The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Livery Stable Blues
"Livery Stable Blues" is a jazz composition copyrighted by Ray Lopez and Alcide Nunez in 1917. It was recorded by the Original Dixieland Jass Band on February 26, 1917, with the A side "Dixieland Jass Band One-Step" or "Dixie Jass Band One-Step", became acknowledged as the first jazz recording commercially released, it was recorded by the Victor Talking Machine Company in New York City at its studio at 46 West 38th Street on the 12th floor – the top floor. The Original Dixieland Jass Band was a group of white musicians from New Orleans, they had gained popularity playing at Schiller's Cafe in Chicago and Reisenweber's Restaurant in New York City, became responsible for making the New Orleans style popular on a national level. The ODJB made test recordings for Columbia on January 30, 1917. On February 26 the ODJB recorded "Livery Stable Blues" for the Victor label. "Dixieland Jass Band One-Step" was recorded in the same session. Victor executives released the record, which became an instant hit.
The record was a big hit, was the first popular music recording to sell a million copies. It established jazz as popular music and spawned demand for small jazz bands in New York and Chicago, at a time when it was getting harder and harder for musicians to find employment in New Orleans. Both sides of the record were labeled as compositions by members of the band. However, two other New Orleans musicians and Lopez, beat the ODJB in registering a copyright on the tune. Alcide Nunez had been clarinetist with the ODJB until a few months earlier. Trumpeter Ray Lopez had worked with most of the ODJB musicians in New Orleans in the bands of Papa Jack Laine; the members of the ODJB published the piece copyrighted as their own composition under the alternative title "Barnyard Blues". The two parties and their respective publishers sued each other; the case resulted in the judge declaring neither party had copyright over the work, that it was based on a pre-existing melody, declared it to be in the "public domain".
The judge expressed doubt that musicians unable to read or write music could be said to have "composed" anything. Meanwhile, a second lawsuit arose from one of the strains of "Dixieland Jass Band One-Step" being identical to the 1909 Joe Jordan number "That Teasin' Rag". Pressings of the record added Jordan as co-composer and he was awarded a share of the royalties. Pressings of "Livery Stable Blues" omitted the phrase "Composed and played by" from the original pressings. After Victor's release became a hit, Columbia had the group back to record again, released their recording of "Home Again in Indiana" backed by "At the Darktown Strutters Ball". Columbia selected two Tin Pan Alley tunes of the day for the band to record to avoid the copyright problems which surfaced over both sides of the band's supposed original compositions for Victor; the Original Dixieland Jass Band published the sheet music for the composition under the alternate title of "Barnyard Blues" with Leo Feist in New York listing Nick LaRocca as the composer.
The sheet music cover contained a reference to the Victor release of "Livery Stable Blues", 18255: "As recorded on Victor Record No. 18255 under the title of'Livery Stable Blues'. Jazz Fox Trot by D. J. LaRocca." Alcide Nunez and Ray Lopez published sheet music with Roger A. Graham in Chicago listing themselves as the composers. On their rival sheet music cover they refer to the same Victor release, Victor Record No. 18255. In a second issue of the sheet music, Marvin Lee added lyrics to the Lopez version. Musically, "Livery Stable Blues" is a New Orleans style twelve-bar blues, it starts with a four-bar introduction, followed by three distinct themes played in succession, each repeated twice. The third theme consists of the trombone and cornet imitating various barnyard animals: the clarinet a rooster, the cornet a horse, the trombone a cow; the three themes are repeated, the tune ends with a one-bar tag. Lyrics were added to the instrumental by Marvin Lee. Nick LaRocca — cornet Eddie Edwards — trombone Larry Shields — clarinet Henry Ragas — piano Tony Spargo — drums W.
C. Handy recorded one of the earliest cover versions of "Livery Stable Blues" on Columbia Records in New York on September 25, 1917 under the name Handy's Orchestra of Memphis, as A2419, with "That'Jazz' Dance" as the flip side. Paul Whiteman opened his landmark concert An Experiment in Modern Music in Aeolian Hall, New York City, on February 12, 1924 with the tune, to demonstrate the sound of early jazz bands. Jelly Roll Morton, the Emerson Military Band, the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, Fletcher Henderson, Benny Goodman, Glen Gray and the Casa Loma Orchestra, Bunny Berigan, Muggsy Spanier, Pete Daily and his Chicagoans, Phil Napoleon, the Belgrade Dixieland Orchestra, Vince Giordano, on the 2011 Grammy Award-winning soundtrack album to the HBO Boardwalk Empire series, have recorded the song. "Livery Stable Blues". U. S. Library of Congress. National Jukebox. Original Dixieland Jass Band. Red Hot Jazz. Raeburn, Bruce Boyd. "Jazz and the Italian Connection", The Jazz Archivist, Vol. VI, No. 1, pp. 1-6.
"Livery Stable Blues" by the Original Dixieland Jass Band. Archive.org. Guinness World Records. First jazz record to be released
House of Blues
House of Blues is a chain of live music concert halls and restaurants in major markets throughout the United States. House of Blues' first location, in Cambridge, Massachusetts' Harvard Square, was opened in 1992 by Isaac Tigrett, co-founder of Hard Rock Cafe, Dan Aykroyd, co-star of the 1980 film The Blues Brothers; the first House of Blues opened on November 26, 1992, in the Harvard Square commercial district and retail area of Cambridge, Massachusetts, as a live music concert hall and restaurant. The company was financed by Dan Aykroyd, Paul Shaffer, River Phoenix, James Belushi, Harvard University, among others; this original location closed in 2003 as the company sought a larger Boston location. However, the hands-in-concrete driveway where members of the Blues Brothers and others left their mark, still remains. Aykroyd and Belushi remain associated with the brand and are present for most openings and performing as The Blues Brothers. In 1993 House of Blues launched a 501 non-profit called International House of Blues Foundation which provided arts programs and musical instruments for youths.
The Music Forward Foundation continues to provide services for youth and has generated more than $20 million of support for these programs over its 20+ year existence. In 1993, The syndicated program The House of Blues Radio Hour, hosted by Dan Aykroyd as Elwood Blues, launched in partnership with CBS Radio Hour; this hour-long program focuses on the history of blues music and the contemporary artists honoring the art form. The program ended in July, 2017. In 1999, House of Blues acquired Universal Concerts from Seagram. On July 5, 2006, Live Nation acquired House of Blues Entertainment and created the Live Nation Club and Theater Division; as a division of Live Nation, the company operates 12 clubs throughout North America. Live From the House of Blues, A 1995 TBS television series made in conjunction with the chain List of music venues House of Blues official site House of Blues Hits Lansdowne House of Blues Studios - Recording studios in Nashville and Memphis
A jukebox is a automated music-playing device a coin-operated machine, that will play a patron's selection from self-contained media. The classic jukebox has buttons with letters and numbers on them that, when entered in combination, are used to play a specific selection. Coin-operated music boxes and player pianos were the first forms of automated coin-operated musical devices; these instruments used paper rolls, metal disks, or metal cylinders to play a musical selection on the instrument, or instruments, enclosed within the device. In the 1890s these devices were joined by machines which used actual recordings instead of physical instruments. In 1890, Louis Glass and William S. Arnold invented the nickel-in-the-slot phonograph, the first of, an Edison Class M Electric Phonograph retrofitted with a device patented under the name of Coin Actuated Attachment for Phonograph; the music was heard via one of four listening tubes. Early designs, upon receiving a coin, unlocked the mechanism, allowing the listener to turn a crank that wound the spring motor and placed the reproducer's stylus in the starting groove.
Exhibitors would equip many of these machines with listening tubes and array them in "phonograph parlors", allowing the patron to select between multiple records, each played on its own machine. Some machines contained carousels and other mechanisms for playing multiple records. Most machines were capable of holding only one musical selection, the automation coming from the ability to play that one selection at will. In 1918 Hobart C. Niblack patented an apparatus that automatically changed records, leading to one of the first selective jukeboxes being introduced in 1927 by the Automated Musical Instrument Company known as AMI. In 1928, Justus P. Seeburg, manufacturing player pianos, combined an electrostatic loudspeaker with a record player, coin-operated, gave the listener a choice of eight records; this Audiophone machine was wide and bulky, had eight separate turntables mounted on a rotating Ferris wheel-like device, allowing patrons to select from eight different records. Versions of the jukebox included Seeburg's Selectophone, with 10 turntables mounted vertically on a spindle.
By maneuvering the tone arm up and down, the customer could select from 10 different records. Greater levels of automation were introduced; as electrical recording and amplification improved there was increased demand for coin-operated phonographs. The word "jukebox" came into use in the United States beginning in 1940 derived from the familiar usage "juke joint", derived from the Gullah word "juke" or "joog", meaning disorderly, rowdy, or wicked; as it applies to the'use of a jukebox', the terms juking and juker are the correct expressions. Song-popularity counters told the owner of the machine the number of times each record was played, with the result that popular records remained, while lesser-played songs could be replaced. Wallboxes were an important, profitable, part of any jukebox installation. Serving as a remote control, they enabled patrons to select tunes from their booth. One example is the Seeburg 3W1, introduced in 1949 as companion to the 100-selection Model M100A jukebox. Stereo sound became popular in the early 1960s, wallboxes of the era were designed with built-in speakers to provide patrons a sample of this latest technology.
Playing music recorded on wax cylinders, the shellac 78 rpm record dominated jukeboxes in the early part of the 20th century. The Seeburg Corporation introduced an all 45 rpm vinyl record jukebox in 1950. 33⅓ RPM, CDs, videos on DVDs were all introduced and used in the last decades of the century. MP3 downloads, Internet-connected media players came in at the start of the 21st century; the jukebox's history has followed the wave of technological improvements in music reproduction and distribution. With its large speaker size, facilitating low-frequency reproduction, large amplifier, the jukebox played sound with higher quality and volume than the listener could in his or her home, sometimes music with a "beat". Jukeboxes were most popular from the 1940s through the mid-1960s during the 1950s. By the middle of the 1940s, three-quarters of the records produced in America went into jukeboxes. While associated with early rock and roll music, their popularity extends back much earlier, including classical music and the swing music era.
In 1977, The Kinks recorded. Styling progressed from the plain wooden boxes in the early thirties to beautiful light shows with marbleized plastic and color animation in the Wurlitzer 850 Peacock of 1941, but after the United States entered the war and plastic were needed for the war effort. Jukeboxes were considered "nonessential", none were produced until 1946; the 1942 Wurlitzer 950 featured wooden coin chutes to save on metal. At the end of the war, in 1946, jukebox production resumed and several "new" companies joined the fray. Jukeboxes started to offer visual attractions: bubbles, circles of changing color which came on when a sound was played. Models designed and produced in the late 20th century needed more panel space for the increased number of record titles they needed to present for selection, reducing the space available for decoration, leading to less ornate styling in favor of functionality and less maintenance. Many manufacturers produced jukeboxes, including 1890s Wurlitzer, 1920s Seebur
Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston was an influential author of African-American literature and an anthropologist, who portrayed racial struggles in the early-20th-century American South, published research on Haitian voodoo. The most popular of her four novels is Their Eyes Were Watching God, published in 1937, she wrote more than 50 short stories and essays. Hurston was born in Notasulga and moved with her family to Eatonville, Florida, in 1894, she used Eatonville as the setting for many of her stories. It is now the site of the Zora! Festival, held each year in her honor. In her early career, Hurston conducted anthropological and ethnographic research while a student at Barnard College, she had an interest in African-American and Caribbean folklore, how these contributed to the community's identity. She wrote fictional treatment about contemporary issues in the black community and became a central figure of the Harlem Renaissance, her short satires, drawing from the African-American experience and racial division, were published in anthologies such as The New Negro and Fire!!
After moving back to Florida, Hurston wrote and published her literary anthropology on African-American folklore in North Florida and Men, her first three novels: Jonah's Gourd Vine. Published during this time was Tell My Horse: Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica, documenting her research on rituals in Jamaica and Haiti. Hurston's works related both to the African-American experience and her struggles as an African-American woman, her novels went unrecognized by the literary world for decades. Interest was revived in 1975 after author Alice Walker published an article, "In Search of Zora Neale Hurston", in the March issue of Ms. magazine that year. Hurston's manuscript Every Tongue Got to Confess, a collection of folktales gathered in the 1920s, was published posthumously in 2001 after being discovered in the Smithsonian archives, her nonfiction book Barracoon: The Story of the Last "Black Cargo", about the life of Cudjoe Lewis, was published posthumously in 2018. Hurston was the sixth of eight children of Lucy Ann Hurston.
All of her four grandparents had been born into slavery. Her father was a Baptist preacher and sharecropper, who became a carpenter, her mother was a school teacher, she was born in Notasulga, Alabama, on January 7, 1891, where her father grew up and her paternal grandfather was the preacher of a Baptist church. When she was three, her family moved to Florida. In 1887 it was one of the first all-black towns incorporated in the United States. Hurston said. Sometimes she claimed it as her birthplace. A few years her father was elected as mayor of the town in 1897. In 1902 he was called as minister of Macedonia Missionary Baptist; as an adult, Hurston used Eatonville as a setting in her stories. It was a place, independent of white society. In 1901, some northern schoolteachers visited Eatonville and gave Hurston a number of books that opened her mind to literature, she described it as a kind of "birth". Hurston lived for the rest of her childhood in Eatonville, described the experience of growing up there in her 1928 essay, "How It Feels To Be Colored Me".
In 1904, Hurston's mother died. Her father remarried to Mattie Moge; this was considered scandalous, as it was rumored that he had had relations with Moge before his first wife's death. Hurston's father and stepmother sent her to a Baptist boarding school in Florida, they stopped paying her tuition and she was dismissed. Hurston started work as a maid to the lead singer in a traveling Gilbert & Sullivan theatrical company. In 1917, she resumed her formal education, attending Morgan College, the high school division of Morgan State University, a black college in Baltimore, Maryland. At this time to qualify for a free high-school education, the 26-year-old Hurston began claiming 1901 as her year of birth, she graduated from the high school of Morgan State University in 1918. In 1918, Hurston began her studies at Howard University, a black college in Washington, DC, she was one of the earliest initiates of Zeta Phi Beta sorority, founded by and for black women, co-founded The Hilltop, the university's student newspaper.
She took courses in Spanish, English and public speaking and earned an associate degree in 1920. In 1921, she wrote a short story, "John Redding Goes to Sea", which qualified her to become a member of Alaine Locke's literary club, The Stylus. Hurston left Howard in 1924, in 1925 was offered a scholarship by Barnard trustee Annie Nathan Meyer to Barnard College of Columbia University, a women's college, where she was the sole black student. While she was at Barnard, she conducted ethnographic research with noted anthropologist Franz Boas of Columbia University, studied with him as a graduate student, she worked with Ruth Benedict and fellow anthropology student Margaret Mead. Hurston received her B. A. in anthropology in 1928, when she was 37. Hurston had met Charlotte Osgood Mason, a philanthropist and literary patron, who became interested in her work and career. Mason supported Hurston's travel to the South for research from 1927 to 1932. After graduating from Barnard, Hurston studied for two years as a graduate student in anthropology at Columbia University, working further with Boas.
Living in Harlem in the 1920s, Hurston befriended poets Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen, among s
Prohibition in the United States
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933. During the nineteenth century, family violence, saloon-based political corruption prompted prohibitionists, led by pietistic Protestants, to end the alcoholic beverage trade to cure the ill society and weaken the political opposition. One result was that many communities in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries introduced alcohol prohibition, with the subsequent enforcement in law becoming a hotly debated issue. Prohibition supporters, called "drys", presented it as a victory for public morals and health. Promoted by the "dry" crusaders, the movement was led by pietistic Protestants and social Progressives in the Prohibition and Republican parties, it gained a national grass roots base through the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. After 1900, it was coordinated by the Anti-Saloon League. Opposition from the beer industry mobilized "wet" supporters from the Catholic and German Lutheran communities.
They had funding to fight back, but by 1917–18 the German community had been marginalized by the nation's war against Germany, the brewing industry was shut down in state after state by the legislatures and nationwide under the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920. Enabling legislation, known as the Volstead Act, set down the rules for enforcing the federal ban and defined the types of alcoholic beverages that were prohibited. For example, religious use of wine was allowed. Private ownership and consumption of alcohol were not made illegal under federal law, but local laws were stricter in many areas, with some states banning possession outright. Criminal gangs were able to gain control of the liquor supply for many cities. By the late-1920s a new opposition mobilized nationwide. Wets attacked prohibition as causing crime, lowering local revenues, imposing "rural" Protestant religious values on "urban" United States. Prohibition ended with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 5, 1933.
Some states continued statewide prohibition. Research shows that prohibition reduced overall alcohol consumption by half during the 1920s, consumption remained below pre-Prohibition levels until the 1940s, suggesting that Prohibition did socialize a significant proportion of the population in temperate habits, at least temporarily. Rates of liver cirrhosis "fell by 50% early in Prohibition and recovered promptly after Repeal in 1933." Criticism remains that Prohibition led to unintended consequences such as a century of Prohibition-influenced legislation and the growth of urban crime organizations, though some scholars have argued that violent crime did not increase while others have argued that crime during the Prohibition era was properly attributed to increased urbanization, rather than the criminalization of alcohol use. As an experiment it lost supporters every year, lost tax revenue that governments needed when the Great Depression began in 1929. In the United States, once the battle against slavery was won, social moralists turned to other issues, such as Mormon polygamy and the temperance movement.
On November 18, 1918, prior to ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment, the U. S. Congress passed the temporary Wartime Prohibition Act, which banned the sale of alcoholic beverages having an alcohol content of greater than 1.28%. The Wartime Prohibition Act took effect June 30, 1919, with July 1, 1919 becoming known as the "Thirsty-First"; the U. S. Senate proposed the Eighteenth Amendment on December 18, 1917. Upon being approved by a 36th state on January 16, 1919, the amendment was ratified as a part of the Constitution. By the terms of the amendment, the country went dry one year on January 17, 1920. On October 28, 1919, Congress passed the Volstead Act, the popular name for the National Prohibition Act, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto; the act established the legal definition of intoxicating liquors as well as penalties for producing them. Although the Volstead Act prohibited the sale of alcohol, the federal government lacked resources to enforce it. Prohibition was successful in reducing the amount of liquor consumed, cirrhosis death rates, admissions to state mental hospitals for alcoholic psychosis, arrests for public drunkenness, rates of absenteeism.
While some allege that Prohibition stimulated the proliferation of rampant underground and widespread criminal activity, many academics maintain that there was no increase in crime during the Prohibition era and that such claims are "rooted in the impressionistic rather than the factual." By 1925, there were anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000 speakeasy clubs in New York City alone. Wet opposition talked of personal liberty, new tax revenues from legal beer and liquor, the scourge of organized crime. On March 22, 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt signed into law the Cullen–Harrison Act, legalizing beer with an alcohol content of 3.2% and wine of a low alcohol content. On December 5, 1933, ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment repealed the Eighteenth Amendment. However, United States federal law still prohibits the manufacture of distilled spirits without meeting numerous licensing requirements that make it impractical to produce spirits for personal beverage use. Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been a contentious topic in America since the colonial period.
In May 1657, the General Court of Massachusetts made the sale of strong li
A honky-tonk is both a bar that provides country music for the entertainment of its patrons and the style of music played in such establishments. Bars of this kind are common in Southwest United States. Many eminent country music artists, such as Jimmie Rodgers, Loretta Lynn, Patsy Cline, Ernest Tubb, Johnny Horton and Merle Haggard, began their careers as amateur musicians in honky-tonks; the modern-day, honky-tonk atmosphere has continued, with the likes of Dwight Yoakam, Turnpike Troubadours, Mike and the Moonpies. The origin of the term honky-tonk is disputed referring to bawdy variety shows in areas of the old West and to the actual theaters showing them; the first music genre to be known as honky-tonk was a style of piano playing related to ragtime but emphasizing rhythm more than melody or harmony. This honky-tonk music was an important influence on the boogie-woogie piano style. Before World War II, the music industry began to refer to hillbilly music being played from Texas and Oklahoma to the West Coast as "honky-tonk" music.
In the 1950s, honky-tonk entered its golden age, with the popularity of Webb Pierce, Hank Locklin, Lefty Frizzell, Ray Price, Faron Young, George Jones, Hank Williams. The origin of the term honky-tonk is unknown; the earliest known use in print is an article in the Peoria Journal dated June 28, 1874, stating, "The police spent a busy day today raiding the bagnios and honkytonks." The capitalization of the term suggests. There are subsequent citations from 1890 in The Dallas Morning News, 1892 in the Galveston Daily News, in 1894 in The Daily Ardmoreite in Oklahoma, Early uses of the term in print appear along a corridor coinciding with cattle drive trails extending from Dallas and Fort Worth, into south central Oklahoma, suggesting that the term may have been a localism spread by cowboys driving cattle to market; the sound of honky-tonk and the types of places that were called honky-tonks suggests that the term may be an onomatopoeic reference to the loud, boisterous music and noise heard at these establishments.
One theory is that the "tonk" portion of the name may have come from the brand name of piano made by William Tonk & Bros. an American manufacturer of large upright pianos, which made a piano with the decal "Ernest A. Tonk"; the Tonk brothers and Max, established the Tonk Bros. Manufacturing Company in 1873, so such an etymology is possible, however these pianos were not manufactured until 1889, contemporaneous with the first occurrences of honky-tonk in print, at which point the term seems to have been established. An early source purporting to explain the derivation of the term was an article published in 1900 by the New York Sun and reprinted in other newspapers; the article, reads more like a humorous urban legend or fable, so its veracity is questionable. An article in the Los Angeles Times of July 28, 1929, with the headline "Honky-Tonk" Origin Told,", in response to the Sophie Tucker movie musical, Honky Tonk, reads: Honky-tonks were rough establishments, providing country music in the Deep South and Southwest and serving alcoholic beverages to a working-class clientele.
Some honky-tonks offered dancing to music played by pianists or small bands, some were centers of prostitution. Katrina Hazzard-Gordon wrote that the honky-tonk was "the first urban manifestation of the jook", that "the name itself became synonymous with a style of music. Related to the classic blues in tonal structure, honky-tonk has a tempo, stepped up, it is rhythmically suited for many African-American dance."As Chris Smith and Charles McCarron wrote in their 1916 hit song "Down in Honky Tonk Town", "It's underneath the ground, where all the fun is found." Although the derivation of the term is unknown, honky tonk referred to bawdy variety shows in the West and to the theaters housing them. The earliest mention of them in print refers to them as "variety theaters" and describe the entertainment as "variety shows"; the theaters had an attached gambling house and always a bar. In recollections long after the frontiers closed, writers such as Wyatt Earp and E. C. Abbott referred to honky-tonks in the cowtowns of Kansas and Montana in the 1870s and 1880s.
Their recollections contain lurid accounts of the women and violence accompanying the shows. However, in contemporary accounts these were nearly always called hurdy-gurdy shows derived from the term hurdy-gurdy, sometimes mistakenly applied to a small, portable barrel organ, played by organ grinders and buskers; as late as 1913, Col. Edwin Emerson, a former Rough Rider commander, hosted a honky-tonk party in New York City; the Rough Riders were recruited from the ranches of Texas, New Mexico and Indian Territories, so the term was still in popular use during the Spanish–American War. The honky-tonk sound has a full rhythm section playing a two-beat rhythm with a crisp backbeat. Steel guitar and fiddle are the dominant instruments; the first music genre to be known as honky-tonk music was a style of piano playing related to ragtime but empha