A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes have an effect on an article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor, "The Tango," to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions inasmuch as "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads, but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. The dance metaphor goes on to state: A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive. Journalists have favored a more robust, conflict model, based on a crucial assumption that if the media are to function as watchdogs of powerful economic and political interests, journalists must establish their independence of sources or risk the fourth estate being driven by the fifth estate of public relations.
According to Reporters Without Borders' annual report, the year 2018 was the worst year on record for deadly violence and abuse toward journalists. Ruben Pat was gunned down outside a Mexican beach bar. Yaser Murtaja was shot by an Israeli army sniper. Bulgarian Viktoria Marinova was beaten and strangled. Jamal Khashoggi was killed inside Saudi Arabia's consulate in Istanbul on Oct 2. Fowler, Nathaniel Clark.. New York: Sully and Kleinteich. Huffman, James L.. A Yankee in Meiji Japan: The Crusading Journalist. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-2621-1 Randall, David.. The Universal Journalist. Sterling Virginia: Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-1641-3. Fifty Years a Journalist. New York: Doubleday and Company. OCLC 1520155 Woods, Donald.. Asking for Trouble: Autobiography of a Banned Journalist. New Yo
The George Washington Birthplace National Monument is a national monument in Westmoreland County, United States. This site was developed in the mid-17th century as a colonial tobacco plantation by Englishman John Washington. A member of the assembly, he was a great-grandfather of George Washington and the first United States president. George Washington was born in this house on February 22, 1732, he lived here until age three, returning to live here as a teenager. Before the 20th century, the original house was lost, but the foundation outlines of Washington's house are marked; the public park was established in 1930 and in 1931 a memorial house was built in historicist style to mark the site and to represent an 18th-century tobacco plantation. The historic park opened during the Great Depression. At the entrance to the grounds, now maintained and operated by the National Park Service, is a Memorial Shaft obelisk of Vermont marble. C; the monument and its preceding plantation, which would be called Wakefield, are located at the confluence of Popes Creek and the larger Potomac River, is representative of 18th-century Virginia tobacco plantations.
The area has been restored and maintained with farm buildings, groves of trees, livestock and crops of tobacco and wheat, to represent the environment Washington knew here as a boy. One of George Washington's great-grandfathers, John Washington, settled this plantation in 1657 at the original property on Bridges Creek; the family acquired expanded land to the south toward nearby Popes Creek. Before 1718 the first section of the house in which George Washington was born was built, his father enlarged it between 1722–1726. He added on to it by the mid-1770s, making a ten-room house known as "Wakefield"; this house, which George Washington in 1792 would describe as "the ancient mansion seat," was destroyed by fire and flood on Christmas Day 1779, never rebuilt. Thirty-two graves of Washington family members have been found at the Bridges Creek cemetery plot, including George's half-brother, father and great-grandfather. Washington's father cultivated tobacco on his several plantations. In 1858, the Commonwealth of Virginia acquired the property to preserve the homesite and cemetery, but the Civil War intervened.
Short on revenues for such purposes, Virginia donated the land to the federal government in 1882. The Wakefield National Memorial Association was formed in 1923 to restore the property. In 1930, the grounds were authorized by Congress as a U. S. National Monument. In 1931, the Wakefield Association received a grant from John D. Rockefeller, Jr. to acquire and transfer a total of 394 acres of land to the Federal government. Since the exact appearance of the original Washington family home is not known, a Memorial House was designed by Edward Donn, Jr. representing similar buildings of the era. The actual location of Washington's boyhood home is adjacent to the memorial house and its foundation is outlined in the ground by crushed oyster shells; the Memorial House represents a typical upper-class house of the period of the original's construction. The Memorial House is constructed of bricks handmade from local clay, it has a central hallway and four rooms on each floor, furnished in the 1730–1750 period style by the Wakefield National Memorial Association.
Furnishings include. Most of the other furnishings are more than 200 years old; the park and Memorial House were opened by the National Park Service in 1932, on the 200th anniversary of George Washington's birth. In the 21st century, the Monument is part of the National Park Service's ongoing efforts to interpret historical resources. In addition to the Memorial House, park facilities open to visitors include the historic birthplace home area, Kitchen House, hiking trails, picnic grounds. In the Kitchen House, costumed re-enactors demonstrate candle- and soap-making. A Colonial Herb and Flower Garden has been planted with herbs and flowers common to Washington's time, such as thyme and basil, flowers such as hollyhocks, forget-me-nots, roses. Typical trees and bushes of Washington's time have been added to the landscaping; the Colonial Living Farm has a barn and pasture, raises livestock and crops of the 18th century variety, using farming methods common then. Visitors may tour the Washington family Burial Ground, which contains the graves of 32 members of the Washington family, including George Washington's father and great-grandfather.
Replicas of two original gravestones are visible, along with five memorial tablets placed here in the 1930s. The Visitors' Center contains artifacts recovered from the burned-down Washington house, such as those pictured at right: a bowl, clay figurine, wine bottle seal belonging to Augustine Washington, wine bottle, keyhole plate. A 15-minute film depicting Washington family life is shown in a theater at the Visitors' Center; the George Washington Birthplace National Monument is 38 miles east of Fredericksburg, located on the Northern Neck. It can be reached via Virginia State Route 204, the access road to the site from Virginia State Route 3. Stratford Hall Plantation, the birthplace of Robert E. Lee, the town of Montross are nearby. List of National Monuments of the United States Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace AVA Montross, Virginia Stratford Hall Plantation State Route 204, the access road to the site from State Route 3 Gary W. Ferris, Presidential Places Geo
Stéphanie d'Oustrac is a French mezzo-soprano. Stéphanie d'Oustrac was born in Rennes in 1974, she is the great-niece of Jacques La Presle. She was part of the Maîtrise de Bretagne children's choir led by Jean Michel Noël, her ambition was to be an actress. She was a student of Oleg Afonine for nearly a year. At the Conservatoire national supérieur de musique et de danse de Lyon she received the First Prize for Song in 1998 and was spotted by William Christie who worked with Les Arts Florissants. Under Christie and Marc Minkowski she expanded her repertoire to include Fauré and Britten. From 1998 to 2012 she appeared in "starter roles" in quality productions, from 2002 the title role as Armide, Atys, she appeared at the Glyndebourne Festival Opera. She regularly gives chamber music concerts with various ensembles, she is a soloist in recital. Marc-Antoine Charpentier: Médée H 491, Stéphanie d'Oustrac, François-Nicolas Geslot, Gaëlle Méchaly, Bertrand Chuberre, Le Concert Spirituel, conducted by Hervé Niquet, stage Director, Olivier Simonnet, directed by Olivier Simonnet DVD Armide Classics / Vox Lucida ARM 002, 2004.
André Cardinal Destouches: Callirhoé, Cyril Auvity, Stéphanie d'Oustrac, Callirhoé, Cyril Auvity, Agénor, João Fernandes, Corésus, Ingrid Perruche, La Reine, Renaud Delaigue, Le Ministre, Stéphanie Révidat, Une Princesse de Calydon, Une Bergère, Le Concert Spirituel, conducted by Hervé Niquet. 2 CD Glossa 2007. Maurice Ravel: L'Heure espagnole, L'Enfant et les Sortilèges, Stéphanie d'Oustrac, The Glyndebourne Chorus, London Philarmonic Orchestra, conducted by Kazushi Ono, Stage Director, Laurent Pelly. DVD Glyndebourne Fra Musica 2012. Emmanuel Chabrier: L'Etoile, Stéphanie d'Oustrac, Lazuli, Hélène Guilmette, La princesse Laoula, Christophe Mortagne, Le Roi Ouf, Jérome Varnier, Choeur de l'Opéra national des Pays-Bas, Orchestre de la Résidence de La Haye, conducted by Patrick Fournillier, Stage Director, Laurent Pelly. DVD or Blu-ray Naxos 2019. Diapason d'or de l'année 2019. Http://viewfromthebow.blogspot.com/2010/12/stephanie-doustrac-at-ambronay-festival.html http://www.jpost.com/Arts-and-Culture/Music/Concert-Review-Stephanie-dOustrac