A jukebox is a automated music-playing device a coin-operated machine, that will play a patron's selection from self-contained media. The classic jukebox has buttons, with letters and numbers on them, when one of each group entered after each other, are used to select a specific record. Coin-operated music boxes and player pianos were the first forms of automated coin-operated musical devices; these devices used paper rolls, metal disks, or metal cylinders to play a musical selection on an actual instrument, or on several actual instruments, enclosed within the device. In the 1890s these devices were joined by machines which used recordings instead of actual physical instruments. In 1890, Louis Glass and William S. Arnold invented the nickel-in-the-slot phonograph, the first of, an Edison Class M Electric Phonograph retrofitted with a device patented under the name of Coin Actuated Attachment for Phonograph; the music was heard via one of four listening tubes. Early designs, upon receiving a coin, unlocked the mechanism, allowing the listener to turn a crank that wound the spring motor and placed the reproducer's stylus in the starting groove.

Exhibitors would equip many of these machines with listening tubes and array several of these machines in "phonograph parlors", allowing the patron to select between multiple records, each played on its own machine. Some machines contained carousels and other mechanisms for playing multiple records. Most machines were capable of holding only one musical selection, the automation coming from the ability to play that one selection at will. In 1918 Hobart C. Niblack patented an apparatus that automatically changed records, leading to one of the first selective jukeboxes being introduced in 1927 by the Automated Musical Instrument Company known as AMI. In 1928 Justus P. Seeburg, manufacturing player pianos, combined an electrostatic loudspeaker with a record player, coin-operated; this Audiophone machine was wide and bulky because it had eight separate turntables mounted on a rotating Ferris wheel-like device, allowing patrons to select from eight different records. Versions of the jukebox included Seeburg's Selectophone with 10 turntables mounted vertically on a spindle.

By maneuvering the tone arm up and down, the customer could select from 10 different records. Many manufacturers produced jukeboxes, including: 1890s Wurlitzer, late 1920s Seeburg, 1930s "Rock-Ola", Sound Leisure and Crosley. Greater levels of automation were introduced; as electrical recording and amplification improved there was increased demand for coin-operated phonographs. The word "jukebox" came into use in the United States beginning in 1940 derived from the familiar usage "juke joint", derived from the Gullah word "juke" or "joog", meaning disorderly, rowdy, or wicked; as it applies to the'use of a jukebox', the terms juking and juker are the correct expressions. Styling progressed from the plain wooden boxes in the early thirties to beautiful light shows with marbleized plastic and color animation in the Wurlitzer 850 Peacock of 1941, but after the United States entered the war and plastic were needed for the war effort. Jukeboxes were considered "nonessential", none were produced until 1946.

The 1942 Wurlitzer 950 featured wooden coin chutes to save on metal. At the end of the war, in 1946, jukebox production resumed and several "new" companies joined the fray. Jukeboxes started to offer visual attractions: bubbles, circles of changing color which came on when a sound was played. Song-popularity counters told the owner of the machine the number of times each record was played, with the result that popular records remained, while lesser-played songs could be replaced. Wallboxes were an important, profitable, part of any jukebox installation. Serving as a remote control, they enabled patrons to select tunes from their booth. One example is the Seeburg 3W1, introduced in 1949 as companion to the 100-selection Model M100A jukebox. Stereo sound became popular in the early 1960s, wallboxes of the era were designed with built-in speakers to provide patrons a sample of this latest technology. Jukeboxes playing recorded music were playing music recorded on wax cylinders. In the early part of the 20th century, the shellac 78 rpm record dominated jukeboxes.

In 1950, the Seeburg Corporation introduced an all 45 rpm vinyl record jukebox. Since the 45s were smaller and lighter, they soon became the dominant jukebox media for the last half of the 20th century. 33⅓ RPM, CDs, videos on DVDs were all introduced and used in the last decades of the century. MP3 downloads, Internet-connected media players came in at the start of the 21st century; the jukebox's history has followed the wave of technological improvements in music reproduction and distribution. With its large speaker size, facilitating low-frequency reproduction, large amplifier, the jukebox played sound with higher quality and volume than the listener could in his or her home, sometimes music with a "beat". While associated with early rock and roll music, the popularity of jukeboxes extends back much earlier, including classical music and the swing music era. Jukeboxes were most popular from the 1940s through the mid-1960s during the 1950s. By the middle of the 1940s, three-quarters of the records produced in America went into jukeboxes.

Billboard published a record chart measuring jukebox play during

Norma Teagarden

Norma Louise Teagarden was a jazz pianist. She was born in Vernon, into a musical family that consisted of her mother Helen, who played ragtime piano and taught, she performed with Jack Teagarden in the 1950s. She performed on violin during the early part of her career, which began in Oklahoma City. In the 1920s she moved to New Mexico and worked in territory bands, returned to Oklahoma City in the 1930s, moved to California in the 1940s, she toured with her brother Jack from 1944–1947 and from 1952–1955. Outside the Teagarden family, she worked with Ben Pollack, Matty Matlock, Ray Bauduc, she settled in San Francisco, where she performed on solo piano and with bandleader Turk Murphy

Tormented (Staind album)

}} Tormented is the debut studio album by the American rock band Staind, self-released in 1996. In 1993, Staind vocalist Aaron Lewis and Staind guitarist Mike Mushok met each other at a Christmas party in the New England area. Mushok brought drummer Jon Wysocki into the fold and Lewis had a connection with a bass guitarist who left, starting the early lineup. Staind was a cover band, covering songs by bands like Deftones, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam, Tool, Rage Against the Machine and Stone Temple Pilots. Shortly after bassist Johnny April joined, Staind formed in Springfield, Massachusetts on November 24, 1995. Touring in the Northeast United States helped Staind obtain a cult following. Tormented was self-released on November 29, 1996. Promoting Tormented, Staind played gigs throughout New England with bands such as God Lives Underwater and Kilgore. Tormented helped get Staind a record deal with Limp Bizkit vocalist Fred Durst and the record label Flip Records. Durst was appalled when he saw the album's graphic cover art, but signed Staind after being impressed with the band's performance.

Tormented received minor attention after its release. Critical reception was positive towards the heaviness and aggression of Tormented, but was negative towards the album's production. Described as a grunge-influenced alternative metal and heavy metal album by critics, Tormented is somewhat of a concept album that tells the story of a depressed person who commits suicide; the album contains an early version of "Mudshovel", named "Mudshuvel", the breakthrough song which would give Staind mainstream popularity in 1999. }} In 1993, Staind vocalist Aaron Lewis and Staind guitarist Mike Mushok met at a Christmas party in Springfield, Massachusetts. Mushok brought drummer Jon Wysocki into the band and Lewis had a connection with a bass guitar player who left, completing the early lineup of the band in early 1995. Staind went by the name Stain, but changed the name to Staind after the band found out the moniker had been claimed by another group. Staind covered songs by bands such as Korn, Alice in Chains, Rage Against the Machine, Stone Temple Pilots, Pearl Jam and Helmet.

The band played their first gig in February 1995. The band formed in Springfield, Massachusetts on November 24, 1995, after Johnny April joined the same month replacing the original bassist. By 1996, Staind obtained the $2,500. While Tormented was being written and recorded, Lewis was going through the throes of the breakup of a four-year relationship. Extensive touring in the Northeast United States helped Staind acquire an underground following. In a 2008 interview, Lewis elaborated on the motivation for the musical style featured on Tormented: The closest we came to being a heavy metal band was on our first record, Tormented. On that, we were trying to fit into the Boston hardcore scene; that was. We didn't have a record deal. We didn't have anything going on. In order to try to compete in some way in the Boston hardcore music scene, we wrote a heavy record, our roots for that heaviness were metal. It's never been that since. Dysfunction was a huge step away from Tormented; the songs on Tormented are about topics such as pain, animosity and depression.

Author Tommy Udo wrote: "Tormented is one long rush of hardcore brat-rage, a 900mph scream of a man smashing his head against a wall with frustration". According to Rockzone, Tormented "revealed the raw feelings of a band whose front man Aaron Lewis captivated the minds and souls of teenagers and young adults tired of the vanity that has overcome life." Described as alternative metal by AllMusic, Tormented is somewhat of a concept album that tells the story of a depressed person who commits suicide. This is hinted by the spoken-word line, "it's been like this forever... no more... I hate my fucking life", followed by the sound of a gun being cocked before the first song, "Tolerate"; the lyrics on Tormented are influenced by Staind frontman Aaron Lewis' life. Lewis spoke about it, up to a point was shit, but I've come a long way. I grew up in a trailer park in Vermont; that was the shit I got out of me in Tormented and Dysfunction, tailing into Break the Cycle. But the title, Break the Cycle, says it all."

The lyrics on Tormented have created controversy, with lyrics to songs like "Tolerate" and "Four Walls" showing themes of violence and antisocial values. AllMusic described Tormented as "grittier and more raw than" Staind's "subsequent releases"; the album's music, which features singing and screaming, has been compared to that of the heavy metal band Pantera. According to the Lollipop, Staind combine grunge-influenced hooks with heavy metal-style drums and guitars. Describing the vocals on Tormented, Lollipop elaborated: "Vocally, it may seem odd to say a band can have the passionate trembling of, ya know, those Seattle bands, yet have a desperate howl, rather Kornesque." According to Allmusic, Tormented shows influences from Tool, Faith No More, Pantera. In 2008, Staind guitarist Mike Mushok expressed his lack of appreciation for Tormented: "We have a lot of fans who say,'I love Tormented.' I'm like,'Have you listened to it? Because I can't.'" Despite being an intense heavy metal album, Tormented's song "Four Walls" is rather soft.

While Tormented has been described as alternative metal and heavy metal by critics, the album's songs "Come Again" and "Mudshuvel"