A tattoo artist is an individual who applies permanent decorative tattoos in an established business called a "tattoo shop," "tattoo studio" or'"tattoo parlour." Tattoo artists learn their craft via an apprenticeship under a trained and experienced mentor. A tattoo artist traditionally earns the title by completing an apprenticeship under strict guidelines from an experienced senior tattoo artist. A tattoo apprenticeship can last as long as five years; the apprentice will be trained in sanitation and proper safety techniques during the first six months to a year of the apprenticeship. During this time, the apprentice is not allowed to tattoo, but will be expected to maintain the cleanliness of the studio and learn by observation; the cost of apprenticing can range from free labor around the shop to tens of thousands of dollars. Apprentices are expected to be excellent at drawing, with an ability to excel at customising design ideas and genres, as well as various other styles of art in general.
Tattoo artists can create original tattoo designs for their customers, or they may use flash or variations of known designs. Some of the tools of the trade have evolved while some have stayed the same, such as the tattoo machine; the traditional machine has not changed from its original design and/or concept. With the rise of new machine designs, both air- and electric-powered tools such as the rotary and pneumatic tattoo machine have made their way into the industry. A practitioner may use many different needle sets, such as round liner needles, round shader needles, flat shaders, magnum needles; the amount of needles attached to the needle bar change, as well. For instance, large magnum needle groups range from 15 to 55 needles on one bar. A practitioner must have the basic tools to provide a tattoo. All other items at the artist's disposal are as different as each tattoo. Basic tools include the tattoo machine, power supply, clip cord, foot pedal, tips, grip stem and tattoo ink. In the UK equipment must only be sold to registered studios who are provided a certificate by their local environmental health department.
The properly equipped tattoo studio will use biohazard containers for objects that have come into contact with blood or bodily fluids, sharps containers for old needles, an autoclave for sterilizing tools. Certain jurisdictions require studios by law to have a sink in the work area supplied with both hot and cold water. Proper hygiene requires a body modification artist to wash his or her hands before starting to prepare a client for the stencil, between clients, after a tattoo has been completed, at any other time where cross contamination can occur; the use of single use disposable gloves is mandatory. In some countries and U. S. states it is illegal to tattoo a minor with parental consent, it is not allowed to tattoo impaired persons, people with contraindicated skin conditions, those who are pregnant or nursing, or those incapable of consent due to mental incapacity. Before the tattooing begins the client is asked to approve the position of the applied stencil. After approval is given the artist will open new, sterile needle packages in front of the client, always use new, sterile or sterile disposable instruments and supplies, fresh ink for each session.
All areas which may be touched with contaminated gloves will be wrapped in clear plastic to prevent cross-contamination. Equipment that cannot be autoclaved will be cleaned with a low level disinfectant and wiped with an approved high level disinfectant; the local health department can/will do a hands on inspection of tattoo studios every 4 months in the state of Tennessee. The venue will be graded based on the areas being inspected. If the studio passes an inspection, the health department will sign off on a passing scorecard and the studio will be required to show their score publicly. If the studio fails an inspection, they will be given the opportunity to correct the mistakes or be fined and can be placed out of business on the spot; the possession of a working autoclave is mandatory in most states. An autoclave is a medical sterilization device used to sterilize stainless steel; the autoclave itself will be inspected by the health department and required to submit weekly spore tests. However if these jurisdictions are up to date, they will not require an autoclave if the practitioners are using 100% disposable tubes and grips which are made of plastic and some grips are made of rubber.
These come pre-sterilized for one time use. Membership in professional organizations, or certificates of appreciation/achievement helps artists to be aware of the latest trends. However, many of the most notable tattooists do not belong to any association. While specific requirements to become a tattooist vary between jurisdictions, many mandate only formal training in blood-borne pathogens, cross contamination; the local department of health regulates tattoo studios in many jurisdictions. For example, according to the health departments in Oregon and Hawaii, tattoo artists in these states are required to take and pass a test ascertaining their knowledge of health and safety precautions, as well as the current state regulations. Performing a tattoo in Oregon state without a proper and current license or in an unlicensed facility is considered a felony offense. People who tattoo without proper training in the art of tattooing are known as'scratchers'. Scratchers operate fr
Early works of Japanese literature were influenced by cultural contact with China and Chinese literature written in Classical Chinese. Indian literature had an influence through the separation of Buddhism in Japan. Japanese literature developed into a separate style, although the influence of Chinese literature and Classical Chinese remained until the end of the Edo period. Since Japan reopened its ports to Western trading and diplomacy in the 19th century and Eastern literature have affected each other and continue to do so. Before the introduction of kanji from China, the Japanese had no writing system, it is believed that Chinese characters came to Japan at the beginning of the fifth century, brought by immigrants from the mainland of Korean and Chinese descent. Early Japanese texts first followed the Chinese model, before transitioning to a hybrid of Chinese characters used in Japanese syntactical formats, resulting in sentences that looked like Chinese but were read phonetically as Japanese.
Chinese characters were further adapted, creating what is known as man'yōgana, the earliest form of kana, or Japanese syllabic writing. The earliest literary works in Japan were created in the Nara period; these include the Kojiki, a historical record that chronicles ancient Japanese mythology and folk songs. One of the stories they describe is the tale of Urashima Tarō; the Heian period has been referred to as the golden era of literature in Japan. During this era, literature became centered on a cultural elite of nobility and monks; the imperial court patronized the poets, most of whom were courtiers or ladies-in-waiting. Reflecting the aristocratic atmosphere, the poetry was elegant and sophisticated and expressed emotions in a rhetorical style. Editing the resulting anthologies of poetry soon became a national pastime; the iroha poem, now one of two standard orderings for the Japanese syllabary, was developed during the early Heian period. Genji Monogatari, written in the early 11th century by a woman named Murasaki Shikibu, is considered the pre-eminent novel of Heian fiction.
Other important writings of this period include the Kokin Wakashū, a waka-poetry anthology, Makura no Sōshi. The Pillow Book was written by Sei Shōnagon, Murasaki Shikibu's contemporary and rival, as an essay about the life and pastimes of nobles in the Emperor's court. Another notable piece of fictional Japanese literature was Konjaku Monogatarishū, a collection of over a thousand stories in 31 volumes; the volumes cover various tales from India and Japan. The 10th-century Japanese narrative, Taketori Monogatari, can be considered an early example of proto-science fiction; the protagonist of the story, Kaguya-hime, is a princess from the Moon, sent to Earth for safety during a celestial war, is found and raised by a bamboo cutter. She is taken back to her extraterrestrial family in an illustrated depiction of a disc-shaped flying object similar to a flying saucer. During the Kamakura period, Japan experienced many civil wars which led to the development of a warrior class, subsequent war tales and related stories.
Work from this period is notable for its more somber tone compared to the works of previous eras, with themes of life and death, simple lifestyles, redemption through killing. A representative work is Heike Monogatari, an epic account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the twelfth century. Other important tales of the period include Kamo no Chōmei's Hōjōki and Yoshida Kenkō's Tsurezuregusa. Despite a decline in the importance of the imperial court, aristocratic literature remained the center of Japanese culture at the beginning of the Kamakura period. Many literary works were marked by a nostalgia for the Heian period; the Kamakura period saw a renewed vitality of poetry, with a number of anthologies compiled, such as the Shin Kokin Wakashū compiled in the early 1200s. However, there were fewer notable works by female authors during this period, reflecting the lowered status of women; as the importance of the imperial court continued to decline, a major feature of Muromachi literature was the spread of cultural activity through all levels of society.
Classical court literature, the focal point of Japanese literature up until this point disappeared. New genres such as renga, or linked verse, Noh theater developed among the common people, setsuwa such as the Nihon Ryoiki were created by Buddhist priests for preaching; the development of roads, along with a growing public interest in travel and pilgrimages, brought rise to the greater popularity of travel literature from the early 13th to 14th centuries. Notable examples of travel diaries include Fuji Tsukushi michi no ki. Literature during this time was written during the peaceful Tokugawa Period. Due in large part to the rise of the working and middle classes in the new capital of Edo, forms of popular drama developed which would evolve into kabuki; the jōruri and kabuki dramatist Chikamatsu Monzaemon became popular at the end of the 17th century, he is known as Japan's Shakespeare. Many different genres of literature made their début during the Edo Period, helped by a rising literacy rate among the growing population of townspeople, as well as the development of lending libraries.
Ihara Saikaku (16
The Kansai region or the Kinki region lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū. The region includes the prefectures of Mie, Wakayama, Osaka, Hyōgo and Shiga, sometimes Fukui and Tottori. While the use of the terms "Kansai" and "Kinki" have changed over history, in most modern contexts the use of the two terms is interchangeable; the urban region of Osaka and Kyoto is the second-most populated in Japan after the Greater Tokyo Area. The Kansai region is a cultural center and the historical heart of Japan, with 11% of the nation's land area and 22,757,897 residents as of 2010; the Osaka Plain with the cities of Osaka and Kyoto forms the core of the region, from there the Kansai area stretches west along the Seto Inland Sea towards Kobe and Himeji and east encompassing Lake Biwa, Japan's largest freshwater lake. In the north, the region is bordered by the Sea of Japan, to the south by the Kii Peninsula and the Pacific Ocean, to the east by the Ibuki Mountains and Ise Bay.
Four of Japan's national parks lie in whole or in part. The area contains six of the seven top prefectures in terms of national treasures. Other geographical features include Awaji Island in Hyōgo; the Kansai region is compared with the Kantō region, which lies to its east and consists of Tokyo and the surrounding area. Whereas the Kantō region is symbolic of standardization throughout Japan, the Kansai region displays many more idiosyncrasies – the culture in Kyoto, the mercantilism of Osaka, the history of Nara, or the cosmopolitanism of Kobe – and represents the focus of counterculture in Japan; this East-West rivalry has deep historical roots from the Edo period. With a samurai population of less than 1% the culture of the merchant city of Osaka stood in sharp contrast to that of Edo, the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate. Many characteristic traits of Kansai people descend from Osaka merchant culture. Catherine Maxwell, an editor for the newsletter Omusubi, writes: "Kansai residents are seen as being pragmatic, down-to-earth and possessing a strong sense of humor.
Kantō people, on the other hand, are perceived as more sophisticated and formal, in keeping with Tokyo’s history and modern status as the nation’s capital and largest metropolis."Kansai is known for its food Osaka, as supported by the saying "Kyotoites are ruined by overspending on clothing, Osakans are ruined by overspending on food". Popular Osakan dishes include takoyaki, kitsune udon and kushikatsu. Kyoto is considered a mecca of traditional Japanese cuisine like kaiseki. Kansai has many wagyu brands such as Kobe beef and Tajima cattle from Hyōgo, Matsusaka beef from Mie and Ōmi beef from Shiga. Sake is another specialty of the region, the areas of Nada-Gogō and Fushimi produce 45% of all sake in Japan; as opposed to food from Eastern Japan, food in the Kansai area tends to be sweeter, foods such as nattō tend to be less popular. The dialects of the people from the Kansai region called Kansai-ben, have their own variations of pronunciation and grammar. Kansai-ben is the group of dialects spoken in the Kansai area, but is treated as a dialect in its own right.
Kansai is one of the most prosperous areas for baseball in Japan. Two Nippon Professional Baseball teams, Hanshin Tigers and Orix Buffaloes, are based in Kansai. Koshien Stadium, the home stadium of the Hanshin Tigers, is famous for the nationwide high school baseball tournaments. In association football, the Kansai Soccer League was founded in 1966 and has 16 teams in two divisions. Cerezo Osaka, Gamba Osaka, Vissel Kobe belong to J. League Division 1 and Kyoto Sanga F. C. belongs to the top professional leagues in Japan. The terms Kansai and Kinai have a deep history, dating back as far as the nation of Japan itself; as a part of the Ritsuryō reforms of the seventh and eighth centuries, the Gokishichidō system established the provinces of Yamato, Kawachi and Izumi. Kinai and Kinki, both meaning "the neighbourhood of the capital", referred to these provinces. In common usage, Kinai now refers to the center of the Kansai region. Kansai in its original usage refers to the land west of the Osaka Tollgate, the border between Yamashiro Province and Ōmi Province.
During the Kamakura period, this border was redefined to include Iga Provinces. It is not until the Edo period. Like all regions of Japan, the Kansai region is not an administrative unit, but rather a cultural and historical one, which emerged much during the Heian Period after the expansion of Japan saw the development of the Kantō region to the east and the need to differentiate what was the center of Japan in Kansai emerged; the Kansai region lays claim to the earliest beginnings of Japanese civilization. It was Nara, the most eastern point on the Silk Road, that became the site of Japan's first permanent capital; this period saw the spread of Buddhism to Japan and the construction of Tōdai-ji in 745. The Kansai region boasts the Shinto religion's holiest shrine at Ise Shrine in Mie prefecture; the Heian period saw the capital moved to Heian-kyō, where it would remain for over a thousand years until the Meiji Restoration. During this golden age, the Kansai region would give birth to traditional Japanese culture.
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World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Nobel Prize in Literature
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize, awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction". Though individual works are sometimes cited as being noteworthy, the award is based on an author's body of work as a whole; the Swedish Academy decides. The academy announces the name of the laureate in early October, it is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895. On some occasions the award has been postponed to the following year, it was not awarded in 2018, but two names will be awarded in 2019. Although the Nobel Prize in Literature has become the world's most prestigious literature prize, the Swedish Academy has attracted significant criticism for its handling of the award. Many authors who have won the prize have fallen into obscurity, while others rejected by the jury remain studied and read.
The prize has "become seen as a political one – a peace prize in literary disguise", whose judges are prejudiced against authors with different political tastes to them. Tim Parks has expressed skepticism that it is possible for "Swedish professors... compar a poet from Indonesia translated into English with a novelist from Cameroon available only in French, another who writes in Afrikaans but is published in German and Dutch...". As of 2016, 16 of the 113 recipients have been of Scandinavian origin; the Academy has been alleged to be biased towards European, in particular Swedish, authors. Nobel's "vague" wording for the criteria for the prize has led to recurrent controversy. In the original Swedish, the word idealisk translates as "ideal"; the Nobel Committee's interpretation has varied over the years. In recent years, this means a kind of idealism championing human rights on a broad scale. Alfred Nobel stipulated in his last will and testament that his money be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last was written a little over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that the Storting approved it; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organize the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee that were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, the Royal Swedish Academy was to award the Prize in Literature. Each year, the Swedish Academy sends out requests for nominations of candidates for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Members of the Academy, members of literature academies and societies, professors of literature and language, former Nobel literature laureates, the presidents of writers' organizations are all allowed to nominate a candidate, it is not permitted to nominate oneself. Thousands of requests are sent out each year, as of 2011 about 220 proposals are returned; these proposals must be received by the Academy by 1 February, after which they are examined by the Nobel Committee. By April, the Academy narrows the field to around twenty candidates. By May, a short list of five names is approved by the Committee; the subsequent four months are spent in reading and reviewing the works of the five candidates. In October, members of the Academy vote and the candidate who receives more than half of the votes is named the Nobel laureate in Literature.
No one can get the prize without being on the list at least twice, thus many of the same authors reappear and are reviewed over the years. The academy is master of thirteen languages, but when a candidate is shortlisted from an unknown language, they call on translators and oath-sworn experts to provide samples of that writer. Other elements of the process are similar to that of other Nobel Prizes; the judges are composed of an 18 member committee who are elected for life and up until 2018, not technically permitted to leave. On 2 May 2018, King Carl XVI Gustaf amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign; the new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. The award is announced in October. Sometimes, the award has been announced the year after the nominal year, the latest being the 2018 award. In the midst of controversy surrounding claims of sexual assault, conflict of interest, resignations by officials, on 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that the 2018 laureate would be announced in 2019 along with the 2019 laureate.
A Literature Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money. The amount of money awarded depends on the income of the Nobel Foundation tha
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Atami is a city located in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The city, which covers an area of 61.78 square kilometres, had an estimated population of 37,146, giving it a population density of 601 persons per km2. Atami is located in the far eastern corner of Shizuoka Prefecture at the northern end of Izu Peninsula; the city is on the steep slopes of a submerged volcanic caldera on the edge of Sagami Bay. The name "Atami" means "hot ocean," a reference to the town's famous onsen hot springs; the city boundaries include the offshore island of Hatsushima. Most of Atami is located within the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. Warmed by the Kuroshio Current offshore, the area is known for its moderate maritime climate with hot, humid summers, short winters. Shizuoka Prefecture Kannami Izunokuni ItōKanagawa Prefecture Yugawara Atami has been known as a resort town centered on its hot springs since the 8th century AD. In the Kamakura period, Minamoto no Yoritomo and Hōjō Masako were notable visitors. During the Edo period, all of Izu Province was tenryō territory under direct control of the Tokugawa shogunate.
During the cadastral reform of the early Meiji period in 1889, Atami village was organized within Kamo District, Shizuoka. It was elevated to town status on June 11, 1894, was transferred to the administrative control of Tagata District, Shizuoka in 1896; the epicenter of the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923 was deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay, close to Atami, which suffered considerable damage, as did other municipalities throughout the surrounding Kantō region. The tsunami wave height reached 35 feet at Atami, swamping the town and drowning three hundred people; the modern city of Atami was founded on April 10, 1937, through the merger of Atami Town with neighboring Taga Village. After the proclamation of Atami as an "International Tourism and Culture City" by the Japanese government in 1950, the area experienced rapid growth in large resort hotel development; this growth increased after Atami station became a stop on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen high-speed train line in 1964. In concert with its famous onsen, Atami was known for its onsen geisha.
Atami experienced a considerable decline in popularity as a vacation destination due to the Japanese economic crisis in the 1990s and the associated fall in large group company-sponsored vacations, but is experiencing a revival as a commuter town due to its proximity to Tokyo and Yokohama. The Inagawa-kai, third largest of Japan's Yakuza groups, was founded in Atami in 1949 as the Inagawa-gumi by Kakuji Inagawa; the Izu Study and Research Center is a study facility of the Japanese Communist Party, where they hold its annual congress. The economy of Atami is dependent on the tourist industry centered on its hot spring resorts. Commercial fishing is a major secondary industry. Atami has four middle schools and one high school. JR Central: Tōkaidō Shinkansen Atami Station JR East, JR Central: Tōkaidō Main Line Atami Station JR East: Itō Line Atami Station – Kinomiya Station – Izu-Taga Station – Ajiro Station National Route 135 Atami Beach Line Izu Skyline Atami is twinned with: Beppu, Ōita, Japan Sanremo, Italy Cascais, Portugal Zhuhai, China, Yū Hayami—singer, actress Yuka Imai—voice actress Yuji Ohno—jazz musician Mitsuko Uchida—classical pianist Much of the extensive art collection of eccentric multimillionaire and religious leader Mokichi Okada is now housed in the MOA Museum of Art in Atami.
Atami is notable for having a Peace Pagoda, built by Nipponzan-Myōhōji in 1961. In the 1951 film Tokyo File 212, a key scene takes place at a resort in Atami. In the 1953 film Tokyo Story the parents visit the hot springs in Atami. Much of the 1953 film A Japanese Tragedy is set in Atami, it is the setting of the TV drama Atami no Sousakan. It appears in the 1954 film "Golden Demon", based on the novel of the same name by Kōyō Ozaki, as the place where two main characters become engaged to be married. In the 2016 anime Prince of Stride, Atami is the first stop in the End of Summer Trial Tour. Hammer, Joshua.. Yokohama Burning: The Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-6465-7. Atami travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Website