Julian Jaynes was an American researcher in psychology at Yale and Princeton for nearly 25 years and best known for his 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. His career was dedicated to the problem of consciousness, “…the difference between what others see of us and our sense of our inner selves and the deep feelings that sustain it. … Men have been conscious of the problem of consciousness since consciousness began.” Jaynes's solution touches on many disciplines, including neuroscience, psychology, history and analysis of ancient texts. Jaynes was born in West Newton, son of Julian Clifford Jaynes, a Unitarian minister, Clara Bullard Jaynes, he attended Harvard University, was an undergraduate at McGill University and afterwards received master's and doctorate degrees from Yale University. He was a close friend of Edwin G. Boring. Jaynes spent several years in prison for refusing to participate in the second World War. During this time period Jaynes made significant contributions in the fields of animal behavior and ethology.
After Yale, Jaynes spent several years in England working as an playwright. Jaynes returned to the United States and lectured in psychology at Princeton University from 1966 to 1990, teaching a popular class on consciousness for much of that time, he was in high demand as a lecturer and was invited to lecture at conferences and as a guest lecturer at other universities. In 1984, he was invited to give the plenary lecture at the Wittgenstein Symposium in Kirchberg, Austria, he gave six major lectures in 1985 and nine in 1986. He was awarded an honorary Ph. D. by Rhode Island College in 1979 and another from Elizabethtown College in 1985. He died at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, on November 21, 1997. In his book, Jaynes reviews what one of his early critics acknowledged as the “spectacular history of failure” to explain consciousness – “the human ability to introspect”. Abandoning the assumption that consciousness is innate, Jaynes explains it instead as a learned behavior that “arises... from language, from metaphor.”
With this understanding, Jaynes demonstrated that ancient texts and archeology can reveal a history of human mentality alongside the histories of other cultural products. His analysis of the evidence led him not only to place the origin of consciousness during the 2nd millennium BCE but to hypothesize the existence of an older non-conscious “mentality that he called the bicameral mind, referring to the brain’s two hemispheres”. Jaynes wrote an extensive afterword for the 1990 edition of his book, in which he addressed criticisms and clarified that his theory has four separate hypotheses: consciousness is based on and accessed by language, he expanded on the impact of consciousness on imagination and memory, notions of The Self, anxiety and sexuality. The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind was a successful work of popular science, selling out the first print run before a second could replace it; the book was a nominee for the National Book Award in 1978, received dozens of positive book reviews, including those by well-known critics such as John Updike in The New Yorker, Christopher Lehmann-Haupt in the New York Times, Marshall McLuhan in the Toronto Globe and Mail.
Articles on Jaynes and his ideas appeared in Time magazine and Psychology Today in 1977, in Quest/78 in 1978. Jaynes expanded on the ideas in his book in a series of commentaries in the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences, in lectures and discussions published in Canadian Psychology, in Art/World. More than 40 years the book is still in print, it is mentioned in Richard Dawkins's 2006 work The God Delusion as "one of those books, either complete rubbish or a work of consummate genius, nothing in between! The former, but I'm hedging my bets." Jaynes's work on consciousness has influenced philosophers Daniel Dennett, Susan Blackmore, Ken Wilber, the bicameral model of the cerebral hemispheres has influenced schizophrenia researchers Henry Nasrallah and Tim Crow. The theory of bicamerality has been cited in thousands of books and articles, both scientific and popular, it inspired early investigations of auditory hallucination by psychologist Thomas Posey and clinical psychologist John Hamilton.
With further research in the late 1990s using new brain imaging technology, Jaynes's ideas received renewed attention and recognition for contributing to a rethinking of auditory hallucinations and mental illness. In the popular domain, the idea of bicamerality has influenced novelists Philip K. Dick, William S. Burroughs, Neal Stephenson and Robert J. Sawyer.. In 2009, American novelist Terence Hawkins published The Rage of Achilles, a re-telling of Homer’s The Iliad that imagines the hero’s transition from bicameral mentality to consciousness. In The Psychology of Westworld: When Machines Go Mad, Brian J. McVeigh analyzed how bicamerality was interpreted in the 2016 science fiction TV series Westworld. A 2007 book titled Reflections on the Dawn of Consciousness: Julian Jaynes's Bicameral Mind Theory Revisited contains several of Jaynes's essays along with chapters by scholars from a variety of disciplines expanding on his ideas. At the April 2008 "Toward a Science of Consciousness" Conference held in Tucson, Marcel Kuijsten (Executive Director
Ronayne Benjamin Marsh-Brown is a Guyanese footballer who plays as a left back for Southern League Premier Division Central side Biggleswade Town. At the start of his career, playing under his former name of Ronayne Benjamin, he made three substitute appearances in Football League 2 for Macclesfield Town in 2007. Since he has played for numerous English non-league clubs. Marsh-Brown debuted for the Guyana national football team in a 2-2 CONCACAF Nations League tie with Barbados on 6 September 2018. Marsh-Brown's has 3 brothers, Kwai, Ky, Keanu Marsh-Brown, who are all footballers, his younger brother Keanu is a full international for Guyana, whilst Ky and Keanu received callups to represent the Antigua and Barbuda national football team. Ronayne Marsh-Brown at Soccerway Ronayne Marsh-Brown at National-Football-Teams.com Aylesbury United Profile FDB Profile
The Campaign Against Nuclear Energy was established in Perth, Western Australia on 14 February 1976 by Friends of the Earth. CANE was a non-profit grass roots organisation whose aim was to stop the establishment of a nuclear power plant in Western Australia and to halt uranium mining and it operated out of the Environment Centre in Wellington Street, Perth; the Whitlam Federal government in 1974 had dedicated about A$7,000 per state to set up Regional Environment Centres. Perth's Environment Centre housed other groups including the Australian Conservation Foundation, the Conservation Council of WA, Friends of the Earth, the Campaign to Save Native Forests. A CANE group was established in Adelaide, South Australia. CANE's statement of objectives said it was: It opposed the development of Nuclear Power Stations, it supported the Nuclear! Non-Proliferation Treaty and opposed the proliferation and acquisition of Weapons of Mass destruction and linked WMD with nuclear power stations, it opposed foreign policies based on nuclear deterrence.
It supported attempts to establish regional nuclear free zones. It was opposed to the use of Australian ports by nuclear-armed vessels. CANE was opposed to the export of Australian uranium for other than biomedical purposes, it asked for the cessation of development operations. It urged the adoption of long range alternative energy policies designed to meet the legitimate needs of future generations, it emphasised that it was coalition of groups and individuals working for the ideal of a more ethical and equitable energy future. 1976 was CANE's initial year of protest. There were demonstrations at Perth Airport, Rockingham, against US nuclear armed carriers headed by Barrie Machin: http://barriemachin.com, a lecturer at the University of Western Australia. CANE, under Barrie Machin's leadership, was active in its criticism of the Fox Report 1977, it was the first anti-nuclear organisation to draw attention to Aboriginal Land Rights and Uranium mining. Gloria Brennan, the first Aboriginal student at the Department of Social Anthropology at UWA, was invited to join CANE and lobby and inform Aboriginal communities in WA.
She did this successfully. Gloria died of cancer brought about from the fall-out from the Maralinga tests. CANE decided to hold major demonstrations in 1977, it set no goals about numbers since this could not be predicted. Newspapers varied in their estimates of the crowds. At the first rally in April, supporters marched from the Esplanade to Parliament House and the attendance was estimated at 600. At the second rally, on Hiroshima Day, attracted 3000 people and in November 10,000 people marched, larger than the anti-Vietnam rallies in Perth a few years earlier. Barrie Machin, as coordinator, first drew attention to the dangers of Nuclear Power stations as target for terrorists, the dangers of a link with the foreign policies of the US in a pamphlet titled: Accomplices to Armageddon. In 1977 Barrie Machin represented CANE on the WA steering committee for the Australian Democrats, stimulated by Don Chipp in response to the issue of Uranium mining. On the committee was Jack Evans who became a Senator for the Democrats.
I have been grossly disappointed with the attitude of the government on uranium mining.... The last straw on this issue was the action of the Deputy Prime Minister in launching a pro-uranium book with a statement by the Ambassador of Japan advocating the mining of Australian uranium; the breach of our promise to continue the Australian Assistance Plan. In 1978 with considerable help from Gloria Brennan Barrie Machin and other CANE members lobbied the Labour Party's National conference, their success was helped when Bob Hawke's son was manhandled by the police in Melbourne protesting against yellowcake. This was reported in all National newspapers at the time. See Brian MartinDisruption vs organisation Published in Social Alternatives, Vol. 2, No. 4, June 1982, pp. 42–43 The Premier Sir Charles Court proposed on 15 June 1979 that Breton Bay, 90 km north of Perth, Wilbinga, 70 km north of Perth as possible sites for a nuclear power station. On 4 July 1979 a Public Meeting was conducted jointly by CANE and FOE at the Perth Town Hall in response to the announcement.
Three speakers addressed the audience. The Government responded by attacking CANE; the West Australian newspaper on 25 August 1979 reported: "The Premier, Sir Charles Court, last night warned of a subtle new propaganda offensive against democracy. He said that the susceptibility of democratic governments to electoral pressure was being exploited as never before… Locally, mysteriously financed pressure groups were trying to force governments into irrational decisions through high powered arousal of emotions based on false evidence. Sir Charles said:'When you consider that governments make thousands of decisions a year on the basis of close-contact experience of what they are doing backed by outside top-level advice on critical matters, it is against the public interest to exchange this process for one of street-march campaigns and loaded opinion polls.'" Senator Ruth Coleman established another anti-nuclear group Women Against Uranium Mining and started collecting anti-nuclear information about nuclear acciden
Jember Fashion Carnaval or JFC is an annual carnival held in the East Java city of Jember. It is written as Jember Fashion Carnaval. Jember Fashion Carnival has no relation with the Christian pre-Lenten festival, but more of a festivities in general following the Brazilian style, with procession of dancers in extravagant costumes, with emphasis on the traditional Indonesian motif; the carnival used world-themed fashion or nature-inspired theme. Preparation was held extensively months before and participants volunteered for the event; the idea for Jember Fashion Carnaval was realized by local fashion designer and educator Dynand Fariz. A world-themed fashion week known as Pekan Mode Dynand Fariz was held in 2001. In 2002, the fashion week was held around the city of Jember; this has inspired the creation of Jember Fashion Carnaval. The first Jember Fashion Carnaval was held on January 1, 2003, the same date as the founding day of Jember City, it was followed by another Jember Fashion Carnaval in August 2003.
Since the carnival is held on the month of August. Starting From the rise of Group Reyog Ponorogo who crowded highways city protocol in the current cultural pageantry and celebration of the anniversary of the independence of Jember city which has always attracted the attention of citizens each year, thus create the idea of thinking a walking parade with costumes menggenakan interesting, bright colors and frilly audience reyog artists but has its own distinctive identity Jember city. At the time of 2001 to the beginning of Jember Carnaval Festival, where there wasn't much different in concept from the previous procession, therefore the shape resembling the costume of JFC always Reyog at which time there is a similar event, such as a costume festival in the countries in American continent. Today tens Reyog group in the town of Jember still participate and support the JFC activities each year, so are always there at the JFC costume design that carries about reyog art. Development Even in the development JFC is still carrying Reyog mini.
He Jiatie is a Chinese politician. A senior discipline official responsible for carrying out the anti-corruption campaign in China, He was investigated for breaching party discipline in 2016, demoted to department-level, he was accused of leaking secrets related to party inspection work. He was born in Hunan, he joined the Communist Party of China in 1983. He has a bachelor's degree from the Hunan Agricultural College, has an MBA from Hunan University and a doctorate in management, he was a party disciplinary official for much of his career, beginning his term at the Hunan provincial commission for discipline inspection in 1996. He was put in charge of inspection work in Hunan province in 2000. In 2007, he was named provincial Direction of Supervision. In August 2008, he was sent to Beijing to serve as the head of the Cadre Supervision Department of the Central Organization Department. In May 2013, he was named deputy head of the Fifth Inspection Group, in charge of Chongqing, where he assisted in bringing down municipal People's Congress Vice Chair Tan Qiwei.
In November 2013, he was named deputy leader of the Fifth Inspection Group, in charge of Yunnan. In Yunnan, he was instrumental in exposing the corruption case of former provincial party chief Bai Enpei, vice governor Shen Peiping and Kunming party chief Zhang Tianxin. In July 2014, he was named deputy leader of the Fourth Inspection Group, in charge of Tianjin. In Tianjin, He helped bring down former Tianjin police chief Wu Changshun. In July 2014, he was named deputy leader of the Fourth Inspection Group, in charge of Tibet, it is believed. In September 2014, he left his line of work in inspection and became a member of the Hubei provincial Party Standing Committee and head of party organization in Hubei, succeeding Lou Yangsheng. Sometime in 2015, He was investigated by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection for breaching discipline. On February 6, 2016, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection announced that He was dismissed from his positions and demoted one level to a non-leading tingjuji position.
In its announcement, the CCDI stated that He "violated political rules and breached political discipline, leaked secrets related to inspection work.
Sand Springs is a city in Osage and Tulsa counties in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. A western suburb of Tulsa, it is located predominantly in Tulsa County; the population was 18,906 in the 2010 U. S. Census, an increase of 8.3 percent from 17,451 at the 2000 census. The city was founded by philanthropist Charles Page, a wealthy businessman in Oklahoma, he envisioned Sand Springs as a haven for widows. He helped found and develop Sand Springs as a model city that included all components of a total community. Page bought 160 acres of land in Tulsa County, Oklahoma in 1908, intending to build a home for orphan children; the first 27 children, abandoned by the Hook & Anchor Orphanage in Tulsa, were housed in a tent. This was soon replaced by a frame building large enough to house 50 children. Page decided to form a model community, to be called Sand Springs, on land west of the children's home, he offered free land to any person who wished to move there, a $20,000 bonus to companies that would relocate there.
In 1911, Page created an interurban connecting Sand Springs to Tulsa. The townsite was laid out the same year. Sand Springs was incorporated as a city in 1912, with a population of 400. In 1911 Page built the Sand Springs Power Plant, on the southeast corner of Main Street and Morrow Road, it anchored an area. Several significant additions were made to the facility, it was the sole source of electric power for Sand Springs until 1947; some of the earliest manufacturing industries were: Kerr Glass Manufacturing. Medical and social welfare institutions other than the Sand Springs Home included the Oakwood Sanitorium for nervous and mental diseases, Poole Hospital, the Salvation Army Maternity Home, the Sand Springs School for the Deaf. Sand Springs became a center of glass production in Oklahoma. Kerr Glass Manufacturing moved to Sand Springs from Chicago in 1913, it and the Alexander H. Kerr company, which made fruit jars, were the only glass companies remaining in business as as 1955; the Children's Home is still operating.
What used to be the Widows Colony now accepts single mothers with two or more children. An EF2 tornado hit Sand Springs on March 25, 2015, killing one resident, damaging 50 mobile homes. Sand Springs is located at 36°8′23″N 96°6′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.0 square miles, of which, 18.7 square miles of it is land and 2.3 square miles of it is water. The one-way driving distance between Sand Springs and Tulsa is about 7 miles, it is located in the western section of Tulsa County and the Southern section of Osage County and close to the Creek County border. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,451 people, 6,564 households, 4,870 families residing in the city; the population density was 934.2 people per square mile. There were 6,979 housing units at an average density of 373.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.85% White, 1.85% African American, 7.13% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, 4.25% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.06% of the population. There were 6,564 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.8% were non-families. 22.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,380, the median income for a family was $47,258. Males had a median income of $38,120 versus $25,373 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,193. About 6.7% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.
The economy of Sand Springs is focused on promoting small businesses. It has a active chamber of commerce. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture, the most significant businesses in 2000 were: Webco Industries, Sheffield Steel Corporation, Rader Diagnostic Center, Smith-Fibercast, Cust-O-Fab, Piping Companies Incorporated, Baker Petrolite; the Sand Springs Public School District is the largest employer in the city. It contains five elementary schools, two middle schools, three High Schools, it has a groundbreaking early childhood program. Charles Page High School Clyde Boyd Middle School Central Ninth Grade Center Angus Valley Elementary School Harry T. Pratt Elementary School Limestone Elementary School Garfield Elementary School Northwoods Elementary School Sixth Grade Center Early Childhood Center Page Academy There are four private Christian schools in Sand Springs. Amazing Grace Christian Academy Heritage Baptist School Landmark Christian Academy Moriah Christian Academy Sand Springs has one print newspaper, the Sand Springs Leader.