A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges. The powers, method of appointment and training of judges vary across different jurisdictions; the judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and in an open court. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers or solicitors of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might be an examining magistrate; the ultimate task of a judge is to settle a legal dispute in a final and public manner, thus affirm the rule of law. Judges exercise significant governmental power, they can order police, military or judicial officials to execute searches, imprisonments, distrainments, seizures and similar actions.
However, judges supervise that trial procedures are followed, in order to ensure consistency and impartiality and avoid arbitrariness. The powers of a judge are checked by higher courts such as supreme courts. Before the trial, a pre-trial investigation collecting the facts has been conducted by police officials, such as police officers and coroners, prosecutors or public procurators; the court has three main trained court officials: the judge, the prosecutor and the defence attorney. The role of a judge varies between legal systems. In an adversarial system, as in effect in the U. S. and England, the judge functions as an impartial referee ensuring correct procedure, while the prosecution and the defense present their case to a jury selected from common citizens. The main factfinder is the jury, the judge will finalize sentencing. In smaller cases judges can issue summary judgments without proceeding to a jury trial. In an inquisitorial system, as in effect in continental Europe, there is no jury and the main factfinder is the judge, who will do the presiding and sentencing on his own.
As such, the judge is expected to apply the law directly, as in the French expression Le juge est la bouche de la loi. Furthermore, in some system investigation may be conducted by the judge, functioning as an examining magistrate. Judges may work alone in smaller cases, but in criminal and other significant cases, they work in a panel. In some civil law systems, this panel may include lay judges. Unlike professional judges, lay judges are not trained, but unlike jurors, lay judges are volunteers and may be politically appointed. Judges are assisted by law clerks and notaries in legal cases and by bailiffs or similar with security. There are professional judges. A volunteer judge, such as an English magistrate, is not required to have legal training and is unpaid. Whereas, a professional judge is required to be educated. S. this requires a degree of Juris Doctor. Furthermore, significant professional experience is required. S. judges are appointed from experienced attorneys. Judges are appointed by the head of state.
In some U. S. jurisdictions, judges are elected in a political election. Impartiality is considered important for rule of law. Thus, in many jurisdictions judges may be appointed for life, so that they cannot be removed by the executive. However, in non-democratic systems, the appointment of judges may be politicized and they receive instructions on how to judge, may be removed if their conduct doesn't please the political leadership. Judges must be able to research and process extensive lengths of documents, witness testimonies, other case material, understand complex cases and possess a thorough understanding of the law and legal procedure, which requires excellent skills in logical reasoning and decision-making. Excellent writing skills are a necessity, given the finality and authority of the documents written. Judges work with people all the time. Judges are required to have good moral character, i.e. there must be no history of crime. Professional judges enjoy a high salary, in the U. S. the median salary of judges is $101,690 per annum, federal judges earn $208,000–$267,000 per annum.
A variety of traditions have become associated with the occupation. Gavels are used by judges in many countries, to the point that the gavel has become a symbol of a judge. In many parts of the world, judges sit on an elevated platform during trials. American judges wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal, both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes. In some countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs; the long wig associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was part of the standard attire in previous centuries. A short wig resembling but not identical to a barrister's wig (a Bench
Mark Allen Slaughter is an American singer and musician, one of the founders of the hard rock band Slaughter. Mark Slaughter was born in Las Vegas, Nevada on July 4, 1964. Before the formation of Slaughter, Mark fronted Xcursion before joining the Vinnie Vincent Invasion, who had a hit song, "Love Kills", that appeared on the A Nightmare on Elm Street 4: The Dream Master movie soundtrack in 1988. After that band disbanded in the late 1980s, two of its members and Dana Strum, formed the group Slaughter. Slaughter sold more than five million records in the 1990s; the group had four Top 30 hits on the Billboard charts with tunes such as "Fly To the Angels" and "Up All Night", toured with bands such as Kiss, Ozzy Osbourne and Damn Yankees. Slaughter participates in charity work with St. Jude's Children's Hospital. On January 22, 2015, Slaughter digitally released a solo album titled Reflections In A Rear View Mirror; the album was released worldwide and became available in CD format on May 22, 2015.
On May 26, 2017, Slaughter's second solo record, Halfway There was released via EMP Label Group. On April 1, 2017 Slaughter announced that he had signed to EMP Label Group, would release his second solo album Halfway There on May 26 in the US and Europe, May 10 in Japan. Mark Slaughter: official web site Mark Slaughter Interview - NAMM Oral History Library
The Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute is a Korean government-funded research institution in Daedeok Science Town in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Established in 1976, ETRI is a non-profit government-funded research institute. In the 1980s, ETRI developed TDX and 4M DRAM. In the 1990s, ETRI commercialized Code-division multiple access. In the 2000s, ETRI developed Terrestrial DMB, WiBro, 4G LTE Advanced, for mobile communications. ETRI is one of the leading research institutes in wireless communication domain with more than 2500 patents filed. ETRI developed ship-area network technology, portable automatic language interpretation and automated valet parking technology; as of December 14, 2015, ETRI had about 2,000 employees of. Official website ETRI Webzine ETRI Journal