Julius Maada Bio

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Julius Maada Bio
Julius Maada Bio White House delegation 2018 (cropped).jpg
Bio in 2018
5th President of Sierra Leone
Assumed office
4 April 2018
Vice President Mohamed Juldeh Jalloh
Chief Minister David J. Francis
Preceded by Ernest Bai Koroma
Military Head of State of Sierra Leone
In office
16 January 1996 – 29 March 1996
Deputy Komba Mondeh[1]
Preceded by Valentine Strasser
Succeeded by Ahmad Tejan Kabbah as president
Personal details
Born (1964-05-12) 12 May 1964 (age 54)
Tihun, Bonthe District, Sierra Leone
Political party Sierra Leone People's Party
Spouse(s) Fatima Jabbie Bio (2013 – present)[1]
Children 4
Residence State House
Alma mater Benguema Military Academy
American University; University of Bradford
Military service
Allegiance  Sierra Leone
Service/branch Sierra Leone Army
Years of service 1985–1996
Rank Brigadier
Commands Chief of the Defence Staff of the Armed Forces
Chairman of the National Provisional Ruling Council
Battles/wars First Liberian Civil War
Sierra Leone Civil War

Julius Maada Bio (born May 12, 1964) is a Sierra Leonean politician, and the 5th and current president of Sierra Leone since April 4, 2018. He is a retired Brigadier General in the Sierra Leone Army and he was the military Head of State of Sierra Leone from January 16, 1996 to March 29, 1996 under the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC) military Junta government.[2] Bio was the presidential candidate of the main opposition Sierra Leone People's Party. He defeated Samura Kamara of the ruling All People's Congress in the runoff vote of the 2018 Sierra Leone presidential election with 51.8% of the votes to Kamara"s 48.2%.[3]. International and local observers declared the election free, fair and credible.

Bio succeeded Ernest Bai Koroma as president, who was constitutionally ineligible to run for the presidency having served the maximum two five year terms.

During his first month in office as president and as promised during his presidential run, Bio issued an executive action offering free education for primary and secondary schools students in government run state schools throughout Sierra Leone. Bio has also eliminated application fees for students in government run public universities across Sierra Leone.

Bio was the SLPP presidential candidate in the 2012 presidential election, but he received 37% of the votes as he was defeated by the incumbent president Ernest Bai Koroma who won 58% of the votes.

As the deputy military Head of State, Bio lead a military coup in 1996 that ousted his boss, the Military Head of State, Captain Valentine Strasser of the National Provisional Ruling Council military government. Bio promised to return Sierra Leone back to a democratically elected civilian government; and he indeed kept his promise when he handed power to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of the Sierra Leone People's Party, following Kabbah"s victory in the 1996 Sierra Leone presidential election.

Upon retiring from the military in 1996, Bio moved to the United States where he was granted political asylum by the United States Government, and he did not return to Sierra Leone until 2005 when then Sierra Leone"s president Ahmad Tejan Kabbah guaranteed his safety and security.

Bio is the first Sierra Leonean president born in the post-colonial independent nation of Sierra Leone; and he is the second Sierra Leonean president to have previously served in the Sierra Leone military, after Joseph Saidu Momoh.

Bio has a Masters Degree in International Affairs from American University in Washington, DC. Bio is also a cadet graduate from Sierra Leone prestigious Benguema Military Academy.

Bio is a native of Bonthe District in the Southern province of Sierra Leone. He is the 33 of 35 children born to the late Paramount Chief Charlie Bio. Bio is a practising Roman Catholic, though his wife Fatima Bio is a practising Muslim.

Early life[edit]

Julius Maada Bio was born on 12 May 1964, in Tihun, a village in the Sogbini Chiefdom, Bonthe District, just outside the main commercial town of Mattru Jong, in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone. Bio is the 33 of 35 children born to Sherbro Paramount Chief Charlie Bio II of Sogbini Chiefdom. Bio's father had nine wives. Bio is named after his paternal grandfather, who was also a paramount chief of Sogbini Chiefdom. Bio is an ethnic Sherbro and a practicing Roman Catholic.[4]

Bio began his primary education at the Roman Catholic Primary School in Tihun, Bonthe District. After finishing his early years in primary school, Bio was sent to the town of Pujehun to live with his older sister Agnes, who was a primary school teacher in Pujehun. Bio completed his primary education at the Holy Family Primary School in Pujehun. At the completion of his primary education, Bio's older sister, Agnes, enrolled him at the Bo Government Secondary School in Bo (commonly known as Bo School), a prominent boarding school. Bio spent seven years at Bo School, rising to become school Prefect. Bio graduated from Bo School in 1984 with A-level at age 20.[4]

Military career[edit]

After graduating from secondary school, Bio applied for admission into Fourah Bay College in Freetown in 1985 at age 21. However, Bio ultimately enrolled in the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces military academy at Benguema, just outside the capital city of Freetown. He trained as a cadet officer under the command of Major Fallah Sewa, the head of cadet training at the military academy.[4]

Bio graduated from the Military academy as a Second Lieutenant in the Sierra Leone Army in October 1987 at age 23. His first post as a commissioned officer was at the Lungi Garrison in Port Loko District in 1987. Bio was later posted to Kambia District as part of the Economic Emergency Unit, created by President Joseph Saidu Momoh to combat smuggling and other crimes along the Guinean border. In 1988, Bio was again re-posted at Lungi and trained by United Nations forces in aviation security. After the training, Bio was transferred to Benguema as a platoon commander.[4]

In 1990, the Sierra Leone Government contributed military personnel to the West African Peacekeeping Force, ECOMOG, which was mandated to keep the peace in the Liberian civil war. Bio and several other Sierra Leonean soldiers, including Captain (OF-2)|Captain Valentine Strasser, and Lt Solomon Musa were deployed to Liberia as part of Sierra Leone’s contingent to ECOMOG. At the time, thousands of Liberians were fleeing to Sierra Leone weekly, exposing the country’s fragile security and adding to the economic hardship.[4]

After a year in Liberia as an ECOMOG soldier, the Sierra Leone Government ordered Bio and several members of Sierra Leonean soldiers serving in Liberia to immediately return to Sierra Leone and report to the Military baracks|army barracks in Daru, Kailahun District to populate newly formed 600 man battalion of soldiers set up by President Momoh to repel the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebels who had attacked villages on the border between Sierrra Leone and Liberia, in March 1991. The soldiers included future NPRC members Lieutenant Solomon Musa, Captain Valentine Strasser, Lieutenant Sahr Sandy and Lieutenant Tom Nyuma.[4]

Participation in 1992 military coup[edit]

On April 29, 1992, Bio was one of a group of young Sierra Leonean soldiers including Captain Valentine Strasser, Lieutenant Sahr Sandy, Lieutenant Solomon Musa, Lieutenant Tom Nyuma and Captain Komba Mondeh that toppled president Joseph Saidu Momohs All People's Congress (APC) government in a bloodless military coup. The young soldiers formed the National Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC) with Strasser as their leader and Head of State of Sierra Leone.[4]

Bio's first appointment following the formation of the NPRC was as the Secretary of State South, stationed in the country's second capital Bo. He was later moved to Freetown to serve as Secretary of State in charge of Information and Broadcasting. At this point, he was promoted to Captain alongside other junior lieutenants. As a leading member of the coup that kicked out the APC government, Bio served as Supreme Council of State member throughout the NPRC's stay in power and when Strasser's deputy, captain S.A.J. Musa, was sacked and exiled to the UK, Bio was appointed to the position of Deputy Chairman of the NPRC.[4]

1996 military coup[edit]

On January 16, 1996, Bio led a military coup, ousting Captain Valentine Strasser, following a dispute within the governing Supreme Council of State (SCS) over whether to seek peace with the RUF before multi-party elections, planned for March 1996, or go ahead with the election notwithstanding the ongoing war in the country, and the conditions for participation (or disqualification) of junta members in the elections. The coup was backed by many high ranking NPRC soldiers including Colonel Tom Nyuma, Lieutenant Colonel Komba Mondeh, Lieutenant Colonel Reginald Glover, Lieutenant Colonel Idriss Kamara, and Lieutenant Colonel Karefa-Kargbo. Captain Valentine Strasser then the leader of the NPRC and the military Head of State of Sierra Leone was handcuffed at gunpoint by his own military bodyguards who were supposed to protect him and was immediately flown into exile in a military helicopter to Conakry, in neighboring Guinea.[5]

After the military[edit]

After retiring from the military in 1996, Bio moved to the United States, where he earned a Masters Degree in International Affairs from American University in Washington, DC. He also served as the president of International Systems Science Corporation, a consulting and investment management firm based in the United States.[6]

Political career[edit]

Bio officially became a member of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) in 2005. That same year, Bio sought the leadership of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP) at its national convention in Makeni on 3 to 4 September 2005; he took third place, with 33 votes, behind Vice President Solomon Berewa, who received 291 votes, and Charles Margai, who won 34 votes. J.B. Dauda polled 28 votes.[7]

On the night of 31 July 2011, Julius Maada Bio won the election to become the SLPP's 2012 presidential candidate at the SLPP convention, which was held at the Youyi Building in the heart of Freetown. In the national election, he faced off with President Ernest Bai Koroma of the ruling APC and was defeated, winning 37% of the vote, but established the SLPP as the only viable opposition party in Sierra Leone.[8]

President of Sierra Leone[edit]

Julius Maada Bio was elected President of Sierra Leone in a run-off election held 31 March 2018. He scored 51.8 percent of the votes according to official results from Sierra Leone's National Elections Commission. He succeeded Ernest Bai Koroma of the APC who had been President since 2007.[3]

Presidency[edit]

In his first month in office as president, Bio has become the first Sierra Leonean president to introduced free education through executive order for primary and secondary school students in public schools throughout Sierra Leone starting the next school year in the fall of 2018. In his first two months in office, Bio has open an ongoing reviewed and audit of all government mining contracts, ministry departments, and other government agencies in the immediate past government of Ernest Bai Koroma. In his first two months in office, Bio has sacked all of Sierra Leone"s ambassadors and permanent representatives abroad in the immediate past government of Ernest Bai Koroma. In his first two months in office, Bio has appointed his cabinet ministers, including the appointment of an opposition leader Charles Margai who served briefly[9] as the country's Attorney General and Minister of Justice.

Personal life[edit]

Maada Bio is an ethnic Sherbro and a practicing Roman Catholic Christian. Bio's wife, Fatima Bio is a practicing Muslim and a Gambian-Sierra Leonean national, though she grew up in Kono District in Sierra Leone; her mother was born in Kono District, Sierra Leone and her father is a Gambian native. Bio and Fatima were married in 2013 in London in an interfaith wedding ceremony that was held in a Church with later Mosque prayer services in London. The couple have one child together that was born in London. Bio has three other children, all three born in the United States from a previous marriage.

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://hdl.handle.net/2027/osu.32435083448514
  2. ^ Reuters Staff (4 April 2018). "Opposition candidate Julius Maada Bio wins Sierra Leone presidency: certified tallies". Reuters.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  3. ^ a b Jaime Yaya Barry (4 April 2018). "Sierra Leone's Opposition Leader Is Sworn In as President". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Lansana Gberie (7 January 2011). "Maada Bio: A Profile Interview". The Patriotic Vanguard. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  5. ^ Ambrose Ganda (December 1995 – January 1996). "Captain Strasser Is Ousted From Office" (Archived from the Original). Focus On Sierra Leone. Virgin.net. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  6. ^ Times Reporter (5 April 2018). "Bio, is new Sierra Leone president". The New Times (Rwanda). Kigali. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  7. ^ Sierra Leone State House (5 September 2005). "Vice President Berewa Leads SLPP" (Archived from the Original). The Republic of Sierra Leone, State House Online. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  8. ^ APA-Freetown (Sierra Leone) (16 October 2017). "Sierra Leone: Opposition names ex junta head as standard bearer". APANews.net. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  9. ^ http://cocorioko.net/nation-stunned-as-sierra-leones-attorney-general-charles-margai-is-suddenly-and-shockingly-fired-by-president-bio/

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Valentine Strasser
Head of State of Sierra Leone
1996
Succeeded by
Ahmad Tejan Kabbah
Preceded by
Ernest Bai Koroma
President of Sierra Leone
2018–present
Incumbent