Juan Manuel de Rosas

Juan Manuel de Rosas, nicknamed "Restorer of the Laws", was a politician and army officer who ruled Buenos Aires Province and the Argentine Confederation. Although born into a wealthy family, Rosas independently amassed a personal fortune, acquiring large tracts of land in the process. Rosas enlisted his workers in a private militia, as was common for rural proprietors, took part in the disputes that led to numerous civil wars in his country. Victorious in warfare influential, with vast landholdings and a loyal private army, Rosas became a caudillo, as provincial warlords in the region were known, he reached the rank of brigadier general, the highest in the Argentine Army, became the undisputed leader of the Federalist Party. In December 1829, Rosas became governor of the province of Buenos Aires and established a dictatorship backed by state terrorism. In 1831, he signed the Federal Pact, recognising provincial autonomy and creating the Argentine Confederation; when his term of office ended in 1832, Rosas departed to the frontier to wage war on the indigenous peoples.

After his supporters launched a coup in Buenos Aires, Rosas was asked to return and once again took office as governor. Rosas reestablished his dictatorship and formed the repressive Mazorca, an armed parapolice that killed thousands of citizens. Elections became a farce, the legislature and judiciary became docile instruments of his will. Rosas created a cult of personality and his regime became totalitarian in nature, with all aspects of society rigidly controlled. Rosas faced many threats to his power during early 1840s, he fought a war against the Peru–Bolivian Confederation, endured a blockade by France, faced a revolt in his own province and battled a major rebellion that lasted for years and spread to several Argentine provinces. Rosas persevered and extended his influence in the provinces, exercising effective control over them through direct and indirect means. By 1848, he had extended his power beyond the borders of Buenos Aires and was ruler of all of Argentina. Rosas attempted to annex the neighbouring nations of Uruguay and Paraguay.

France and Great Britain jointly retaliated against Argentine expansionism, blockading Buenos Aires for most of the late 1840s, but were unable to halt Rosas, whose prestige was enhanced by his string of successes. When the Empire of Brazil began aiding Uruguay in its struggle against Argentina, Rosas declared war in August 1851, starting the Platine War; this short conflict ended with Rosas absconding to Britain. His last years were spent in exile living as a tenant farmer until his death in 1877. Rosas garnered an enduring public perception among Argentines as a brutal tyrant. Since the 1930s, an authoritarian, anti-Semitic, racist political movement in Argentina called Revisionism has tried to improve Rosas's reputation and establish a new dictatorship in the model of his regime. In 1989, his remains were repatriated by the government in an attempt to promote national unity, seeking forgiveness for him and for the 1970s military dictatorship. Rosas remains a controversial figure in Argentina in the 21st century.

Juan Manuel José Domingo Ortiz de Rosas was born on 30 March 1793 at his family's town house in Buenos Aires, the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. He was the first child of Agustina López de Osornio. León Ortiz was the son of an immigrant from the Spanish Province of Burgos. A military officer with an undistinguished career, León Ortiz had married into a wealthy Criollo family; the young Juan Manuel de Rosas's character was influenced by his mother Agustina, a strong-willed and domineering woman who derived these character traits from her father Clemente López de Osornio, a landowner who died defending his estate from an Indian attack in 1783. As was common practice at the time, Rosas was schooled at home until the age of 8, enrolled in what was regarded the best private school in Buenos Aires. Though befitting the son of a wealthy landowner, his education was unremarkable. According to historian John Lynch, Rosas' education "was supplemented by his own efforts in the years that followed.

Rosas was not unread, though the time, the place, his own bias limited the choice of authors. He appears to have had a sympathetic, if superficial, acquaintance with minor political thinkers of French absolutism."In 1806, a British expeditionary force invaded Buenos Aires. A 13-year-old Rosas served distributing ammunition to troops in a force organised by Viceroy Santiago Liniers to counter the invasion; the British returned a year later. Rosas was assigned to the Caballería de los Migueletes, although he was barred from active duty during this time due to illness. After the British invasions had been repelled and his family moved from Buenos Aires to their estancia, his work there further shaped his character and outlook as part of the Platine region's social establishment. In the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, owners of large landholdings provided food and protection for families living in areas under their control, their private defense forces consisted of laborers who were drafted as soldiers.

Most of these peons, as such workers were called, were gauchos. The landed aristocracy of Spanish descent considered the illiterate, mixed-race gauchos, who comprised the majority of the population, to be ungovernable and untrustworthy; the gauchos were tolerated because there was no other labor force available, but were treated with contempt by the landowners. Rosas got along well with the gauchos in his service, despite his harsh and authorit

What Maisie Knew

What Maisie Knew is a novel by Henry James, first published as a serial in The Chap-Book and in the New Review in 1897 and as a book that year. It tells the story of the sensitive daughter of divorced and narcissistic parents; the book follows the title character from earliest childhood to precocious maturity. When Beale and Ida Farange are divorced, the court decrees that their only child, the young Maisie, will shuttle back and forth between them, spending six months of the year with each; the parents are immoral and frivolous, they use Maisie to intensify their hatred of each other. Beale Farange marries Miss Overmore, Maisie's pretty governess, while Ida marries the likeable but weak Sir Claude. Maisie gets a new governess: somewhat-ridiculous but devoted Mrs. Wix. Both Ida and Beale soon cheat on their spouses. Maisie's parents abandon her and she becomes the responsibility of Sir Claude. Maisie must decide if she wants to remain with Sir Claude and Mrs. Farange. In the book's long final section set in France, the older Maisie struggles to choose between them and Mrs Wix, concludes that her new parents' relationship will end as her biological parents' did.

She goes to stay with Mrs. Wix, her most reliable adult guardian. What Maisie Knew has attained a strong critical position in the Jamesian canon. Edmund Wilson was one of many critics who admired both the book's technical proficiency and its judgment of a negligent and damaged society; when Wilson recommended What Maisie Knew to Vladimir Nabokov, the author of Lolita, Nabokov said he thought the book was terrible. F. R. Leavis, on the other hand, declared the book to be "perfection"; the psychoanalytic critic Neil Hertz has argued for a parallel between James' narrative voice and the problem of transference in Freud's Dora case. An eponymous film adaptation was released in 2012, directed by Scott McGehee and David Siegel, starring Julianne Moore, Alexander Skarsgård, Onata Aprile, it is based on James' plot, with some alterations, such as 1890s London becoming present-day New York City and the professions of Maisie's parents changing. Moreover, in the film version, unlike the book, Maisie's foster parents prove loving and dependable.

Maisie thus finds a happy life with them, the character of Mrs. Wix is eliminated from the film's plot. Cargill, Oscar; the Novels of Henry James. New York: Macmillan Co. Jeffers, Thomas L.. Apprenticeships: The Bildungsroman from Goethe to Santayana. New York: Palgrave. Pp. 89–118. ISBN 1-4039-6607-9. Wagenknecht, Edward; the Novels of Henry James. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. ISBN 0-8044-2959-6. James, Henry. What Maisie Knew. New York. What Maisie Knew at Project Gutenberg What Maisie Knew public domain audiobook at LibriVox "Notes on the various texts of What Maisie Knew". Library of America

Institute for Scientific Information

The Institute for Scientific Information was an academic publishing service, founded by Eugene Garfield in Philadelphia in 1960. ISI offered bibliographic database services, its specialty was citation indexing and analysis, a field pioneered by Garfield. ISI maintained citation databases covering thousands of academic journals, including a continuation of its longtime print-based indexing service the Science Citation Index, as well as the Social Sciences Citation Index and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index. All of these were available via ISI's Web of Knowledge database service; this database allows a researcher to identify which articles have been cited most and who has cited them. The database provides some measure of the academic impact of the papers indexed in it, may increase their impact by making them more visible and providing them with a quality label; some anecdotal evidence suggests that appearing in this database can double the number of citations received by a given paper. The ISI published the annual Journal Citation Reports which list an impact factor for each of the journals that it tracked.

Within the scientific community, journal impact factors continue to play a large but controversial role in determining the kudos attached to a scientist's published research record. A list of over 14,000 journals was maintained by the ISI; the list included humanities journals as well as scientific journals. Listings were based on published selection criteria and is an indicator of journal quality and impact. ISI published Science Watch, a newsletter which every two months identified one paper published in the previous two years as a "fast breaking paper" in each of 22 broad fields of science, such as Mathematics, Biology and Physics; the designations were based on the number of citations and the largest increase from one bimonthly update to the next. Articles about the papers included comments by the authors; the ISI published a list of "ISI Highly Cited Researchers", one of the factors included in the Academic Ranking of World Universities published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University. This continues under Clarivate.

ISI was acquired by Thomson Scientific & Healthcare in 1992, became known as Thomson ISI. It was a part of the Intellectual Property & Science business of Thomson Reuters until 2016, when the IP & Science business was sold, becoming Clarivate Analytics. In February 2018, Clarivate announced it will re-establish ISI as part of its Scientific and Academic Research group, it exists as a group within Clarivate as of November 2018. "ISI Highly Cited" is a database of "highly cited researchers"—scientific researchers whose publications are most cited in academic journals over the past decade, published by the Institute for Scientific Information. Inclusion in this list is taken as a measure of the esteem of these academics and is used, for example, by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, it as of 2018 continues under the same name at Clarivate. The methodology for inclusion is to consider papers in the upper first percentile based on citation counts of all articles indexed in the Scientific Citation Databases and published in a single, fixed year.

Papers in the upper first percentile with respect of their year of publication are called cited papers. Each paper in the data is assigned to one or more of 21 categories, based on the ISI classification of the journal in which the article was published; the Highly Cited Researchers list is compiled by selecting, in every field, those researchers with the highest number of cited papers in a 10-year, rolling time period. The number of cited researchers varies from field to field and is determined accordingly to the total number of researchers contributing to the single field; the categories are as follows: The publication list and biographical details supplied by the researchers are available online, although general access to the ISI citation database is by subscription. Clarivate Citation Laureates Web of Science website Highly Cited website