Josephus on Jesus

The extant manuscripts of the book Antiquities of the Jews, written by the first-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus around 93–94 AD, contain two references to Jesus of Nazareth and one reference to John the Baptist. The first and most extensive reference to Jesus in the Antiquities, found in Book 18, states that Jesus was the Messiah and a wise teacher, crucified by Pilate, it is called the Testimonium Flavianum. All modern scholars reject the authenticity of this passage in its present form, while the majority of scholars hold that it contains an authentic nucleus referencing the execution of Jesus by Pilate, subject to Christian interpolation and/or alteration; the exact nature and extent of the Christian redaction remains unclear, however. Modern scholarship has acknowledged the authenticity of the second reference to Jesus in the Antiquities, found in Book 20, Chapter 9, which mentions "the brother of Jesus, called Christ, whose name was James." This reference is considered to be more authentic than the Testimonium.

All modern scholars consider the reference in Book 18, Chapter 5 of the Antiquities to the imprisonment and death of John the Baptist to be authentic and not a Christian interpolation. A number of differences exist between the statements by Josephus regarding the death of John the Baptist and the New Testament accounts. Scholars view these variations as indications that the Josephus passages are not interpolations, since a Christian interpolator would have made them correspond to the New Testament accounts, not differ from them. Scholars have provided explanations for their inclusion in Josephus' works. Josephus wrote all of his surviving works after his establishment in Rome under the patronage of the Flavian Emperor Vespasian; as is common with ancient texts, there are no extant manuscripts of Josephus' works that can be dated before the 11th century, the oldest of these were copied by Christian monks. Jews are not known to have preserved the writings of Josephus because he was considered a traitor, and/or because his works circulated in Greek, the use of which declined among Jews shortly after Josephus' era.

There are about 120 extant Greek manuscripts of Josephus, of which 33 predate the 14th century, with two thirds from the Comnenoi period. The earliest surviving Greek manuscript that contains the Testimonium is the 11th century Ambrosianus 370, preserved in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, which includes all of the second half of the Antiquities. There are about 170 extant Latin translations of Josephus, some of which go back to the sixth century. According to Louis Feldman these have proven useful in reconstructing the Josephus texts through comparisons with the Greek manuscripts, confirming proper names and filling in gaps; the Testimonium is not mentioned by Origen, is absent in an ancient table of contents to the eighteenth book of the Antiquities and is absent in a Josephus codex of the patriarch Photius. One of the reasons the works of Josephus were copied and maintained by Christians was that his writings provided a good deal of information about a number of figures mentioned in the New Testament, the background to events such as the death of James during a gap in Roman governing authority.

The three references found in Book 18 and Book 20 of the Antiquities do not appear in any other versions of Josephus' The Jewish War except for a Slavonic version of the Testimonium Flavianum which surfaced in the west at the beginning of the 20th century, after its discovery in Russia at the end of the 19th century. Although hailed as authentic, it is now universally acknowledged by scholars to have been the product of an 11th-century creation as part of a larger ideological struggle against the Khazars; as a result, it has little place in the ongoing debate over the authenticity and nature of the references to Jesus in the Antiquities. Craig A. Evans states that although some scholars had in the past supported the Slavonic Josephus, "to my knowledge no one today believes that they contain anything of value for Jesus research". In 1971, a 10th-century Arabic version of the Testimonium from the chronicle of Agapius of Hierapolis was brought to light by Shlomo Pines, who discovered a 12th-century Syriac version of the Testimonium in the chronicle of Michael the Syrian.

These additional manuscript sources of the Testimonium have furnished additional ways to evaluate Josephus' mention of Jesus in the Antiquities, principally through a close textual comparison between the Arabic and Greek versions to the Testimonium. There are key differences between the Greek manuscripts and these texts. For instance, the Arabic version does not blame the Jews for the death of Jesus; the key phrase "at the suggestion of the principal men among us" reads instead "Pilate condemned him to be crucified". Instead of "he was Christ", the Syriac version has the phrase "he was believed to be Christ". Drawing on these textual variations, scholars have suggested that these versions of the Testimonium more reflect what a non-Christian Jew might have written. In 2008, Alice Whealey published an article arguing that Agapius' and Michael's versions of the Testimonium are not independent witnesses to the original text of Josephus' Antiquities. Rather, they both derive from the Syriac translation of the Church History written by Eusebius, which in turn quotes the Testimonium.

Whealey notes that Michael's Syriac Testimonium shares several peculiar choices of vocabulary with the version found in the Syriac translation of the Church History. These words and phrases are not shared by an independent Syriac


Lactoperoxidase is a peroxidase enzyme secreted from mammary and other mucosal glands that functions as a natural antibacterial agent. Lactoperoxidase is a member of the heme peroxidase family of enzymes. In humans, lactoperoxidase is encoded by the LPO gene. Lactoperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of a number of inorganic and organic substrates by hydrogen peroxide; these substrates include bromide and iodide and therefore lactoperoxidase can be categorised as a haloperoxidase. Another important substrate is thiocyanate; the oxidized products produced through the action of this enzyme have potent bactericidal activities. Lactoperoxidase together with its inorganic ion substrates, hydrogen peroxide, oxidized products is known as the lactoperoxidase system; the lactoperoxidase system plays an important role in the innate immune system by killing bacteria in milk and mucosal secretions hence augmentation of the lactoperoxidase system may have therapeutic applications. Furthermore, addition or augmentation of the lactoperoxidase system has potential applications in controlling bacteria in food and consumer health care products.

The lactoperoxidase system is not mutagenic. However, under certain conditions, the lactoperoxidase system may contribute to oxidative stress. Furthermore, lactoperoxidase may contribute to the initiation of breast cancer, through its ability to oxidize estrogenic hormones producing free radical intermediates; the structure of lactoperoxidase consists of alpha-helices plus two short antiparallel beta-strands. Lactoperoxidase belongs to the heme peroxidase family of mammalian enzymes that includes myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, thyroid peroxidase, prostaglandin H synthase. A heme cofactor is bound near the center of the protein. Lactoperoxidase catalyzes the hydrogen peroxide oxidation of several acceptor molecules: reduced acceptor + H2O2 → oxidized acceptor + H2OSpecific examples include: thiocyanate → hypothiocyanite bromide → hypobromite iodide → hypoiodite Source of the hydrogen peroxide is the reaction of glucose with oxygen in the presence of the enzyme glucose oxidase that takes place in saliva.

Glucose, in turn, can be formed from starch in the presence of the saliva enzyme amyloglucosidase. These short lived oxidized intermediates have potent bactericidal effects, hence lactoperoxidase is part of the antimicrobial defense system in tissues that express lactoperoxidase; the lactoperoxidase system is effective in killing a range of aerobic and certain anaerobic microorganisms. Research: "The effect of lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide mixtures on bacteria is dependent on experimental conditions. If the bacteria are cultured after the exposure to lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide on nutrient agar under aerobic conditions, they may not grow, whereas they grow on blood agar under anaerobic conditions." In its antimicrobial capacity, lactoperoxidase appears to acts synergistically with lactoferrin and lysozyme. Lactoperoxidase is an effective antimicrobial agent. Applications of lactoperoxidase are being found in preserving food and ophthalmic solutions. Furthermore, lactoperoxidase have found application in dental and wound treatment.

Lactoperoxidase may find application as anti-tumor and anti viral agents. Lactoperoxidase is an effective antimicrobial agent and is used as an antibacterial agent in reducing bacterial microflora in milk and milk products. Activation of the lactoperoxidase system by addition of hydrogen peroxide and thiocyanate extends the shelf life of refrigerated raw milk, it is heat resistant and is used as an indicator of overpasteurization of milk. A lactoperoxidase system is claimed to appropriate for the treatment of paradentosis. Lactoperoxidase has been used in toothpaste or a mouthrinse to reduce oral bacteria and the acid produced by those bacteria. A combination of lactoperoxidase, glucose oxidase and thiocyanate is claimed to be effective in the preservations of cosmetics. Antibody conjugates of glucose oxidase and to lactoperoxidase have been found to effective in killing tumor cells in vitro. In addition, macrophages exposed to lactoperoxidase are stimulated to kill cancer cells. Peroxidase-generated hypothiocyanite inhibits herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus.

The antibacterial activity of lactoperoxidase plays an important role in the immune defense system. Hypothiocyanite is one of the reactive intermediates produced by the activity of lactoperoxidase on thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide produced by dual oxidase 2 proteins known as Duox2. Thiocyanate secretion in cystic fibrosis patients is decreased, resulting in a reduced production of the antimicrobial hypothiocyanite and contributes to increased risk of airway infection; the lactoperoxidase system efficiently inhibits helicobacter pylori in buffer. The lactoperoxidase system is not mutagenic. However, under certain conditions, the lactoperoxidase system may contribute to oxidative stress, it has been shown that lactoperoxidase in the presence of thiocyanate can trigger the bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide under specific conditions, such as when hydrogen peroxide is present in the reaction mixtures in excess of thiocyanate. The oxidation of estradiol by lactoperoxidase is a possible source of oxidative stress in breast cancer.

The ability of lactoperoxidase to propagate a chain reaction leading to oxy

Dude food

Dude food is a recent food trend consisting of heavy, meaty dishes that are thought to appeal to men or express masculinity. Dishes such as hamburgers, hotdogs, or barbeque ribs may be considered dude food, though dude food versions of these dishes distinguish themselves with gourmet ingredients or exaggerated use of amenities like whiskey, barbecue sauce, bacon, or cheese, it is thought that the dude food trend originated in the early 2000s, most originating in the southern regions of the United States. The common theory is that the trend arose from its affinity with the food truck and street food movements, defined by their offerings of “comfort and good quality food” made accessible; the trend expanded as a social media phenomenon, its associated term was added to the Collins dictionary in 2016. Dude food has inspired a growing number of academic and non-academic literature with titles such as Dudefood: A Guy's Guide to Cooking Kick-Ass Food and Dude Food: Recipes for the Modern Guy. Although the trend has spread within public consciousness, journalists and academics struggle to coin a precise accepted definition for "dude food."

The various proposed definitions share elements such as gender stereotypes, the predominance of heavy meat dishes, the influence of "feminine" types of food. Increased awareness of the implications of high cholesterol diets and recent findings suggesting men are twice as as women to suffer severe heart problems appears to have broadened dude food offerings so as to encompass light, vegetable-based options, to the detriment of their characteristic meat options; the trend is said to have originated in North America, following its success the trend has geographically expanded into other countries, reaching during the following years Europe, Oceania and at last Asia. Indeed, the trend seems to have arrived, following its North American origins, at first in the United Kingdom, where it has influenced a number of “dude food” inspired restaurants, that have therefore mixed their British national dishes with “dude food” characteristics; the same seems to be happening in Australia, combined with the unsatisfaction with fast food and the demand of higher-quality, but not per se healthy food.

"Dude food" was considered to be one of the next biggest growing trend for the year 2018, to be arriving in Japan, influencing the usual healthy and fish based cuisine and combining it with the more heavy and greasy dude food methodology. Dude food advertising and representation tends to follow the traditional gender binary and can be analyzed from a visual perspective, by taking into account how gender identity is represented in the food field. Thus, food is considered to be part of those products which are “gendered in a practice of normative sexual dualism reinforced and maintained within cultural institutions of marketing communication and market segmentation”. According to this, advertising plays a significant role in defining this dualism concerning gender identity since its language represents a tool contributing to the creation and reflection of social norms. According to Katherine Parkin, the gender binary in advertising took shape in 50s, following the theories of Ernest Dichter.

She believed that “by convincing Americans of a food’s sex and its resultant gendered identity, as well as its sensuality, advertisers could suggest their foods to meet consumers’ need to fulfill their gender roles” and “Dichter believed that many people categorized the sex of foods. However, his own subscription to a gendered taxonomy of food is evident in his assessment of the findings”. Moreover, it might be important to notice that not only the food product itself but the related packaging and advertisement are employed as tools to transmit an idea of how men and women should be, stressing again the cultural and social awareness raised by studies on dude food. An example of advertising in England is the Ginsters advertisement of a beef pasty accompanied by the hashtag #FeedTheMan, in which there is a man that tells a joke in front of his girlfriend’s bosses. In accordance with Lynsey Atkin, advertisement agencies and brands have honed in on a crisis of masculinity in our society and “in times of insecurity, brands can repurpose themselves as champions of the everyman, facilitators of the macho clean, however small.

In other words, promising gender-traditional-prowess, like being able to kick a football in a straight line, could be the media-constructed equivalent of helping you grow a beard. Some stereotypes, like male dominance in social situations, are invoked as a nostalgia". In some places it can be hard to find an advertisement of men eating chocolate. However, in Canada there is an advertisement of chocolate bar Mr. Big produced by Cadbury, in which the snack is oversexualized and associated with virility, with the slogan “When you're this big they call you Mister”. Furthermore, specific events and moving tours were organised in Canada and promoted in order to provide dude food dishes and a certain atmosphere. According to the feminist scholar Judith Butler, gender is “…an identity tenuously constituted in time instituted through a stylized repetition of acts”. In fact, “...performing food labor is intertwined with performing gender”. In particular, several studies focus on how certain foods, drinks, or ways of eating and drinking are interpreted as “masculine”.