Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura
The Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura, located in the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City, is the Mexican institution in charge of coordinating artistic and cultural activities in the country. On November 23, 1946, president Miguel Alemán Valdés proposed the creation of the INBA, it was formally opened on 1 January 1947, as a branch of the Secretaría de Educación Pública; the first head of the INBA was Carlos Chávez, who created a new orchestra for the Conservatory, the current Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional. The institute includes many departments, artistic ensembles, three national centers for storage of the literary stock, 29 schools and further institutions; the school of design and handicrafts was founded by José Chávez Morado in 1962. One of the important services the institute provides for the nation is to protect, along with the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia and buildings deemed cultural patrimony. INAH is entrusted with'archaeological' and'historical' structures and remnants, while INBAL is entrusted with'artistic' buildings and monuments.
The valuation of aesthetic value is left to the Comisión Nacional de Zonas y Monumentos Artísticos. This commission is composed of the Director of INBAL, a representative of the Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecología, a representative of UNAM, three individuals affiliated with the arts picked by the Director. Edifices deemed worthy by the commission are catalogued in the Registro Público de Monumentos y Zonas Artísticos; the institute provides education from elementary school through to postgraduate level. There are three in Mexico City and the rest in some other states. CEDART "Alfonso Reyes" Monterrey, Nuevo León CEDART "David Alfaro Siqueiros" Chihuahua, Chihuahua CEDART "Diego Rivera" Ciudad de México, CDMX CEDART "Emilio Abreu Gómez" Mérida, Yucatán CEDART "Frida Kahlo" Ciudad de México, CDMX CEDART "Ignacio Mariano de las Casas" Querétaro, Querétaro CEDART "José Clemente Orozco" Guadalajara, Jalisco CEDART "José Eduardo Pierson" Hermosillo, Sonora CEDART "Juan Rulfo" Colima, Colima CEDART "Luis Spota Saavedra" Ciudad de México, CDMX CEDART "Miguel Bernal Jiménez" Morelia, Michoacán CEDART "Miguel Cabrera" Oaxaca, OaxacaAlongside to the educational offerings, there are some museums and buildings under the INBAL management, that the institute use to present different types of artistic entertainment to general public, such as "tempestad" or a season of flamenco dance.
Official INBAL—Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura website—
Jean-Louis Barrault was a French actor and mime artist, training that served him well when he portrayed the 19th-century mime Jean-Gaspard Deburau in Marcel Carné's film Les Enfants du Paradis and part of an international cast in The Longest Day. Jean-Louis Barrault studied with Charles Dullin in whose troupe he acted from 1933 to 1935. At 25 years of age, he studied with the mime Étienne Decroux. From 1940 to 1946 Barrault was a member of the Comédie-Française, where he directed productions of Paul Claudel's Le Soulier de satin and Jean Racine's Phèdre, two plays that made his reputation. Over his career, he acted in nearly 50 movies including Les beaux jours, Jenny, L'Or dans la Montagne and Under Western Eyes. In 1940, he married the actress Madeleine Renaud, they toured extensively, including in South America. He was sometime sponsor of Peter Brook, he died from a heart attack in Paris at the age of 83. Jean-Louis Barrault is buried with his wife Madeleine Renaud in the Passy Cemetery in Paris.
Jean-Louis Barrault, Reflections on the Theatre: "In fact it is the simplest things that are the most tricky to do well. To read, for example. To be able to read what is written without omitting anything, written and at the same time without adding anything of one's own. To be able to capture the exact context of the words one is reading. To be able to read!"Barrault from Melinda Camber Porter's Through Parisian Eyes: Reflections on Contemporary French Arts and Culture: "When I wake up in the morning I want to feel hungry for life. Desire is; when I go to sleep, I feel I have experienced a small death, so that I can wake up in the morning renewed and reborn." Jean-Louis Barrault on IMDb Jean-Louis Barrault at Find a Grave
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is a style of fiction that paints a realistic view of the modern world while adding magical elements. It is sometimes called fabulism, in reference to the conventions of fables and allegory. "Magical realism" the most common term refers to fiction and literature in particular, with magic or the supernatural presented in an otherwise real-world or mundane setting. The terms are broadly descriptive rather than critically rigorous. Matthew Strecher defines magic realism as "what happens when a detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe". Many writers are categorized as "magical realists", which confuses its wide definition. Irene Guenther tackles the German roots of the term, how art is related to literature. Magical realism is associated with Latin American literature authors including genre founders Gabriel García Márquez, Miguel Angel Asturias, Jorge Luis Borges, Elena Garro, Juan Rulfo, Rómulo Gallegos, Isabel Allende.
In English literature, its chief exponents include Salman Rushdie, Alice Hoffman, Nick Joaquin. Whereas, in Bengali Literature, prominent writers of magic realism include Nabarun Bhattacharya, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Shahidul Zahir, Jibanananda Das, Syed Waliullah, Nasreen Jahan and Humayun Ahmed. In Japanese literature, one of the most important authors of this genre is Haruki Murakami. While the term magical realism first appeared in English in 1955, the term Magischer Realismus, translated as magic realism, was first used by German art critic Franz Roh in 1925 to refer to a painterly style known as Neue Sachlichkeit, an alternative to expressionism championed by fellow German museum director Gustav Hartlaub. Roh identified magic realism's accurate detail, smooth photographic clarity, portrayal of the'magical' nature of the rational world, it reflects the uncanniness of our modern technological environment. Roh believed that magic realism was related to, but distinct from, due to magic realism's focus on the material object and the actual existence of things in the world, as opposed to surrealism's more cerebral and subconscious reality.
Magic realism was used to describe the uncanny realism by American painters such as Ivan Albright, Peter Blume, Paul Cadmus, Gray Foy, George Tooker and Viennese-born Henry Koerner, along other artists during the 1940s and 1950s. However, in contrast with its use in literature, magic realist art does not include overtly fantastic or magical content, but rather looks at the mundane through a hyper-realistic and mysterious lens. German magic realist paintings influenced the Italian writer Massimo Bontempelli, called the first to apply magic realism to writing, aiming to capture the fantastic, mysterious nature of reality. In 1926 he founded the magic realist magazine 900. Novecento, his writings influenced Belgian magic realist writers Johan Daisne and Hubert Lampo. Roh's magic realism influenced writers in Hispanic America, where it was translated as realismo mágico in 1927. Venezuelan writer Arturo Uslar-Pietri, who had known Bontempelli, wrote influential magic realist short stories in the 1930s and 40s that focused on the mystery and reality of how we live.
Luis Leal attests that Pietri seemed to have been the first to adopt the term realismo mágico in Hispanic America in 1948. There is evidence that Mexican writer Elena Garro used the same term to describe the works of E. T. A. Hoffmann but dismissed her own work as a part of the genre. French-Russian Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier, who rejected Roh's magic realism as tiresome pretension, developed his related concept lo real maravilloso, or marvelous realism, in 1949. Maggie Ann Bowers writes that marvelous realist literature and art expresses "the opposed perspectives of a pragmatic and tangible approach to reality and an acceptance of magic and superstition" within an environment of differing cultures; the term magical realism, as opposed to magic realism, first emerged in the 1955 essay "Magical Realism in Spanish American Fiction" by critic Angel Flores in reference to writing that combines aspects of magic realism and marvelous realism. While Flores named Jorge Luis Borges as the first magical realist, he failed to acknowledge either Carpentier or Pietri for bringing Roh's magic realism to Latin America.
Borges is seen as a predecessor of magical realists, with only Flores considering him a true magical realist. After Flores's essay, there was a resurgence of interest in marvelous realism, after the Cuban revolution of 1959, led to the term magical realism being applied to a new type of literature known for matter-of-fact portrayal of magical events; the extent to which the characteristics below apply to a given magic realist text varies. Every text employs a smattering of the qualities listed here. However, they portray what one might expect from a magic realist text. Magical realism portrays fantastical events in an otherwise realistic tone, it brings fables, folk tales, myths into contemporary social relevance. Fantasy traits given to characters, such as levitation and telekinesis, help to encompass modern political realities that can be phantasmagorical; the existence of fantasy elements in the real world provides the basis for magical realism. Writers do not invent new worlds but reveal the magical in this world, as was done by Gabriel García Márquez who wrote the seminal work of the style, One Hundred Years of Solitude.
In the world of magical realism, the supernatural realm blends with the familiar world. Authorial reticence is the "deliberate withholding of information and explanations about the disconcerting fictiti
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Pierre Renoir was a French stage and film actor. He was the son of the impressionist painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir and elder brother of the film director Jean Renoir, he is noted for being the first actor to play Georges Simenon's character Inspector Jules Maigret. Pierre Renoir was born on 21 March 1885 in Paris, at 18 rue Houdon, about a hundred meters from place Pigalle, to painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Aline Charigot. For his best remembered role, as Jėricho the ragman in Children of Paradise, he was cast at short notice to replace the collaborator Robert Le Vigan. Renoir was the director of the Théâtre de l'Athénée in Paris, taking over after the death of Louis Jouvet in 1951. Pierre Renoir's son was the cinematographer Claude Renoir —not to be confused with Pierre's brother Claude Renoir, known as'Coco'. La Digue The Whirlpool of Fate Morgane, the Enchantress The Agony of the Eagles Madame Bovary The Citadel of Silence La Marseillaise Mollenard The Lafarge Case The Patriot Personal Column Coral Reefs Serge Panine The Pavilion Burns The Trump Card Traveling Light St. Val's Mystery Les Enfants du paradis Special Mission The Captain The Farm of Seven Sins The Ferret Dr. Knock Judgement of God Pierre Renoir on IMDb