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Judea

Judea or Judaea, the modern version of Judah is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the contemporaneous Latin, the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of the region of Palestine. The name originates from the Hebrew name Yehudah, a son of the Jewish patriarch Jacob/Israel, Yehudah's progeny forming the biblical Israelite tribe of Judah and the associated Kingdom of Judah, which the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia dates from 934 until 586 BCE; the name of the region continued to be incorporated through the Babylonian conquest, Persian and Roman periods as Yehud, Yehud Medinata, Hasmonean Judea, Herodian Judea and Roman Judea, respectively. As a consequence of the Bar Kokhba revolt, in 135 CE the region was renamed and merged with Roman Syria to form Syria Palaestina by the victorious Roman Emperor Hadrian. A large part of Judea was included in Jordanian West Bank between 1948 and 1967; the term Judea as a geographical term was revived by the Israeli government in the 20th century as part of the Israeli administrative district name Judea and Samaria Area for the territory referred to as the West Bank.

The name Judea is a Greek and Roman adaptation of the name "Judah", which encompassed the territory of the Israelite tribe of that name and of the ancient Kingdom of Judah. Nimrud Tablet K.3751, dated c. 733 BCE, is the earliest known record of the name Judah. Judea was sometimes used as the name including parts beyond the river Jordan. In 200 CE Sextus Julius Africanus, cited by Eusebius, described "Nazara" as a village in Judea."Judea" was a name used by English speakers for the hilly internal part of Palestine until the Jordanian rule of the area in 1948. For example, the borders of the two states to be established according to the UN's 1947 partition scheme were described using the terms "Judea" and "Samaria" and in its reports to the League of Nations Mandatory Committee, as in 1937, the geographical terms employed were "Samaria and Judea". Jordan called the area ad-difa’a al-gharbiya. "Yehuda" is the Hebrew term used for the area in modern Israel since the region was captured and occupied by Israel in 1967.

The classical Roman-Jewish historian Josephus wrote: In the limits of Samaria and Judea lies the village Anuath, named Borceos. This is the northern boundary of Judea; the southern parts of Judea, if they be measured lengthways, are bounded by a village adjoining to the confines of Arabia. However, its breadth is extended from the river Jordan to Joppa; the city Jerusalem is situated in the middle. Nor indeed is Judea destitute of such delights as come from the sea, since its maritime places extend as far as Ptolemais: it was parted into eleven portions, of which the royal city Jerusalem was the supreme, presided over all the neighboring country, as the head does over the body; as to the other cities that were inferior to it, they presided over their several toparchies. This country begins at Mount Libanus, the fountains of Jordan, reaches breadthways to the lake of Tiberias, its inhabitants are a mixture of Syrians. And thus have I, with all possible brevity, described the country of Judea, those that lie round about it.

Judea is a mountainous region, part of, considered a desert. It varies in height, rising to an altitude of 1,020 m in the south at Mount Hebron, 30 km southwest of Jerusalem, descending to as much as 400 m below sea level in the east of the region, it varies in rainfall, starting with about 400–500 millimetres in the western hills, rising to 600 millimetres around western Jerusalem, falling back to 400 millimetres in eastern Jerusalem and dropping to around 100 millimetres in the eastern parts, due to a rainshadow effect. The climate, moves between Mediterranean in the west and desert climate in the east, with a strip of steppe climate in the middle. Major urban areas in the region include Jerusalem, Gush Etzion and Hebron. Geographers divide Judea into several regions: the Hebron hills, the Jerusalem saddle, the Bethel hills and the Judean desert east of Jerusalem, which descends in a series of steps to the Dead Sea; the hills are distinct for their anticline structure. In ancient times the hills were forested, the Bible records agriculture and sheep farming being practiced in the area.

Animals are still grazed today, with shepherds moving them between the low ground to the hilltops as summer approaches, while the slopes are still layered with centuries-old stone terracing. The Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended in the devastation of vast areas of the Judaean countryside. Mount Hazor marks the geographical boundary between Samaria to Judea to its south; the early history of Judah is uncertain.

Tom Marshall (basketball)

John Thomas Marshall is an American former basketball player and coach. He graduated from Mount Juliet High School in Tennessee, he was a star at Western Kentucky University in the 1950s. His number 41 is one of only six retired at Western Kentucky, he was named to the OVC 40th Anniversary team. A 6'4" forward, he was drafted by the Rochester Royals with the seventh pick of the 1954 NBA draft. After a promising rookie season, he was missed the 1955 -- 56 season. In a four-year NBA career, he played for the Royals, as well as for the Detroit Pistons. In his final year as a player he served as a player-coach; the Royals would become the Sacramento Kings many years after his retirement. Basketball-Reference.com: Tom Marshall Basketball-Reference.com: Tom Marshall

2009–10 Football League Trophy

The 2009–10 Football League Trophy, known as the 2009–10 Johnstone's Paint Trophy for sponsorship reasons, is the 26th Football League Trophy, a knockout competition for English football clubs in Leagues One and Two, the third and fourth tiers of English football. The format is similar to that, used since 1996, with four first round regions; the resulting regional winners meet in the final. Luton Town were the defending champions, but were not allowed to defend the trophy due to relegation to the Conference in the same season. Sixteen teams were granted byes to the Second Round, which were drawn on 3 August, while the remaining teams were drawn for the First Round ties on Soccer AM on 15 August 2009; as part of new rules enforced this season, teams who received byes the previous season were not allowed to receive byes this season. The First Round matches were played in the week commencing 31 August 2009; the Second Round draw took place on 5 September 2009, with matches to be played in the week commencing 5 October 2009.

The draw for the area quarter-finals took place on 10 October 2009. The matches were played in the week commencing 9 November 2009; the draw for the area semi-finals took place on 14 November 2009. The matches were played in the week commencing 14 December 2009; the area finals, which serve as the semi-finals for the entire competition, were contested over two legs and away. Carlisle United 4–4 Leeds United on aggregate. Carlisle United won 6–5 on penalties. Southampton won 4–1 on aggregate Football League Trophy Tournament home page