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Julius von Payer

Julius Johannes Ludovicus Ritter von Payer, ennobled Ritter von Payer in 1876, was an officer of the Austro-Hungarian Army, arctic explorer, cartographer and professor at the Theresian Military Academy. He is chiefly known for the Austro-Hungarian North Pole expedition in 1872–74 and the discovery of Franz Josef Land. Born in Schönau, his father Franz Anton Rudolf Payer was a retired officer of the Austrian Uhlans who died when Julius was only fourteen, his mother was Bladine, née John. Payer attended the k.k. cadet school in Łobzów near Galicia. Between 1857 and 1859 he studied at the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt. From 1859, Payer served as a sub-lieutenant with the Austrian 36th infantry regiment in Verona, Venetia, he participated in the disastrous Battle of Solferino on 24 June 1859 and was honoured for his service. After promotion to the rank of lieutenant first class, he was posted to the garrison of Chioggia, Venetia in 1864. On 24 June 1866 he served the Battle of Custoza, seizing two guns, for which he was decorated and elevated to the rank of senior lieutenant.

Since 1863 Payer was assigned as a history and geography teacher to the cadet school in Eisenstadt, Hungary and to the Theresian Military Academy. In 1868 the Austro-Hungarian Minister of War appointed him a general staff officer at the k.k. Military Geographic Institute in Vienna, where he worked with August von Fligely. In 1862 Payer had started exploratory tours of the Tyrolean Alps and the High Tauern range in his free time. After 1864 he explored the Adamello-Presanella Group and the Ortler Alps, making more than 60 first ascents. In 1864 he was, with his guide Giovanni Caturani, the first to climb Adamello and missed making the first ascent of the Presanella by just three weeks. All his explorations in the Ortler massif were guided by de:Johann Pinggera from Sulden. Together accompanied by a porter, they ascended all significant unclimbed summits, including the Hoher Angelus, Palon de la Mare, Monte Zebru, Monte Cevedale, their new approach to the Ortler became the normal route of ascent since.

His tours resulted in creating a detailed topographical map at a scale 1:56,000. Due to his achievements, Payer was transferred to the Austrian Military Geographic Institute; when in 1875, the first Alpine club hut above 3000 m was built on the normal route to the Ortler, it was named de:Payerhütte in his honor. In 1868 he was invited by the German geographer August Petermann to participate in the 2nd German North Polar Expedition as a topographer. Travelling to the coast of East Greenland on the Germania under Captain Carl Koldewey in 1869-1870, they reached as far north as Shannon Island. In 1871 he participated in the preliminary Austro-Hungarian expedition to Novaya Zemlya, with Karl Weyprecht. From 1872-1874 Payer led the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition with Karl Weyprecht, Commander at sea, while Payer was Commander at shore. During this voyage he made the discovery of Franz Joseph Land, however upon his return to Vienna many critics voiced doubts about its existence and about the experiences of other participants in the expedition.

Payer could have proven his statements using testimonies and sketches, however his efforts were thwarted, including his promotion to Captain. In 1874 he resigned from the army because of political maneuvers against him and his brother officers' doubts about his discovery and his sledge journeys, he was awarded 44 Austro-Hungarian gulden on 1 October 1874 for the discovery of Franz Joseph Land. He was awarded the 1975 Royal Geographical Societys Patron's Gold Medal. However, on 24 October 1876 he was elevated to the Austrian nobility which entitled him and his descendants to the style of Ritter von in the case of male and von in the case of female offspring. In 1877 Ritter von Payer married the ex-wife of a banker from Frankfurt am Main, they had two children and Alice. From 1877-1879 he studied painting at the Städelsches Institut in Frankfurt / Main. From 1880-1882 he continued his study of art at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in München. From 1884-1890 he worked as a painter in Paris. In 1890 he returned to Vienna and founded a painting school for ladies.

In 1895 he planned a trip for painting to Kejser Franz Joseph Fjord in northeastern. In 1912 he planned an expedition in a submarine to the North Pole, he died in Veldes, in historic Upper Carniola, today part of Slovenia, in 1915. Besides the Payerhütte mentioned above and several streets in Vienna, the main island of Franz Josef Land, the Payer Mountains in Antarctica and Payer Land in eastern Greenland have been named after Julius von Payer; the southern satellite camp for the PolAres MARS2013 analog mission by the OeWF 80 km south of the base camp near Erfoud, was named Station Payer during February 2013, after the main base camp had been called Camp Weyprecht during the landing ceremony in the morning of February 11, 2013. The Austro-Hungarian polar expedition led by Julius von Payer was selected as main motif for the Austrian Admiral Tegetthoff Ship and The Polar Expedition commemorative coin minted on 8 June 2005; the reverse side of the coin shows two explorers in Arctic gear with the frozen ship "Admiral Tegetthoff" behind them.

Payer Island Julius von Payer, "Die Österreich-Ungarische Nordpol Expedition in den Jahren 1869-1874" Andreas Pöschek: Geheimnis N

Dermod Dwyer

Dermod Dwyer is Executive Chairman of the Convention Centre Dublin, the Ritz- Carlton Powerscourt and Setanta Sports Broadcasting Ireland. He still holds many executive and non-executive positions. 1968: Started career in hotel and hospitality industry in Limerick. Non-executive Chairman of Setanta Sports Broadcasting Ireland since 2002. Clongowes Wood College & the Crescent College Limerick. ^ Convention Centre Dublin ^ Office of Public Works ^ YouTube ^ YouTube 2 ^ Ritz Carlton Dublin ^ Irish Hotels Federation ^ Harvard Taubman Center ^ The Visitor Industry in Massachusetts ^ TTC International ^ Treasury Holdings ^ Ritz Carlton Powerscourt ^ ITIC ^ Sunday Business Post ^ Irish Times ^ Stand Up 2 Cancer ^ Queen's Visit ^ Queen's Visit 2 ^ Queen's Visit 3 ^ Queen's Visit Video ^ Queen's Visit 5 ^ Bray Rejuvenation Committee ^ Marino Conferencing ^ Wicklow for Europe ^ The Wicklow Way ^ National Gallery of Ireland ^ National Gallery Board ^ Molecular Therapeutics for Cancer Ireland ^ UCD Michael Smurfit School ^ Corporate Governance Association of Ireland ^ Institute of Directors London The New Gold Standard by Joseph Michelli Irish Independent Irish Independent – Where are they now

Bakaara Market

The Bakaara Market is an open market in Mogadishu, Somalia. It is the largest in the nation; the name Bakaaraha is derived from the Somali word for grain storage, baqaar. The market was created in late 1972 during the reign of Mohamed Siad Barre. Proprietors sell daily essentials, including maize, beans, sesame and rice, petrol and medicine, it is famous for illicit activities, such as forged Somali passports processed within minutes and Kenyan passports, other forged documents, including birth certificates and university diplomas. This illicit sub-market is known as Cabdalle Shideeye after one of its first proprietors. In October 1993, the market was the site of the Battle of the Black Sea. 2 of the 5 U. S. Black Hawk helicopters were downed in the area, which led to a fierce firefight that lasted all night. In 1997, a dispute arose over the control of the collection of taxes in the market; as a result of the confrontation, a rocket-propelled grenade was fired into a fuel tank. Fuel tanks are above ground in the market, not stored underground.

Several civilians were injured. In March 1999 hundreds fled the market. Fighting continued between Islamic Courts and secular militias through April. On 26 January 2000, the market was the site of the shooting of Ahmed Kafi Awale, a radio commentator for Hussein Mohamed Aidid's Radio of the Somali People. Three others were seven badly injured. On 5 January 2001, a fire broke out in the market; the vegetable section of the market was destroyed. Islamic Courts Union militia forces broke up the fighting. In February 2001, an influx of counterfeit currency led to the shutting of the market for a time; the Somali shilling collapsed. Traders only accepted U. S. dollars for a time. The cost of arms was affected, the cost of food and essentials doubled during the crisis. On 10 April 2004, another fire broke out in the market. According to a report to the UN Security Council: On the night of 10 April, a serious fire in the main Bakaara market in Mogadishu resulted in at least eight people killed and more than 30 wounded.

Armed looters shot indiscriminately into the crowd. The incident caused significant insecurity in the areas surrounding the market. On 2 October 2007, another fire started in the market; the fire was caused by a fired shell during a brief fight between the re-liberation forces against Ethiopian forces and their allied transitional government forces nearby. On 15 October 2009, Al-Shabab insurgents shelled the Bakara Market with mortars, killing 20 people and wounding 58. On 1 May 2010, two bombs detonated at a mosque near the market, killing 39 people and wounding 70. On 12 May 2011 the African Union Mission to Somalia and the Transitional Federal Government launched an offensive towards the market to clear out Al-Shabaab. On 14 May 2011 heavy shelling hit the market resulting in at least 14 civilian casualties. Most of the civilians killed were women doing their shopping, one child was among those killed. In November 2012, the head of Bakara’s business community, businessman Ahmed Nure Awdiini, was shot dead outside his office in Mogadishu.

The security checkpoint for the market was controlled for a long while by Mohamed Qanyare Afrah, a Mogadishu Faction Leader, appointed Minister of National Security by the Transitional Federal Government. The checkpoints for the market were removed in June 2005 as part of the Green Leaf for Democracy initiative of a "Global Week against Small Arms."

Pontypridd Urban District Council Tramways

Pontypridd Urban District Council Tramways operated a tramway service in Pontypridd between 1904 and 1931. Part of it used Rhondda Valley Tramway Company's horse tramway. Between 1919 and 1927, it was the only system in Wales where through running onto a neighbouring system occurred. In 1930, part of the system was converted to use trolleybuses, the former horse tramway section was replaced by motor buses in 1931, bringing the tramway era to an end. During the Second World War, a number of trolleybuses were borrowed from other systems, to cope with heavy traffic, but the use of electric vehicles ended in 1957. Most of the vehicles were sold on to other undertakings, the system was the last in Britain to be run by an Urban District Council; the Pontypridd and Rhondda Valley Tramway Company had built a horse-drawn tramway between Pontypridd and Porth, authorised in 1882, but had run into financial difficulties in 1887, just before construction was completed. It had been run by Solomon Andrews, a Cardiff entrepreneur, from 1887 until 1890, was sold to one of Andrews' companies.

In 1898 it was sold to the British Electric Traction Company, but their attempt to get local authority approval to extend and electrify the line failed. The tramway closed unexpectedly in February 1902, when an outbreak of the infectious disease glanders resulted in most of the horses dying. Both Pontypridd Council and the neighbouring Rhondda Council had their own plans to build and operate electric tramways. In Pontypridd, work began in July 1903, in August, they were able to use their statutory powers to buy the horse tramway. Although the actual sale did not take place until 11 October 1904, when British Electric Traction received £5,750 for it, after, was divided between the two councils, with the change in ownership occurring at Trehafod. Progress on the new line was good, the first trial runs were made on 12 February 1905, with an official opening scheduled for March; the first trams ran in public service on 5 March 1905. From near the Pontypridd terminus of the horse tramway, adjacent to the viaduct on the Taff Vale Railway's Rhondda line, the electric tramway ran through the town centre to Treforest railway station.

A branch ran from the High Street to Cilfynydd, passing along Market Street and Taff Street before crossing the River Taff and following Coed Pen Maen Road to reach the terminus. Reconstruction of the horse tramway took a little longer, when it opened on 4 April 1907, there was still no connection between it and the new sections; the remaining part of the horse tramway opened on 11 July 1908 as part of the Rhondda Tramways Company network, but although the two systems were connected at Trehafod, there was no through running, passengers had to change trams at the border. On 14 July 1919, an agreement was reached, through running commenced. One issue that had to be resolved was that each system used local time, which differed by four minutes, to make timetabling more understandable, both adopted Greenwich Mean Time from that date; the arrangement was not without its problems, however, as there were frequent disagreements between the two operators, through running was abandoned in December 1927.

This was the only example of through running to occur in Wales. The end of the tramway system came shortly afterwards. Pontypridd UDC had applied for powers to run trolleybuses and motor buses in 1929, in September 1930, trolleybuses began operating the routes to Treforest and Cilfynydd, although in peak periods, trams or motor buses were used to provide extra capacity; that left just the horse tramway section to Trehafod, which closed on 30 August 1931, bringing tram operation to a close in Pontypridd. Factors affecting the changeover was the heavy cost of maintaining the track in an area affected by mining subsidence, a downturn in traffic caused by trade depression; when Pontypridd decided to move from trams to trolleybuses, they announced that it was "the first modern trolleybus system in Wales". The powers obtained in 1929 allowed them to convert all of the routes used by the trams to trolleybus operation; however Rhondda Tramways Company decided that it would not use trolleybuses on the route from Trehafod to Porth, so Pontypridd used motor buses on the route of the old horse tramway to Trehafod.

This left them with a 3.3-mile route from Cilfynydd in the north, via Pontypridd to Treforest to the east, where there was a depot. Training of the drivers took place during 1930, but because the addition of a second overhead wire was not completed, the trolleybuses used a single boom to pick up power, a skate that ran along the tram tracks to complete the circuit; the conversion work was completed for the trolleybus service to begin on 18 September 1930. The new vehicles were supplemented by trams and motor buses at peak times, but the advantage of the new mode of transport was that a trolleybus could complete the round trip in 48 minutes, whereas the tram took one hour. For the opening of the service, seven single deck trolleybuses were obtained from English Electric, which were joined by two double deck ex-demonstrators in 1931. Traffic levels during the Second World War were high, to meet the demand, four Leylands were borrowed from the Kingston upon Hull system until 1942, when they were replaced by four three-axle trolleybuses borrowed from Portsmouth.

The loan ended in 1946. The English Electric vehicles were sold to Cardiff who needed single deck vehicles to operate the route along Bute Street. Where the trolleybuses crossed the River Taff, the trolley wires were supported by two semi-circular cross-arches, which were adorned with decorative ironwork; the bridge stood next to an ancient hump back

Parayanumvayya Parayathirikkanumvayya

Parayanumvayya Parayathirikkanumvayya is a 1985 Indian Malayalam-language crime drama film directed by Priyadarshan and written by Cochin Haneefa. It is a remake of the 1975 Hindi-language film Faraar; the movie starred Mohanlal, Mammootty and Menaka. Ravi is a criminal. Mammootty as D. S. P Sreenivas Shankar as Ravi Menaka - Shalini Sumithra - Sathi Sreenath - Rajan Sukumari Lizy Cochin Haneefa - Prasad Kuthiravattam Pappu - Ramettan KPAC Sunny - Raveendran Nair Baby Smitha Mohanlal as Hamsa The music was composed by M. G. Radhakrishnan with lyrics by Chunakkara Ramankutty. Parayanumvayya Parayathirikkanumvayya on IMDb

Caviar Taste

"Caviar Taste" is the second full-length studio album by American hip-hop artist/producer Funkghost. The 13 song LP was released on October 31, 2014. On Grand Extravagant Ent. Principle recording began in the summer of 2013; the Album was completed in the spring of 2014. Funkghost revealed that the album would offer a mixture of Rap/Hip-Hop/Funk/R&B/Gospel/Electro/ and Trap reverberations; the album was executive-produced by Funkghost, with production from Downtown Music, J Breezz, Epik The Dawn, Paul Cabbin, Scott Supreme, O. P. Supa, 2 Fresh, Scott Styles and Sean Murdz. On January 1, 2014, Funkghost released a song titled "YSL Logo". On June 28, 2014 he released another track titled "Never Go 2 Sleep". Funkghost announced that the album would be slated for release in the Fall of 2014. Sample credits "Swishers/Overdose" samples "Stick’em" by Fat Boys "Xtra Fly" samples "Touch the Sky" by Kanye West "Light up the Moon" samples "Stars Dance" by Selena Gomez "Stronger Than Before" samples “Ain't That Peculiar” by Marvin Gaye "Paradise Garage/Tasting it samples" De Ja Vu" by Weldon Irvine" and “Regrets “by TAMAONSEN Funkghost's lyrics go coast to coast on Caviar Taste by Jonathan Giddens, published Oct 20, 2014 5:40 pm Spartan Daily Staff Writer RESPECT Magazine Published BY KEVIN AHMADI 10-31-2014 DA –What.com 5 finger Discount Published BY Benja 10-31-2014 DJ Booth.net Published 9-12-2012 By Danielle H.

Pretty Dirtball Review of Caviar Taste Posted By Pretty Dirtball October 14, 2014 Pro City Vault Artist Spotlight Published October 24, 2014 Wednesday Q&A: FunkGhost Published October 22, 2014 Definition Of Fresh: Funkghost – Caviar Taste Published October 28, 2014