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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is one of the brightest objects visible to the naked eye in the night sky, has been known to ancient civilizations since before recorded history, it is named after the Roman god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can be bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, is on average the third-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. Jupiter is composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules, it may have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid; the outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries.

A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm, known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has 79 known moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter, making its closest approach to the planet on December 4, 1973. Jupiter has been explored on a number of occasions by robotic spacecraft, beginning with the Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions from 1973 to 1979, by the Galileo orbiter, which arrived at Jupiter in 1995. In late February 2007, Jupiter was visited by the New Horizons probe, which used Jupiter's gravity to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto; the latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016. Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa.

Astronomers have discovered nearly 500 planetary systems with multiple planets. These systems include a few planets with masses several times greater than Earth's, orbiting closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun, sometimes Jupiter-mass gas giants close to their star. Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun; as Jupiter came toward the inner Solar System, in what theorists call the grand tack hypothesis, gravitational tugs and pulls occurred causing a series of collisions between the super-Earths as their orbits began to overlap. Researchers from Lund University found that Jupiter's migration went on for around 700,000 years, in a period 2–3 million years after the celestial body started its life as an ice asteroid far from the sun; the journey inwards in the solar system followed a spiraling course in which Jupiter continued to circle around the sun, albeit in an tight path. The reason behind the actual migration relates to gravitational forces from the surrounding gases in the solar system.

Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth. However, the formation timescales of terrestrial planets resulting from the grand tack hypothesis appear inconsistent with the measured terrestrial composition. Moreover, the likelihood that the grand tack occurred in the solar nebula is quite low. Jupiter is composed of gaseous and liquid matter, it is the largest planet in the Solar System. It has a diameter of 142,984 km at its equator; the average density of Jupiter, 1.326 g/cm3, is the second highest of the giant planets, but lower than those of the four terrestrial planets. Jupiter's upper atmosphere is about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume of gas molecules. A helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, so the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus, Jupiter's atmosphere is 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements.

The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor and silicon-based compounds. There are traces of carbon, hydrogen sulfide, oxygen and sulfur; the outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have been found; the interior contains denser materials—by mass it is 71% hydrogen, 24% helium, 5% other elements. The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. Neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun. Helium is depleted to about 80% of the Sun's helium composition; this depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet. Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other giant planets Uranus and Neptune have less hydrogen and helium and more ices and are thus now termed ice giants.

Jupiter's mass is 2.5 times that of all the

Giant cowbird

The giant cowbird is a large passerine bird in the New World family Icteridae. It breeds from southern Mexico south to northern Argentina, on Trinidad and Tobago, it may have recently colonised the latter island. It is associated with open woodland and cultivation with large trees, but is the only cowbird, found in deep forest, it is a quiet bird for an icterid, but the male has an unpleasant screeched whistle, shweeaa-tpic-tpic. The call is a sharp chek-chik, they are very adept mimics. Like other cowbirds, it is a brood parasite, laying its eggs in the nests of oropendolas and caciques; the eggs are of two types, either whitish and unspotted, or pale blue or green with dark spots and blotches. The host's eggs and chicks are not destroyed, their icterid hosts breed colonially, defend their nests vigorously, so a large and aggressive species like the giant cowbird has to cover an extensive territory to find sufficient egg-laying opportunities. Several giant cowbird eggs may be laid in one host nest.

The male giant cowbird is 36 cm long, weighs 180 g and is iridescent black, with a long tail, long bill, small head, a neck ruff, expanded in display. The female is smaller, averaging 28 cm long and weighing 135 g, she is less iridescent than the male, the absence of the neck ruff makes her look less small-headed. Juvenile males are similar to the adult male, but browner, with a pale, not black, bill; this gregarious bird feeds on insects, some seeds, including rice, forages on the ground or in trees. It perches on cattle, unlike some of its relatives, but in Brazil it will ride on capybaras as it removes horse flies. New World Blackbirds by Jaramillo and Burke, ISBN 0-7136-4333-1 ffrench, Richard. A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Comstock Publishing. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2. Hilty, Steven L. Birds of Venezuela. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5. Giant cowbird videos on the Internet Bird Collection Stamps with range map Giant cowbird photo gallery VIREO Photo-High Res Photo.

The Muslim News

The Muslim News is a monthly and digital newspaper. Having established itself in February 1989, it has grown to become the largest monthly ethnic paper in the UK, it describes itself as, "The only independent monthly Muslim newspaper in the UK, not backed by any country, organisation or party."The newspaper offers a platform for Muslims "to lobby and campaign" on a range of issues. 140,000 copies many for free in mosques. Its website received 1.5 million hits a month. The current editor of The Muslim News is Ahmed Versi. Ahmed Versi is an established lobby journalist of three years; the Muslim News established these awards in 2000, under the leadership of founder Ahmed J Versi, with the aim of recognising the achievements of Muslims in the UK, which go under the radar. In 2014 the Awards celebrated its 12th anniversary, in a letter to The Muslim News, Prime Minister David Cameron, an attendee said: "Now in its 12th year these prestigious awards showcase the incredible talent in our vibrant Muslim community."

The awards have previously been attended by British politicians, including former Prime Minister Tony Blair and Prime Minister, Rt Hon Theresa May MP. In January 2015, The Muslim News was nominated for the Responsible Media of the Year award at the British Muslim Awards