Hall, parts of the Union Bridge connecting LeBreton Flats to Hull. Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica was built early on in the developing town; the University of Ottawa had its 1846 origins as a college, it received its present location in 1856. Though administration of Bytown had been conducted by civil authorities since 1828, the town did not become incorporated until much later.
Various attempts at incorporation had been initiated since 1845. The Ordnance Department had held lands in the town's core, lands, the property of Nicholas Sparks; these lands were considered by many to be blocking economic progress as well as being held for speculative reasons only. When Ordnance returned the lands to Sparks through the Vesting Act, the major obstacle to incorporation was removed. Bytown was incorporated on July 28, 1847, sanctioned by both the Legislative Assembly and the Governor, but this was disallowed by the Queen due to the perceived threat to Ordnance. An act of the Legislative Assembly further facilitated the incorporation of municipalities, on January 1, 1850, Bytown was incorporated. Richmond Landing was a small settlement started in 1809 with Jehiel Collins' store, which preceded Bytown in present-day Ottawa, it was located just south of Victoria Island east of the present-day Portage Bridge in present-day Lebreton Flats. Wright's Town, just across the Ottawa River near the Chaudiere Falls, had been founded by this time.
Collins built a log cabin and store on the south shore of the Ottawa River, near the Chaudière Falls area. The property was acquired by Caleb T. Bellows, an assistant in the store. Collins is credited as the first settler of, and by 1819, the little settlement at the landing got. The settlement was named Bellows Landing until the fall of 1818, when a group of settlers responsible for the creation of a new road to Richmond, Ontario stayed there; the road became Richmond Richmond Landing acquired its name. Sergeant Hill, had directed the creation of Richmond Road, Ottawa's first thoroughfare, a road which contained tree stumps, whose origin began at a portage trail bypassing the Chaudière Falls. Richmond Landing was an area for those heading to and from Richmond could dock and receive correspondence and supplies from the outside world. A tavern constructed in 1819, whose existence had been shown since Bytown's earliest maps, was excavated prior to the construction of the Canadian War Museum whose east side covers it.
Early maps show the locations of buildings, a Governmental store, constructed later. A buildings had been requested by early settlers to hol
Big Joe (mascot)
Big Joe is the mascot of the Ottawa Redblacks of the Canadian Football League. The mascot was introduced in February 2014, prior to the 2014 CFL season; the Redblacks launched a contest to provide a name to the mascot. When named Big Joe Mufferaw, Redblacks owner Jeff Hunt stated, "We heard that fans loved the look of our mascot and hundreds said he had to be Big Joe Mufferaw. We like that name too because it reminds us of our city's past and fits so well into the branding of our football team." The name was a reference to French Canadian folk hero, Big Joe Mufferaw, based on real-life Joseph Montferrand, credited as a lumberjack from the Ottawa Valley. However, the name caused controversy and divided opinions, as some considered it offensive to Montferrand's surname. Criticisms of the name arose, as some fans claimed the "Mufferaw" took away from the "Frenchness" of Montferrand, alienated French-Canadians. Due to the controversy, "Mufferaw" was dropped from the mascot's name; the name change was praised, was seen as both a possible way of building the team's fanbase, as well as a way of discussing French-Canadian history