Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists who gather and publish information. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the proliferation of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape since the turn of the 21st century. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates centre on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media has drastically changed
Inside Lara Roxx is a 2011 EyeSteelFilm Canadian documentary film by Canadian film director Mia Donovan. It covers the circumstances of a 21-year-old Canadian woman Lara Roxx who in the Spring of 2004, left her hometown Montreal heading to Los Angeles to work in pornography. Within two months she contracted HIV after shooting an unprotected sex scene with two males, it was revealed that one of porn actor Darren James, was HIV positive. The film did well critically. In 2012, it was nominated for a Claude Jutra Award for Best Documentary; the film's director Mia Donovan documents Roxx's life in the 5-year period following her diagnosis. Donovan meets her in a psychiatric ward in Montreal suffering from bipolar disorder; the film covers Roxx's return to L. A. and Las Vegas to reconnect with the industry, her appearance on The Maury Povich Show, her attempt to establish a foundation for the protection of sex workers, her crack addiction and entry into rehab. The film has interviews with a number of Roxx's former associates – porn agents, porn actors and actresses like Bill Margold, Dick Nasty, Ron Jeremy, Anita Cannibal.
The film interviews the doctor who diagnosed her HIV, her parents. The film had its World Premiere at Hot Docs, Toronto's international documentary film festival under "Canadian Spectrum" section on 5, 6 and 8 May 2011; the film placed second in the Bacchus Award for best feature at the Boston Underground Film Festival. It won Documentary on Society and Humanity at the 2011 Guangzhou International Documentary Film Festival. In 2012 the film was nominated for a Claude Jutra Award for Best Documentary. STDs in the porn industry EyeSteelFilm website: Inside Lara Roxx film page Inside Lara Roxx on IMDb
General John Numbi is a Congolese military officer. Until January 2010, he was the Inspector General of the Congolese National Police. In 2018 he was appointed as the Inspector General of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Numbi is of the same Lubakat group as former President Laurent-Désiré Kabila. Politically active, he was an organizer of the youth militia of the Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans, used by former governor Gabriel Kyungu wa Kumwanza against Luba supporters of the Union for Democracy and Social Progress in the late 1990s. In 2000, he held the rank of Brigadier General and was the commander for military Region 4. In November 2006, the Congolese military's offensive against the armed National Congress for the Defence of the People had stalled. Numbi commander of the Congolese air force, was sent in Goma to negotiate with CNDP commander Laurent Nkunda; the talks were moved on 31 December to Kigali, where they were facilitated by senior Rwandan officers, including Chief of Staff Gen. James Kabarebe.
In early January, an agreement was reached, the terms of which included that Nkunda's forces would be subject to mixage with government units in North Kivu, deployed outside the province. On 14 February 2007, in reaction to increasing international criticism of the use of child soldiers, Numbi was among a group of senior officers who issued a notice to commanders of mixed brigades that they would be held responsible for the illegal presence of children in their units. On 26 February 2008, Numbi met with Interior Minister Denis Kalume and President Joseph Kabila to discuss Bundu Dia Kongo, an unarmed religious movement, engaged in violent demonstrations for greater political independence in Bas Kongo. Two days 600 police officers armed with machine guns and grenades were deployed from Kinshasa to repress the group; this action was criticized by United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo as an excessive use of force. In 2009, Numbi and Kabarebe of Rwanda managed Operations Kimia II and Umoja Wetu, a joint operation against Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda forces operating in eastern Congo.
Historian Gérard Prunier in a 2009 publication states that Numbi, along with Augustin Katumba Mwanke, Samba Kaputo and Marcellin Cishambo, are the "old palace guard" who "are the ones running things" in the Congolese government. Prunier further asserts that this group has "a vested interest in'personally fruitful' stagnation."On 28 September 2016, Numbi received United States sanctions because he used "violent intimidation" to secure victories for his favored candidates in 2016 provincial elections. U. S. citizens are now barred from conducting financial transactions with him. The measures were seen as a warning to president Joseph Kabila to respect the country's constitution. Jeuneafrique.com John Numbi, le bras armé de Kabila