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Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz known as Tito, was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe, he served as the President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 14 January 1953 to 4 May 1980. While his presidency has been criticised as authoritarian and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, Tito has been seen by most as a benevolent dictator, he was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation, he gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Broz was born to a Croat Slovene mother in the village of Kumrovec, Austria-Hungary.

Drafted into military service, he distinguished himself, becoming the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Army of that time. After being wounded and captured by the Imperial Russians during World War I, he was sent to a work camp in the Ural Mountains, he participated in some events of the Russian Revolution in subsequent Civil War. Upon his return to the Balkans in 1918, Broz entered the newly established Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where he joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, he was elected as General Secretary of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia. During World War II, after the Nazi invasion of the area, he led the Yugoslav guerrilla movement, the Partisans. After the war, he was selected as Prime Minister, President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. From 1943 to his death in 1980, Tito held the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia, serving as the supreme commander of the Yugoslav military, the Yugoslav People's Army. With a favourable reputation abroad in both Cold War blocs, he received some 98 foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honour and the Order of the Bath.

Tito was the chief architect of the second Yugoslavia, a socialist federation that lasted from November 1943 until April 1992. Despite being one of the founders of Cominform, he became the first Cominform member to defy Soviet hegemony in 1948, he was the only leader in Joseph Stalin's time to leave Cominform and begin with his country's own socialist program, which contained elements of market socialism. Economists active in the former Yugoslavia, including Czech-born Jaroslav Vanek and Yugoslav-born Branko Horvat, promoted a model of market socialism, dubbed the Illyrian model. Firms were owned by their employees and structured on workers' self-management. Tito built a powerful cult of personality around himself, maintained by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia after his death. Tito managed to keep ethnic tensions under control by delegating as much power as possible to each republic; the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution defined SFR Yugoslavia as a "federal republic of equal nations and nationalities united on the principle of brotherhood and unity in achieving specific and common interest."

Each republic was given the right to self-determination and secession if done through legal channels. Lastly and Vojvodina, the two constituent provinces of Serbia, received increased autonomy, including de facto veto power in the Serbian parliament. Ten years after his death, Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe, Yugoslavia descended into civil war. Josip Broz was born on 7 May 1892 in Kumrovec, a village in the northern Croatian region of Hrvatsko Zagorje. At the time it was part of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he was the eighth child of Franjo Broz and Marija née Javeršek. His parents had had a number of children die in early infancy. Broz was raised as a Roman Catholic, his father, was a Croat whose family had lived in the village for three centuries, while his mother Marija, was a Slovene from the village of Podsreda. The villages were 16 kilometres apart, his parents had married on 21 January 1881. Franjo Broz had inherited a 4.0-hectare estate and a good house, but he was unable to make a success of farming.

Josip spent a significant proportion of his pre-school years living with his maternal grandparents at Podsreda, where he became a favourite of his grandfather Martin Javeršek. By the time he returned to Kumrovec to begin school, he spoke Slovene better than Croatian, had learned to play the piano. Despite his "mixed parentage", Broz identified as a Croat like his father and neighbours. In July 1900, at the age of eight, Broz entered primary school at Kumrovec, he completed four years of school, failing the 2nd grade and graduating in 1905. As a result of his limited schooling, throughout his life Tito was poor at spelling. After leaving school, he worked for a maternal uncle, on his parents' family farm. In 1907, his father wanted him to emigrate to the United States, but could not raise the money for the voyage. Instead, aged 15 years, Broz left Kumrovec and travelled about 97 kilometres south to Sisak, where his cousin Jurica Broz was doing army service. Jurica helped him get a job in a restaurant.

He approached a Czech locksmith, Nik

Acetoacetic ester synthesis

Acetoacetic ester synthesis is a chemical reaction where ethyl acetoacetate is alkylated at the α-carbon to both carbonyl groups and converted into a ketone, or more an α-substituted acetone. This is similar to malonic ester synthesis. A strong base deprotonates the dicarbonyl α-carbon; this carbon is preferred over the methyl carbon because the formed enolate is conjugated and thus resonance stabilized. The carbon undergoes nucleophilic substitution; when heated with aqueous acid, the newly alkylated ester is hydrolyzed to a β-keto acid, decarboxylated to form a methyl ketone. Malonic ester synthesis

Audio Video Interleave

Audio Video Interleave, known by its initials AVI and the.avi filename extension is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows software. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. Like the DVD video format, AVI files support multiple streaming audio and video, although these features are used. Many AVI files use the file format extensions developed by the Matrox OpenDML group in February 1996; these files are supported by Microsoft, are unofficially called "AVI 2.0". In 2010 the US government's National Archives and Records Administration defined AVI as the official wrapper for preserving digital video. AVI is a subformat of the Resource Interchange File Format, which divides a file's data into blocks, or "chunks." Each "chunk" is identified by a FourCC tag. An AVI file takes the form of a single "chunk" in a RIFF formatted file, subdivided into two mandatory "chunks" and one optional "chunk".

The first sub-chunk is identified by the "hdrl" tag. This sub-chunk is the file header and contains metadata about the video, such as its width and frame rate; the second sub-chunk is identified by the "movi" tag. This chunk contains the actual audio/visual data; the third optional sub-chunk is identified by the "idx1" tag which indexes the offsets of the data chunks within the file. By way of the RIFF format, the audio-visual data contained in the "movi" chunk can be encoded or decoded by software called a codec, an abbreviation for coder/decoder. Upon creation of the file, the codec translates between raw data and the data format used inside the chunk. An AVI file may carry audio/visual data inside the chunks in any compression scheme, including Full Frame, Intel Real Time, Motion JPEG, Editable MPEG, VDOWave, ClearVideo / RealVideo, QPEG, MPEG-4 Video; some programs, like VLC, complain when the "idx1" index sub-chunk is not found, as it is required for efficient moving among timestamps. They offer to "fix" the file by building an index permanently.

As a derivative of the Resource Interchange File Format, AVI files are tagged with metadata in the INFO chunk. In addition, AVI files can embed Extensible Metadata Platform. By design, any RIFF file can include additional chunks of data, each identified by a four-character code; as such, it is theoretically possible to expand any RIFF file format, including AVI, to support any conceivable metadata. Some of the limitations of AVI in modern use relate to a lack of standardization in this metadata. Since its introduction in the early 90s, new computer video techniques have been introduced which the original AVI specification did not anticipate; the original AVI specification does not provide a standardized way to encode aspect ratio information, although the OpenDML specification does. Older players may not select the right aspect ratio automatically. There are several competing approaches to including a time code in AVI files, which affects usability of the format in film and television post-production, although it is used.

For WAV audio files, Broadcast Wave extensions were designed to standardize post-production metadata, but an equivalent for AVI files has not emerged. Some parties are known to write BWF chunks into AVI for metadata. AVI was not intended to contain video using any compression technique that requires access to future video frame data beyond the current frame. Approaches exist to support modern video compression techniques that rely on this function, although this is beyond the intent of the original specification and may cause problems with playback software which does not anticipate this use. AVI cannot contain some specific types of variable bitrate data reliably. Overhead for AVI files at the resolutions and frame rates used to encode standard definition feature films is about 5 MB per hour of video, the significance of which varies with the application. More recent container formats solve all these problems, although software is available to both create and replay AVI files which use the techniques described here.

DV AVI is a type of AVI file. There are two types of DV-AVI files: Type 1: The multiplexed Audio-Video is kept in its original multiplexing and saved together into the Video section of the AVI file Does not waste much space, but Windows applications based on the VfW API do not support it. Type 2: Like type 1, but audio is saved as an additional audio stream into the file. Supported by VfW applications, at the price of a small increase in file size. Type 1 is the newer of the two types. Microsoft made the "type" designations, decided to name their older VfW-compatible version "Type 2", which only furthered confusion about the two types. In the late 1990s through early 2000s, most professional-level DV software, including non-linear editing programs, only supported Type 1. One notable exception was Adobe Premiere, which only supported Type 2. High-end FireWire controllers captured to Type 1 only, while "consumer" level controllers captured to Type 2 only. Software is and was available for converting Type 1 AVIs to Type 2, vice versa, b