Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Justice, in its broadest context, includes both the attainment of that, just and the philosophical discussion of that, just. The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, law, religion and fairness; the general discussion of justice is divided into the realm of social justice as found in philosophy and religion, procedural justice as found in the study and application of the law. The concept of justice differs in every culture. Early theories of justice were set out by the Ancient Greek philosophers Plato in his work The Republic, Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics. Throughout history various theories have been established. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 1600s, theorists like John Locke argued for the theory of natural law. Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned.
In the 1800s, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued. John Rawls used a social contract argument to show that justice, distributive justice, is a form of fairness. Property rights theorists take a consequentialist view of distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system. Theories of retributive justice are concerned with punishment for wrongdoing. Restorative justice is an approach to justice that focuses on the needs of offenders. In his dialogue Republic, Plato uses Socrates to argue for justice that covers both the just person and the just City State. Justice is a harmonious relationship between the warring parts of the person or city. Hence, Plato's definition of justice is. A just man is a man in just the right place, doing his best and giving the precise equivalent of what he has received.
This applies both at the universal level. A person's soul has three parts – reason and desire. A city has three parts – Socrates uses the parable of the chariot to illustrate his point: a chariot works as a whole because the two horses' power is directed by the charioteer. Lovers of wisdom – philosophers, in one sense of the term – should rule because only they understand what is good. If one is ill, one goes to a medic rather than a farmer, because the medic is expert in the subject of health. One should trust one's city to an expert in the subject of the good, not to a mere politician who tries to gain power by giving people what they want, rather than what's good for them. Socrates uses the parable of the ship to illustrate this point: the unjust city is like a ship in open ocean, crewed by a powerful but drunken captain, a group of untrustworthy advisors who try to manipulate the captain into giving them power over the ship's course, a navigator, the only one who knows how to get the ship to port.
For Socrates, the only way the ship will reach its destination – the good – is if the navigator takes charge. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice, indeed the whole of morality, is the authoritative command of God. Murder must be punished, for instance, because God says it so; some versions of the theory assert that God must be obeyed because of the nature of his relationship with humanity, others assert that God must be obeyed because he is goodness itself, thus doing what he says would be best for everyone. A meditation on the Divine command theory by Plato can be found in Euthyphro. Called the Euthyphro dilemma, it goes as follows: "Is what is morally good commanded by God because it is morally good, or is it morally good because it is commanded by God?" The implication is that if the latter is true justice is arbitrary. A response, popularized in two contexts by Immanuel Kant and C. S. Lewis, is that it is deductively valid to argue that the existence of an objective morality implies the existence of God and vice versa.
For advocates of the theory that justice is part of natural law, it involves the system of consequences that derives from any action or choice. In this, it is similar to the laws of physics: in the same way as the Third of Newton's laws of Motion requires that for every action there must be an equal and opposite reaction, justice requires according individuals or groups what they deserve, merit, or are entitled to. Justice, on this account, is a universal and absolute concept: laws, religions, etc. are attempts to codify that concept, sometimes with results that contradict the true nature of justice. In Republic by Plato, the character Thrasymachus argues that justice is the interest of the strong – a name for what the powerful or cunning ruler has imposed on the people. Advocates of the social contract agree that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned; this account is considered further below, under'Justice as fairness'. The absence of bias refers to an equal ground for all people
Kingston, New Hampshire
Kingston is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population at the 2010 census was 6,025. Kingston was the fifth town to be established in New Hampshire, it was a part of Hampton, New Hampshire. After King Philip's War, the establishment of new settlements was made possible by peace treaties with the local Indian tribes and, in 1692, by geographical and jurisdictional agreements between the provinces of Massachusetts and New Hampshire. Certain residents of Hampton, New Hampshire petitioned for a grant of a separate township to be created from the western part of Hampton, and so, in 1694, King William of England granted a royal charter establishing the town of "Kingstown", so named in honor of the King. Use of the title rather than the King's name was common at the time; the original charter still exists to this day. The Kingston historic district encompasses the town center of Kingston. Historic buildings and sites within the district include the Kingston town hall. S. Declaration of Independence.
West Kingston is located along the road to Danville, in the western section of town, southwest of Great Pond. Evidence of the early inhabitants was manifested by the construction of a log garrison house on the present Great Pond Road; this well-built house consisted of two large rooms downstairs and a huge open chamber on the second floor. In years a small ell was attached to the north side; the historic house was demolished at the beginning of the 20th century. The stone step at the main entrance and what must have been the "cellar hole" of this dwelling are still visible. In the midst of an agrarian society, the charcoal manufacturing industry took root and became a major business in West Kingston. Charcoal was carried by horse-drawn wagons to the Massachusetts cities of Haverhill, North Andover, Newburyport and Amesbury, as well as to Exeter, New Hampshire; some was sold by street peddlers to be used in homes for the purpose of kindling fires. A great deal was used by the large machine shops and by the silversmiths.
Many individuals manufactured shoes in their one-room shoe shops. Such a shop stood until near the Thomas Page residence; some people sewed shoes in their own homes. Unlike the large-scale factories of today, concerned with mass production, these enterprises constructed the whole shoe, hand-sewing it with an artisan's touch. A cooper shop on the Wadleigh Farm produced barrels made of wood: the staves were made of pine and hardwoods, were bound with hoops of birch. Skilled workers made hooks to hold hoops together; when a sufficient number of barrels was collected, the men hauled them to Newburyport to be sold - to be used by fishermen in packing fish. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 20.9 square miles, of which 19.6 sq mi is land and 1.3 sq mi is water, comprising 6.03% of the town. The highest point in Kingston is the east summit of Rock Rimmon Hill, at about 350 feet above sea level, on the town's border with Danville to the west; the majority of the town is drained by a tributary of the Merrimack.
The northern portion of town is drained by the Little River, part of the Exeter River/Piscataqua River watershed. Rockrimmon Hill Kingston State Park Cemetery on the Plains Kingston Historical Museum Nichols Memorial Research Library Grace Daley House and barn The Kingston Days celebration occurs on the first Friday and Sunday of August, it is to celebrate the town's incorporation date of August 6, 1694. The celebration offers live music and activities, family fun and a large flea market, car show, motorcycle show, it includes various events such as a karate show and a police dog demonstration. During this event the Kingston Historical Museum complex is open to the public, in conjunction with the Nichols Memorial Research Library. Kingston is part of the Sanborn Regional School District, providing public education to students who live in Kingston and Newton. Schools in Kingston are: Sanborn Regional High School Middle school students attend Sanborn Regional Middle School in Newton. D. J. Bakie Elementary School Seacoast Charter School Pre-schools include: Kingston Children's Center Story Book Station As of the census of 2000, there were 5862 people, 2,122 households, 1,633 families residing in the town.
The population density was 298.7 people per square mile. There were 2,265 housing units at an average density of 115.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.97% White, 0.22% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.82% of the population. There were 2,122 households out of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.2% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.0% were non-families. 17.4% of all households were made up o
New Hampshire State House
The New Hampshire State House, located in Concord at 107 North Main Street, is the state capitol building of New Hampshire. The capitol houses the New Hampshire General Court and Executive Council; the building was constructed on a block framed by Park Street to the north, Main Street to the east, Capitol Street to the south, North State Street to the west. The current statehouse was designed in 1814, paid for by the city of Concord. In 1816, local Quakers sold the lot where their meetinghouse was to the state of New Hampshire, the building was built between 1816 and 1819 by architect Stuart Park; the building was built in the Greek Revival style with smooth granite blocks. The entrance is covered by a small projecting portico supported by Doric columns; the balcony above is lined with a balustrade separated by Corinthian columns supporting a pediment. Another balustrade lines the edge of the flat roof; the windows on the first floor are rectangular in shape, those on the second floor are arched, those on the third floor are square panels.
An octagonal drum with large arched windows supports a golden dome with bull's-eye windows and supporting a small lantern. A statue of a huge gold-painted wooden war eagle looking to the left was raised in 1818. In 1957, it was replaced with an element-proof peace eagle statue looking to the right, with the original eagle given to the New Hampshire Historical Society; the capitol grounds are enclosed by a granite fence. No gate impedes the flow of visitors, as this is "the people's house". Several statues are in the yard, including ones of Daniel Webster, General John Stark, John P. Hale, Franklin Pierce, the only U. S. president from New Hampshire. On the State Street side of the building, a monument to George H. Perkins by sculptor Daniel Chester French and architect Henry Bacon was built on the grounds in 1902; the main entrance opens into the Doric Hall. The hall is designed after Charles Bulfinch's design for the Massachusetts State House; the hall features 107 battle flags for New Hampshire representing the Civil War, Spanish–American War, World War I, World War II, the Vietnam War.
The Senate Chamber is located in the northeast corner of the capitol. It houses the 24-member chamber. Large arched windows light the chamber. Behind the rostrum are large murals, arched like the windows, depicting events of the state's history; the mural to the left depicts the first commencement at Dartmouth College. The murals were painted by Barry Faulkner in 1942. Large curved tables are replicas of originals; the House Chamber houses the largest state legislative body with 400 members. Large arched windows line the walls. On the rostrum hang portraits of John P. Hale, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster; the first session of the General Court began in 1819. The State House is the oldest state capitol in which both houses of the legislature meet in their original chambers. In 1814, discussion began about building a suitable building for the state capitol; the General Court debated three locations: Concord and Salisbury, which offered $7,000 to be the capital. The legislature chose Concord as the location in 1816.
Granite used to build the capitol came from the present-day Swenson quarries. The prison building was constructed by Stuart Park; the cost of construction for the capitol was $82,000. The building was designed and built to house the General Court, its committees, the Governor and Council, the Secretary of State, the State Treasurer, the State Library. During Meldrim Thomson Jr.'s governorship the lights that shone on the State House's golden dome at night were turned off to save energy. This caused controversy because the illuminated dome had been an informal symbol of Concord for many years. With the help of several New Hampshire legislators, the lights were activated again in the first days of Hugh Gallen's first term as governor. List of state and territorial capitols in the United States Visiting information New Hampshire State House History New Hampshire's First State House, New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources Summary Sheet - New Hampshire's First State House Project, New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources New Hampshire's First State House Project, Final Report New Hampshire's First State House - Pictures
Rockingham County, New Hampshire
Rockingham County is a county in the U. S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 295,223, making it the second-most populous county in New Hampshire; the county seat is Brentwood. Rockingham County constitutes a portion of the Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as of the greater Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area; the area that today is Rockingham County was first settled by Europeans moving north from the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts as early as 1623. The government was linked with Massachusetts until New Hampshire became a separate colony in 1679, but counties were not introduced until 1769. Rockingham was identified in 1769 as one of five original counties for the colony, it is named for Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, Prime Minister in 1765-1766. The county was organized with its county seat at Exeter. In 1844 its area was reduced by the formation of Belknap County to the northwest.
In 1997 the county court facilities were moved to Brentwood, a rural town adjacent to Exeter. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 795 square miles, of which 695 square miles is land and 100 square miles is water; the highest point in Rockingham County is Nottingham Mountain, at 1,340 feet, in the town of Deerfield. The county contains the entirety of New Hampshire's Atlantic coast, which, at 18 miles, is the shortest ocean coastline of any state in the nation. Strafford County York County, Maine Essex County, Massachusetts Hillsborough County Merrimack County Great Bay National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 277,359 people, 104,529 households, 74,320 families residing in the county; the population density was 399 people per square mile. There were 113,023 housing units at an average density of 163 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.80% White, 0.58% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.11% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.38% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races.
1.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.1% were of Irish, 14.6% English, 11.8% Italian, 10.5% French, 8.0% French Canadian, 6.0% German and 5.6% American ancestry. 94.3% spoke English, 1.8% French and 1.3% Spanish as their first language. There were 104,529 households out of which 35.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were non-families. 22.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.40% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 32.80% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, 10.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $58,150, the median income for a family was $66,345.
Males had a median income of $45,598 versus $30,741 for females. The per capita income for the county was $26,656. About 3.10% of families and 4.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.00% of those under age 18 and 6.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 295,223 people, 115,033 households, 79,832 families residing in the county; the population density was 425.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 126,709 housing units at an average density of 182.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.5% white, 1.7% Asian, 0.7% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.9% were Irish, 19.0% were English, 14.8% were Italian, 9.7% were German, 7.3% were French Canadian, 5.6% were Polish, 3.8% were American. Of the 115,033 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families, 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 42.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $75,825 and the median income for a family was $90,463. Males had a median income of $61,443 versus $42,478 for females; the per capita income for the county was $35,889. About 3.0% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.9% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Rockingham County has had the distinction of being a Republican stronghold, with only two Democratic presidential nominees having captured the county since 1964. However, in recent years, it has become more competitive. Republicans have remained dominant at the local level, but communities like Portsmouth and Exeter have been known for their liberal voting patterns; the executive power of Rockingham County's government is held by three county commissioners, each representing one of the three commissioner districts within the county.
In addition to the County Commission, there are five directly-elected officials: they include County Attorney, Register of Deeds, County Sheriff, Register of Probate, County Treasurer. The legislative branch of Rockingham County is made up
William Whipple Jr. (January 25, 1731 NS was a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire and a member of the Continental Congress from 1776 through 1779. He worked as both a ship's captain and a merchant, he studied in college to become a judge, he died of heart complications in 1785, aged 55. Whipple was born in Kittery, Maine to Captain William Whipple Sr. and his wife Mary, educated at a common school until he went off to sea, he became a Ship's Master at age 21. He married his first cousin Catherine Moffat in 1767, they moved into the Moffatt-Ladd House on Market Street in Portsmouth in 1769, their son William Whipple III died in infancy. Whipple was a descendant of early settler in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Whipple earned his fortune participating in the Triangle trade of the West Indies and Africa, with cargo such as wood and slaves, he established himself as a merchant in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1759, in partnership with his brother.
In 1775, New Hampshire dissolved the British Royal government and organized a House of Representatives and an Executive Council known collectively as a Provincial Congress, Whipple was elected to represent Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He became a member of the Committee of Safety, he was elected to the Continental Congress, he signed the United States Declaration of Independence. He was the second cousin of fellow signatory Stephen Hopkins. In January 1776, Whipple wrote to fellow signatory Josiah Bartlett of the approaching convention: This year, my Friend, is big with mighty events. Nothing less than the fate of America depends on the virtue of her sons, if they do not have virtue enough to support the most Glorious Cause human beings were engaged in, they don't deserve the blessings of freedom. Whipple freed his slave Prince Whipple, believing that no man could fight for freedom and hold another in bondage, he wrote: A recommendation is gone thither for raising some regiments of Blacks. This will lay a foundation for the emancipation of those wretches in that country.
I hope. Whipple was given his first commission by the New Hampshire Provincial Congress in 1777. At Saratoga, Whipple was placed in command of a brigade. Whipple commanded Bellow's regiment, Chase's regiment, Moore's regiment, Welch's regiment; as a result of their meritorious conduct at the Battle of Saratoga and Colonel James Wilkinson were chosen by Major General Horatio Gates to determine terms of capitulation with two representatives of General John Burgoyne. Whipple signed the Convention of Saratoga, the effective surrender of General Burgoyne and his troops. Whipple was appointed along with several other officers to escort Burgoyne and his army back to Winter Hill, Massachusetts. Whipple passed the news of the victory at Saratoga to Captain John Paul Jones, who informed Benjamin Franklin, in Paris at the time. News of the victory proved valuable to Franklin throughout alliance negotiations with the French. In 1778, Whipple followed his commanding officer, General John Sullivan to the Battle of Rhode Island, where he commanded Evans' regiment, Peabody's regiment, Langdon's light horse regiment.
After General Sullivan ordered retreat and other officers resided in a house near the battlefield. The approaching enemy fired a field piece from a range of three-quarters of a mile; the shot first tore through a horse lashed outside the house before wounding the leg of one of Whipple's brigade majors, which required amputation. After the war, Whipple became an Associate Justice of the Superior Court of New Hampshire, he suffered from a heart ailment, died after fainting from atop his horse while traveling his court circuit. He was buried in the Old North Burial Ground in New Hampshire, his headstone was replaced with a new memorial in 1976 in conjunction with the United States Bicentennial. State Builders: An Illustrated Historical and Biographical Record of the State of New Hampshire. State Builders Publishing Manchester, NH 1903 Lives of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence. By Rev. Charles A. goodrich, published by William Reed & Co. New York 1829 Biography by Rev. Charles A. Goodrich, 1856 Burial site of William Whipple Genealogical Reference William Whipple at Find a Grave Colonial Hall William Whipple and the Declaration of Independence
Concord, New Hampshire
Concord is the capital city of the U. S. state of New Hampshire and the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 42,695. Concord includes the villages of Penacook, East Concord, West Concord; the city is home to the University of New Hampshire School of New Hampshire's only law school. It is the resting place of Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States; the area that would become Concord was settled thousands of years ago by Abenaki Native Americans called the Pennacook. The tribe fished for migrating salmon and alewives with nets strung across the rapids of the Merrimack River; the stream was the transportation route for their birch bark canoes, which could travel from Lake Winnipesaukee to the Atlantic Ocean. The broad sweep of the Merrimack River valley floodplain provided good soil for farming beans, pumpkins and maize. On January 17, 1725, the Province of Massachusetts Bay, which claimed territories west of the Merrimack River, granted the Concord area as the Plantation of Penacook.
It was settled between 1725 and 1727 by Captain Ebenezer Eastman and others from Haverhill, Massachusetts. On February 9, 1734, the town was incorporated as Rumford, from which Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford would take his title, it was renamed Concord in 1765 by Governor Benning Wentworth following a bitter boundary dispute between Rumford and the town of Bow. Citizens displaced by the resulting border adjustment were given land elsewhere as compensation. In 1779, New Pennacook Plantation was granted to Timothy Walker, Jr. and his associates at what would be incorporated in 1800 as Rumford, the site of Pennacook Falls. Concord grew in prominence throughout the 18th century, some of its earliest houses survive at the northern end of Main Street. In the years following the Revolution, Concord's central geographical location made it a logical choice for the state capital after Samuel Blodget in 1807 opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the Amoskeag Falls downriver, connecting Concord with Boston by way of the Middlesex Canal.
In 1808, Concord was named the official seat of state government. The 1819 State House is the oldest capitol in the nation in which the state's legislative branches meet in their original chambers; the city would become noted for granite quarrying. In 1828, Lewis Downing joined J. Stephens Abbot to form Downing, their most famous product was their Concord stagecoach used in the development of the American West. In the 19th century, Concord became a hub for the railroad industry, with Penacook a textile manufacturing center using water power from the Contoocook River. Today, the city is a center for health care and several insurance companies. Concord is located at 43°12′24″N 71°32′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67.5 square miles. 64.2 square miles of it is land and 3.2 square miles of it is water, comprising 4.79% of the city. Concord is drained by the Merrimack River. Penacook Lake is in the west; the highest point in Concord is 860 feet above sea level on Oak Hill, just west of the hill's 970-foot summit in neighboring Loudon.
Concord lies within the Merrimack River watershed, is centered on the river, which runs from northwest to southeast through the city. Downtown is located on a low terrace to the west of the river, with residential neighborhoods climbing hills to the west and extending southwards towards the town of Bow. To the east of the Merrimack, atop a 100-foot bluff, is a flat, sandy plain known as Concord Heights, which has seen most of the city's commercial development since 1960; the eastern boundary of Concord is formed by a tributary of the Merrimack. The Turkey River winds through the southwestern quarter of the city, passing through the campus of St. Paul's School before entering the Merrimack River in Bow. In the northern part of the city, the Contoocook River enters the Merrimack at the village of Penacook. Other village centers in the city include East Concord; the city's neighboring communities are Bow to the south, Pembroke to the southeast, Loudon to the northeast, Canterbury and Webster to the north, Hopkinton to the west.
It is 16 miles north of Manchester, New Hampshire's largest city, 66 miles north of Boston. Concord, as with much of New England, is within the humid continental climate zone, with long, snowy winters warm summers, brief autumns and springs. In winter, successive storms deliver light to moderate snowfall amounts, contributing to the reliable snow cover. In addition, lows reach at least 0 °F on an average 15 nights per year, the city straddles the border between USDA Hardiness Zone 5b and 6a. However, thaws are frequent, with one to three days per month with 50 °F + highs from December to February. Summer can bring stretches of humid conditions as well as thunderstorms, there is an average of 12 days of 90 °F + highs annually; the window for freezing temperatures on average begins on September 27 and expires on May 14. The monthly daily average temperature range from 20.6 °F in January to 70.0 °F in July. Temperature extremes have ranged from −37 °F (−