General José Gervasio Artigas
General Jose Gervasio Artigas is a bronze statue, in Washington, DC, capital of the United States, at the intersection of Constitution Avenue and Virginia Avenue, at 18th Street. It is one of a set called the Statues of the Liberators. José Artigas was a 19th-century general, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan independence", "Protector de los Pueblos Libres" or "Jefe de los Orientales"; the Washington, DC, statue was created before 1948 by Juan Manuel Blanes. At its base are engraved the words "Liberty of America is my dream and its attainment my only hope." Although this statue was delivered before the identical one in Montevideo, Montevideo erected theirs in 1949 and the Washington, DC, Parks Department did not erect its until a year on 19 June 1950. Both statues were gifts from the people of Uruguay and are replicas of an original in San José de Mayo, created by Italian sculptor Dante Costa; the Uruguayan officer Edgardo Ubaldo Genta had conceived the idea in 1940 as a good-will gesture.
Artigas Mausoleum List of public art in Washington, D. C. Ward 2 Statues of the Liberators DCmemorials.com - Page about the Statue of Artigas at 18th and Constitution in Washington, DC New York City Parks official site - Article about the statue of Artigas on 6th Avenue in SoHo Mooremack News official site - Article about the statue of Artigas in Montevideo, from the newsletter of the shipping company that carried it from Uruguay Smithsonian Art Inventories Catalog site of the Smithsonian's inventory and description of the statue and a brief history of it
Máximo Benito Santos Barbosa was a Uruguayan political and military figure. Santos pursued a career in the military, prior to serving as Minister for War from 1880 to 1882, he was a member of the Colorado Party. In 1882 Miguel Alberto Flangini Ximénez, who served as acting President of Uruguay, stepped down from office. Succeeding acting President Flangini, Santos served as President of Uruguay from 1882 until 1886. Among Santos's lasting acts as President was the creation of the Flores Department in the interior of the country, named after assassinated former President of Uruguay General Venancio Flores, who hailed from the territory incorporated as a department, he in a measure repaired relations with Paraguay. However, his administration was widely criticized for failure to root out corruption. Santos was succeeded as president by Francisco Antonino Vidal in 1886. Subsequently, after relinquishing presidential office in 1886, Santos returned to exercise presidential powers for a number of months in 1886.
Santos was succeeded as president by his Colorado Party colleague Máximo Tajes, with whom, however, he had poor relations. Tajes was still exercising his presidential office at Santos's death. Subsequent to the relinquishing of his presidential office for the second time, Santos travelled in Europe, was unable to return to Uruguay. Still aged in his early 40s, Santos died in exile in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1889. Santos' magnificent residence in downtown Montevideo nowadays is the seat of the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Uruguay and is known as Palacio Santos, his country estate now houses the Museo de la Memoria, a state-owned museum dedicated to the victims of the Uruguayan dictatorship. Colorado Party #Earlier History Politics of Uruguay Miguel Alberto Flangini Ximénez#Interim President of Uruguay Máximo Tajes#President of Uruguay Flores Department#History and cultural heritage
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Uruguay River is a river in South America. It flows from north to south and forms parts of the boundaries of Brazil and Uruguay, separating some of the Argentine provinces of La Mesopotamia from the other two countries, it passes between the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. The river measures about 1,838 kilometres in length and starts in the Serra do Mar in Brazil, where the Canoas River and the Pelotas River are joined, at about 200 metres above mean sea level. In this stage the river falls, its course through Rio Grande do. An unusual feature of the Uruguay River is a submerged canyon; this canyon formed during the Ice Age, when the climate was drier and the river was narrower. Its depth is up to 100 metres below the bottom of the river channel and it is 1/8 to 1/3 as wide as the river; the canyon is only visible in two places, one of, the Moconá Falls. However, the falls are not visible for 150 days per year and become more like rapids when they are not visible. Unlike most waterfalls, the Moconá Falls are parallel to the river, not perpendicular.
The falls are 10 metres to 12 metres high and between 1,800 metres and 3,000 metres wide. They are 1,215 kilometres from the mouth of the river; the 17,491 hectares Turvo State Park, created in 1947, protects the Brazilian side of the falls. Together with the Paraná River, the Uruguay forms the Río de la Plata estuary, it is navigable from around Salto Chico. Its main tributary is the Río Negro, born in the south of Brazil and goes through Uruguay for 500 km until its confluence with the Uruguay River, located 100 km north of the Uruguay's confluence with the Río de la Plata, in Punta Gorda, Colonia Department, Uruguay; the river is crossed by five international bridges called: Integration Bridge and Paso de los Libres-Uruguaiana International Bridge, between Argentina and Brazil. The drainage basin of the Uruguay River has an area of 365,000 square kilometres, its main economic use is the generation of hydroelectricity and it is dammed in its lower portion by the Salto Grande Dam and by the Itá Dam upstream in Brazil.
The name of the river comes from the Spanish settlers' interpretation of the Guaraní language word the inhabitants of the region used to designate it. There are several interpretations, including "the river of the uru", " the uruguá". Argentina and Uruguay experienced a conflict over the construction of pulp mills on the Uruguay River. Two European companies, ENCE and Botnia, proposed building cellulose processing plants at Fray Bentos, opposite Gualeguaychú, Argentina. According to a 1975 treaty and Uruguay were supposed to jointly agree on matters relating to the Uruguay River. Argentina alleged. Additionally, Argentina believed the Finnish company Botnia was polluting the fish and the overall environment of the river while Uruguay believed that the plant was not depositing a large amount of toxins in the Uruguay River. Starting in April 2005, residents of Gualeguaychú, as well as many others, claiming that the plants would pollute the river shared by the two countries. Early in 2006, the conflict escalated into a diplomatic crisis, compelling one of the companies move the project 250 kilometres south.
Beginning in December 2005, the international bridges linking the Argentine province of Entre Ríos with Uruguay were intermittently blockaded by Argentine protesters, causing major disruptions in commercial traffic and tourism. In 2006, Argentina brought the dispute before the International Court of Justice; the ICJ completed hearings between Argentina and Uruguay regarding the dispute on October 2, 2009. In 2010, the court ruled that although Uruguay failed to inform Argentina of the construction of the pulp mills, the mills did not pollute the river, so closing the remaining pulp mill would be unjustified. In 2010, Argentina and Uruguay created a joint commission to coordinate activities on the river; the course of the Uruguay is crossed by the following bridges, beginning upstream: List of rivers of the Americas Geography of Uruguay Tributaries of the Río de la Plata Media related to Uruguay River at Wikimedia Commons Salto Grande Hydroelectric System Uruguay River at GEOnet Names Server Río Uruguay at GEOnet Names Server Rio Uruguai at GEOnet Names Server "Map of the Uruguay River from Yapeyu to the Farm of Sn. Gregorio" from 1784
Concepción del Uruguay
Concepción del Uruguay is a city in Argentina. It is located in the Entre Ríos province, on the western shore of the Uruguay River, some 320 kilometers north from Buenos Aires, its population is about 80,000 inhabitants. The city was founded on June 1783 by Tomás de Rocamora. Rich in ancient monuments, it is sometimes referred to as La Histórica due to is participation in the national formation process; the Palacio San José, the old personal residence of caudillo Justo José de Urquiza is located only 23 km from Concepción. A populated area known as Arroyo de China, was recorded in 1778 and located north of the namesake creek in what are now the neighborhoods of Puerto Viejo and La Concepción in the extreme south of the city; the same year the first chapel was erected at a place. Commissioned by the viceroy of Vértiz and Juan Jose Salcedo, Thomas Rocamora founded the town of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception of Uruguay on 25 June 1783, lifting the first town north of the existing population to what is now the administrative and commercial centre of the city.
There are discussions about the full name of the city, as some versions say it was Concepción del Uruguay. In 1810, aware of the movement, raised in Buenos Aires, the city was the first to join the cause of the Revolution. In 1814 the Supreme Director Gervasio Antonio Posadas, using the extraordinary powers given by the Constituent Assembly, named Concepción del Uruguay as the capital of the province of Entre Ríos at the time of its creation. On June 29, 1815, General José Gervasio Artigas convened the first congress independence, held in the city with the name of Congress East, it was meant for the declaration of independence Argentina and the adoption of the flag created by Belgrano straddles the currency punzó-red diagonal stripe symbolizing federalism. It was decided not to attend Congress of Tucumán to be held the following year as a sign of protest toward Directory to promote the Portuguese invasion in Banda Oriental and attacks on federal deputies. On February 1, 1820, General Francisco Ramírez, allied with the governor of Santa Fe Estanislao López, who commanded the federal army defeated José Rondeau at the battle of Cepeda, shortly after signing the Treaty of Pilar.
Subsequently, Ramírez was distanced from López and September 29 of that year, proclaimed the Republic of Entre Ríos, which included addition to the existing provinces of Corrientes and Misiones, Concepción being the capital of Uruguay. But the life of this republic would be short-lived, since they would disband with the death of Ramírez on July 10, 1821. In 1826, General Justo José de Urquiza, in his role as the governor of Entre Rios, promoted the law that gave Concepción del Uruguay range city. In 1848 Urquiza created in the City College of Uruguay, first in the country of secular character. In 1851, at the foot of the pyramid's central Plaza, General Francisco Ramirez, the pronouncement of Urquiza took place against Juan Manuel de Rosas, an act that would lead to the battle of Caseros on February 3, 1852, in which Urquiza was the winner and which paved the way for enactment of the National Constitution the following year. In 1852, troops from Buenos Aires led by General Madariaga disembark frustrated with the aim of taking the city.
The Provincial Convention gathered in the city in 1860 to punish the provincial Constitution again declare the provincial capital, which would function until the year of the centennial, 1883, when the capital was moved to the city of Paraná. On January 1, 1873 the town was formally created; the same year, during the boom of normalcy, Sarmiento created in the city the second Normal School in the country, after the first of Paraná and women. June 30, 1887 was enabled the rail link across the line, integrated into the General Urquiza Rail with the cities of Paraná, Nogoyá and Rosario del Tala; that year was reformed port, which in 1910 reached their best time from his office be one of the most important country. Throughout the twentieth century, the city continued to hold importance to cultural and economic level, adding to the processes of industrialization underway in the country and settling their major industries. In 1994, the swearing of the Constitutional Reform was held at the Palacio San José.
To distinguish its citizens from Uruguayan nationals, people from Concepción del Uruguay are called uruguayenses, while Uruguayans are known as uruguayos. Today the city has three major industries: the port, the industrial park and the state administration; the Uruguay Department produces 47% of the nation's poultry, Concepción del Uruguay together with Gualeguay and Colón make up 85% of Argentine chicken exports. The city has four universities, of which three are public and the other one is private, they totalled ten faculties. In turn, two of the aforementioned institutions have headquarters in the city of his rectory, confirming its importance as the largest educational center in the region. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Information and history Concepción National University On its foundation Tourism in Concepción
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev