Sierra Leone the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa. It is bordered by Liberia to Guinea to the northeast. Sierra Leone has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests, a total area of 71,740 km2 and a population of 7,075,641 as of the 2015 census; the capital and largest city is Freetown. Sierra Leone is divided into five administrative regions, which are further subdivided into sixteen districts. Sierra Leone was a British Crown Colony from 1808 to April 27, 1961, when it achieved independence from Britain as Milton Margai became the country's first Prime Minister. Milton Margai's political party, the Sierra Leone People's Party, under the leadership of Albert Margai, narrowly lost the 1967 Sierra Leone parliamentary elections to the main opposition party, the All People's Congress, led by Siaka Stevens. Stevens, a political strongman, ruled Sierra Leone from 1967 to 1985 when he retired from politics due to poor health.
On 19 April 1971, Stevens' government abolished Sierra Leone's parliamentary government system and declared Sierra Leone a presidential republic. From 1978 to 1985, president Stevens" APC party was the only legal political party in Sierra Leone; the current multiparty democratic constitution of Sierra Leone was adopted in 1991 by the government of President Joseph Saidu Momoh, Stevens' hand picked successor, just as the rebel group Revolutionary United Front, led by former imprisoned Sierra Leone army officer Foday Sankoh, launched a brutal civil war in the country. On 29 April 1992, a group of Junior soldiers in the Sierra Leone Army led by a 25 year old Captain Valentine Strasser overthrew President Momoh, Sierra Leone was under Military rule from 1992 to 1996 during the civil war. Sierra Leone returned to a democratically elected government when the military Junta under Brigadier General Julius Maada Bio, who had ousted Strasser in a coup in 1996, handed the presidency to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of the SLPP after his victory in the 1996 Sierra Leone presidential election.
However, on 25 May 1997, the Sierra Leone military overthrew President Kabbah in a coup and Major General Johnny Paul Koroma became the country's Head of State. However, in February 1998, a coalition of West African Ecowas armed forces led by Nigeria reinstated President Kabbah by military force, the leaders of the coup were executed after they were sentenced to death by a Sierra Leone military court. In January 2002, President Kabbah announced the ending of the civil war with the help and support of Ecowas, the British government, the African Union, the United Nations. Sierra Leone has had an uninterrupted democratic government from 1998 to present. Sixteen ethnic groups inhabit each with its own language and customs; the two largest and most influential are the Mende. The Temne are predominantly found in the northwest of the country, the Mende in the southeast. Comprising a small minority, about 2%, are the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African-American and West Indian slaves. Although English is the official language, used in schools and government administration, Krio, an English-based creole, is the most spoken language across Sierra Leone.
Spoken by 98% of the population, Krio unites all the ethnic groups in the country in their trade and social interaction. Sierra Leone is a Muslim-majority country 77%, with an influential Christian minority at 22%. Sierra Leone is regarded as one of the most religiously tolerant countries in the world. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other peacefully, religious violence is rare; the major Christian and Muslim holidays are public holidays in the country, including Christmas, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. Sierra Leone has relied on mining of diamonds, for its economic base, it is among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, is a major producer of gold, has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is home to the third-largest natural harbour in the world. Despite this natural wealth, 53% of its population lived in poverty in 2011. Sierra Leone is a member of many international organisations, including the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Mano River Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Development Bank and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Archaeological finds show that Sierra Leone has been inhabited continuously for at least 2,500 years, populated successively by societies who migrated from other parts of Africa. The people adopted the use of iron by the 9th century and by 1000 AD agriculture was being practised along the coast; the climate changed and boundaries among different ecological zones changed as well, affecting migration and conquest. Sierra Leone's dense tropical rainforest and swampy environment was considered impenetrable; this environmental factor protected its people from conquests by the Mande and other African empires. This reduced the Islamic influence of the Mali Empire but Islam, introduced by Susu traders and migrants from the north and east, became adopted in the 18th century. European contacts within Sierra Leone were among the first in West Africa in the 15th century. In 1462, Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra mapped the hills surrounding what is now Freetown Harbour, naming the shaped formation Serra da Leoa or "Serra Leoa".
The Spanish rendering of this geographic formation is Sierra Leona, ada
Sixth Grade Secrets is a novel by Louis Sachar that follows sixth-grader Laura Sibbie and her friends as they create a secret club in violation of school rules. Laura aspires to be a leader and learns the three Rs of what leadership can entail – Relationships and Responsibility. In 2009 it was released by Bloomsbury Publishing in the United Kingdom under Pig City; when Laura Sibbie starts a secret club at school, she makes the other members give her something embarrassing as "insurance," to make sure they don't tell anyone else about the club. She promises to keep the insurance secret. Gabriel wants to join, but when Laura asks him, there is a misunderstanding and he storms out to form a rival club, Monkey Town; the pranks they play on each other escalates into destructive acts. It gets to a point where Gabriel steals the insurance, reveals it to the school. Sheila and a friend, corner Laura on her way from school and cut a large chunk out of her long hair. Laura gets a new, curly hair style which Gabriel, arriving with daisies, likes.
The sheared Laura sees how foolish they've been, the truth of Gabriel's affection comes to light. Laura Sibbie - hero, fan of George Washington, natural leader, founder of "Pig City", has a clubhouse nicknamed the "Dog House" in her backyard that becomes club headquarters, she matures a lot the last few weeks of sixth grade. Pig City insurance: Love letter to Mr. Doyle. Allison - co-founder of Pig City, always clean and neat, fond of Aaron. Pig City insurance: photograph naked in bathtub at age 3. Tiffany - co-founder of Pig City, always unkempt, fond of Nathan, first of the trio to be kissed by a boy. Pig City insurance: Prank newspaper article from uncle that claims she is ticklish and that she is sloppy with spaghetti. Gabriel - has copied more dictionary pages than anyone else in class. Planned Pig City insurance: to be photographed wearing a dress to kiss Laura, but was rejected from Pig City after that. Kristin - has a small face but wears big glasses that make her look cute and everyone thinks she is studious.
Pig City insurance: underpants. Debbie - hangs upside down to get blood flowing to her brain. Pig City insurance: recorded phone call professing love to Howard. Nathan - uses amusing speech expressions, first to kiss Tiffany. Pig City insurance: Hate letter to Mr. Doyle. Aaron - always well dressed because his grandmother picks his clothes, good singing voice. Pig City insurance: recorded singing "I am such a stupid jerk..." Karen - easy going talkative, Yolanda's best friend. Never invited to join Pig City, joins "Monkey Town" instead. Yolanda - pretty but shy, never talks much, fond of Jonathan, Karen's best friend. Only Pig City member to be removed because of breaking the secrecy rule, joins "Monkey Town" leaves for Jonathan's club "Eagle's Nest" after club splits. Pig City insurance: Love note to Jonathan. Jonathan - smart, handsome, begins relationship with Yolanda after discovering the love note. Joins "Monkey Town" but splits with Gabriel after Laura's successful division ploy, forms "Eagle's Nest" with Yolanda.
Fond of Yolanda. Sheila - has frizzy hair jealous of Laura and her long hair, motivated by revenge and capable of vicious pranks, joins "Monkey Town." Fond of Howard. Howard - ends up backstabbing everyone. Kicked out of "Monkey Town" club, rejected by both "Eagle's Nest" and "Pig City" as unworthy. Becomes pawn of Sheila to help with attack on Laura. Fond of Sheila. Linzy - teacher's pet. Never joins a club. Tricks Laura for Mr. Doyle into admitting who wrote the messages on the board, but helps complete dictionary pages for them because she feels guilty. Mr. Doyle - Laura's sixth grade teacher, well-respected by most Laura. Mr. Sibbie: Laura's father. Mrs. Sibbie - Laura's mother. Dan: Laura's eldest brother. Sue: Dan's wife. Rebecca: Dan and Sue's five-year-old daughter. Mr. West: Computer salesman at local mall. 15 students: 15 other unknown students, but without names. Bald Man: Sold Laura Pig City hat for $1 at garage sale. Offered 50c because she was pretty, but she rejected, thinking that she "didn't think she should get it any cheaper just because she was pretty."
Martin Luther King: mentioned by Allison like Laura. George Washington: mentioned by Allison as being brave. Laura's idol. Howard's mother: was spoken to on the phone to get to Howard by Debbie as part of her Pig City insurance. Laura's sister: mentioned only, her old Hawaiian muumuu, which she left behind at Laura's house, is a recurring piece of clothing and was the dress planned to be used for Gabriel's Pig City insurance. Paul McCartney: loved by Laura, as "Since had been home to... the Paul McCartney Fan Club..." Gabriel's father: mentioned by Gabriel Gabriel's mother: mentioned by Gabriel in the same sentence Count Dracula: mentioned in Question 1 of Mr. Doyle's maths test Mollie Morbid: mentioned in Question 2 of Mr. Doyle's maths test ("If she was Allison and Tiffany would have to show her Declaration of Love to everybody in the school, including Mr. Doyle. Question 2. Mollie Morbid made many meatballs. From 1 lb. of meat she made nine meatballs. She had 4 1/2 lbs. of meat. Ho
When Alto Was King is the final album recorded by American saxophonist C. I. Williams released in 1997 on the Mapleshade label a quarter century after his previous album. AllMusic awarded the album 4 stars stating "this superb-sounding album is a fitting showcase for Williams' alto talents". In JazzTimes Willard Jenkins wrote "Mr. Williams has a buttery tone, delivered with authority and the veteran's sense of relaxed swing, his tone bending, for example, is done subtly and with a knowingness that never announces the arrival of the next bended note. He plays it with a liquidity and fluid sense of phrasing that makes every piece a study in elegance". All compositions by C. I. Williams except as indicated "You'd Be So Nice to Come Home To" - 5:12 "Punkin Juice" - 5:45 "'Round Midnight" - 8:08 "Catfish Sammich" - 4:57 "Misty" - 5:57 "Lover Man" - 6:32 "Because of You" - 3:29 "Jeep's Blues" - 6:55 "I'll Close My Eyes" - 5:03 "Avalon" - 2:37 "Precious Lord" - 2:07 C. I. Williams - alto saxophone Larry Willis - piano Don Blackman - piano Ed Cherry - guitar Keter Betts - bass Jimmy Cobb - drums