Flag and coat of arms of Jurbarkas
The flag and coat of arms of Jurbarkas symbolizes Jurbarkas, Lithuania with three silver-white fleur de lis – two over one – centred on a red background. The flag is a red banner using the fleur de lis as its charge. An example of heraldic flag design, the flag employs the city's coat of arms, making it a banner of arms; the design of the arms of Jurbarkas is believed to originate from the arms of the Sapieha house, a noble family from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, responsible for Jurbarkas receiving city rights and the coat of arms for in 1611. The three fleur de lis design was abolished during the final years of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but restored in 1993 after the independence of present-day Lithuania. Before restoration, several variant designs, such as using one over two fleur de lis, had been restored and abolished; the original two over one version was readopted in 1970 during the Soviet period, but abolished that same year
Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages. Yiddish is written with a vocalized version of the Hebrew alphabet; the earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from לשון־קודש, meaning Hebrew and Aramaic; the term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh, did not become the most used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more called "Jewish" in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation today. Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today.
It includes Southeastern and Northeastern dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern and Northwestern dialects. Yiddish is used in a number of Haredi Jewish communities worldwide; the term "Yiddish" is used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with "Jewish", to designate attributes of Yiddishkeit. Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide. 85% of the 6 million Jews who died in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers, leading to a massive decline in the use of the language. Assimilation following World War II and aliyah, immigration to Israel, further decreased the use of Yiddish both among survivors and among Yiddish-speakers from other countries. However, the number of speakers is increasing in Hasidic communities; the established view is that, as with other Jewish languages, Jews speaking distinct languages learned new co-territorial vernaculars, which they Judaized.
In the case of Yiddish, this scenario sees it as emerging when speakers of Zarphatic and other Judeo-Romance languages began to acquire varieties of Middle High German, from these groups the Ashkenazi community took shape. What German base lies behind the earliest form of Yiddish is disputed. In Max Weinreich's model, Jewish speakers of Old French or Old Italian who were literate in either liturgical Hebrew or Aramaic, or both, migrated through Southern Europe to settle in the Rhine Valley in an area known as Lotharingia extending over parts of Germany and France. Both Weinreich and Solomon Birnbaum developed this model further in the mid-1950s. In Weinreich's view, this Old Yiddish substrate bifurcated into two distinct versions of the language and Eastern Yiddish, they retained the Semitic vocabulary and constructions needed for religious purposes and created a Judeo-German form of speech, sometimes not accepted as a autonomous language. Linguistic research has finessed the Weinreich model or provided alternative approaches to the language's origins, with points of contention being the characterization of its Germanic base, the source of its Hebrew/Aramaic adstrata, the means and location of this fusion.
Some theorists argue. The two main candidates for the germinal matrix of Yiddish, the Rhineland and Bavaria, are not incompatible. There may have been parallel developments in the two regions, seeding the Western and Eastern dialects of Modern Yiddish. Dovid Katz proposes that Yiddish emerged from contact between speakers of High German and Aramaic-speaking Jews from the Middle East; the lines of development proposed by the different theories do not rule out the others. In more recent work, Wexler has argued that Eastern Yiddish is unrelated genetically to Western Yiddish. Wexler's model has met with little academic support, strong critical challenges among historical linguists. By the 10th century, a distinctive Jewish culture had formed in Central Europe which came to be called אַשכּנזי Ashkenazi, "Ashkenazi Jews, from Hebrew: אַשכּנז Ashkenaz, the medieval Hebrew name for northern Europe and Germany. Ashkenaz was centered on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost part of Germany.
Its geographic extent did not
Lithuanians are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Colombia, United Kingdom and Ireland, their native language is Lithuanian, one of only two surviving members of the Baltic language family. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population of Lithuania identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups. Most Lithuanians belong to the Roman Catholic Church, while the Lietuvininkai who lived in the northern part of East Prussia prior to World War II, were Evangelical Lutherans; the territory of the Balts, including modern Lithuania, was once inhabited by several Baltic tribal entities, as attested by ancient sources and dating from prehistoric times. Over the centuries, under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, some of these tribes consolidated into the Lithuanian nation as a defence against the marauding Teutonic Order and Eastern Slavs.
The last Pagan peoples in Europe, they were converted to Christianity in 1387. The territory inhabited by the ethnic Lithuanians has shrunk over centuries. However, there is a current argument that the Lithuanian language was considered non-prestigious enough by some elements in Lithuanian society, a preference for the Polish language in certain territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as a preference for the German language in territories of the former East Prussia caused the number of Lithuanian speakers to decrease; the subsequent imperial Russian occupation accelerated this process. It was believed by some at the time that the nation as such, along with its language, would become extinct within a few generations. At the end of the 19th century a Lithuanian cultural and linguistic revival occurred; some of the Polish- and Belarusian-speaking persons from the lands of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania expressed their affiliation with the modern Lithuanian nation in the early 20th century, including Michał Pius Römer, Stanisław Narutowicz, Oscar Milosz and Tadas Ivanauskas.
Lithuania declared independence after World War I. A standardised Lithuanian language was approved. However, the eastern parts of Lithuania, including the Vilnius Region, were annexed by Poland, while the Klaipėda Region was taken over by Nazi Germany in 1939. In 1940, Lithuania was invaded and occupied by the Soviet Union, forced to join it as the Lithuanian SSR; the Germans and their allies attacked the USSR in June 1941, from 1941—1944, Lithuania was occupied by Germany. The Germans retreated in 1944, Lithuania fell under Soviet rule once again; the long-standing communities of Lithuanians in the Kaliningrad Oblast were destroyed as a result. The Lithuanian nation as such remained in Lithuania, few villages in northeastern Poland, southern Latvia and in the diaspora of emigrants; some indigenous Lithuanians still remain in Belarus and the Kaliningrad Oblast, but their number is small compared to what they used to be. Lithuania regained its independence in 1990, was recognized by most countries in 1991.
It became a member of the European Union on May 1, 2004. Among the Baltic states, Lithuania has the most homogeneous population. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population identified themselves as ethnic Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups such as Ukrainians, Germans, Latvians, Estonians, Crimean Karaites, Scandinavians etc. Poles are concentrated in the Vilnius Region. Large Polish communities are located in the Vilnius District Municipality and the Šalčininkai District Municipality; this concentration allows Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania, an ethnic minority-based political party, to exert political influence. Due to the excessive pro-Pole political agenda, the party is known to cause friction between Lithuanians and Poles. However, it has only held 2 seats in the parliament of Lithuania for the past decade. Thus, it is more active in local politics by having a majority in a few minor municipality councils.
Russians though they are as numerous as Poles, are much more evenly scattered and do not have a strong political party. The most prominent community lives in the Visaginas Municipality. Most of them are workers. A number of ethnic Russians left Lithuania after the declaration of independence in 1990. In the past, the ethnic composition of Lithuania has varied dramatically; the most prominent change was the extermination of the Jewish population during the Holocaust. Before World War II, about 7.5% of the population was Jewish. They had a strong culture; the population of Vilnius, sometimes nicknamed the northern Jerusalem, was about 30% J
Lithuania the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states, it is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2019, its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Klaipėda. Lithuanians are Baltic people; the official language, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, the King of Lithuania, the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania, was created on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state personal union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and by Nazi Germany; as World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Baltic state to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania. Lithuania is a developed country, it is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD. It is a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries; the United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "very high human development" country.
The first known record of the name of Lithuania is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno in the Quedlinburg Chronicle. The Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua. Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions. Since Lietuva has a suffix, the original word should have no suffix. A candidate is Lietā; because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. Such names evolved through the following process: hydronym → toponym → ethnonym. Lietava, a small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the eventual Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is credited as the source of the name. However, the river is small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. On the other hand, such a naming is not unprecedented in world history.
Artūras Dubonis proposed another hypothesis. From the middle of the 13th century, leičiai were a distinct warrior social group of the Lithuanian society subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself; the word leičiai is used in the 14–16th-century historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians and is still used poetically or in historical contexts, in the Latvian language, related to Lithuanian. The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: Kunda and Narva cultures, they did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, forests developed; the inhabitants of what is now Lithuania traveled less and engaged in local hunting and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land. Crafts and trade started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes.
The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire, but they did maintain trade contacts. Tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were Balts, around the year 97 AD; the Western Balts became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingians, early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old Prussians and Semigallians; the Lithuanian language is considered to be conservative for its close connection to Indo-European roots. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian language, the most related existing language, around the 7th century. Traditional Lithuanian pagan customs and mythology, with many archaic elements, were long preserved. Rulers' bodies were cremated up until the conversion to Christianity: the descriptions of the cremation ceremonies of the grand d
Samogitian is a Baltic lect spoken in Samogitia, in Northern Europe. It is sometimes treated as a dialect of Lithuanian, but is considered a separate language by most linguists outside Lithuania, its recognition as a distinct language is increasing in recent years, Attempts have been made to standardize it. The Samogitian dialect should not be confused with the interdialect of the Lithuanian language as spoken in the Duchy of Samogitia before Lithuanian became a written language, which developed into one of the two variants of written Lithuanian used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania based on the so-called middle dialect of the Kėdainiai region; this was called the Samogitian language. This Žemaitian language was based on western Aukštaitian dialects and is unrelated to what is today called the Samogitian dialect; the Samogitian language influenced by Curonian, originated from the East Baltic proto-Samogitian dialect, close to Aukštaitian dialects. During the 5th century, Proto-Samogitians migrated from the lowlands of central Lithuania, near Kaunas, into the Dubysa and Jūra basins, as well as into the Samogitian highlands.
They assimilated the local, Curonian-speaking Baltic populations. Further north, they assimilated the indigenous, Semigallian speaking peoples. Assimilation of Curonians and Semigallians gave birth to the three Samogitian subdialects: "Dounininkų", "Donininkų" and "Dūnininkų." In the 13th century, Žemaitija became a part of the Baltic confederation called Lietuva, formed by Mindaugas. Lithuania conquered the coast of the Baltic sea from the Livonian order; the coast became a part of Samogitia. From the 13th century onwards, Samogitians settled within the former Curonian lands, intermarried with that population over the next three hundred years; the Curonians had a huge cultural influence upon Samogitian and Lithuanian culture, but they were assimilated by the 16th century. Its dying language has enormously influenced the dialect, in particular phonetics; the earliest writings in Samogitian language appeared in the 19th century. Samogitian and its subdialects preserved many features of the Curonian language, for example: widening of proto-Baltic short i widening of proto-Baltic short u retraction of ė in northern sub-dialects preservation of West Baltic diphthong ei no t' d' palatalization to č dž specific lexis, like cīrulis, pīle, leitis etc. retraction of stress shortening of ending -as to -s like in Latvian and Old Prussian as well as various other features not listed here.
The earliest writings in Samogitian language appeared in the 19th century. The Samogitian dialect is inflected like standard Lithuanian, in which the relationships between parts of speech and their roles in a sentence are expressed by numerous flexions. There are two grammatical genders in Samogitian -- masculine. Relics of historical neuter are fully extinct while in standard Lithuanian some isolated forms remain; those forms are replaced by masculine ones in Samogitian. Samogitian stress is mobile but retracted at the end of words, is characterised by pitch accent. Samogitian has a broken tone like the Danish languages; the circumflex of standard Lithuanian is replaced by an acute tone in Samogitian. It has three adjective declensions. Noun declensions are different from standard Lithuanian. There are only two verb conjugations. All verbs have present, past iterative and future tenses of the indicative mood and imperative moods and infinitive; the formation of past iterative is different from standard Lithuanian.
There are three numbers in Samogitian: singular and dual. Dual is extinct in standard Lithuanian; the third person of all three numbers is common. Samogitian as the standard Lithuanian has a rich system of participles, which are derived from all tenses with distinct active and passive forms, several gerund forms. Nouns and other declinable words are declined in eight cases: nominative, dative, instrumental, locative and illative; the earliest writings in Samogitian dialect appear in the 19th century. Famous authors writing in Samogitian: Silvestras Teofilis Valiūnas and his heroic poem “Biruta”, first printed in 1829. “Biruta” became a hymn of Lithuanian student emigrants in the 19th century. Simonas Stanevičius with his famous book “Šešės pasakas” printed in 1829. Simonas Daukantas, he was the first Lithuanian historian writing in Lithuanian, his famous book – “Būds Senovės Lietuviu Kalnienu ir Zamaitiu” was printed in 1854. Motiejus Valančius and one of his books “Palangos Juzė”, printed in 1869.
There are no written grammar books in Samogitian because it is considered to be a dialect of Lithuanian, but there were some attempts to standardise its written form. Among those who have tried ar
Battle of Grunwald
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War. The alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, led by King Władysław II Jagiełło and Grand Duke Vytautas, decisively defeated the German–Prussian Teutonic Knights, led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen. Most of the Teutonic Knights' leadership were taken prisoner. Although defeated, the Teutonic Knights withstood the siege of their fortress in Marienburg and suffered minimal territorial losses at the Peace of Thorn, with other territorial disputes continuing until the Peace of Melno in 1422; the knights, would never recover their former power, the financial burden of war reparations caused internal conflicts and an economic downturn in the lands under their control. The battle shifted the balance of power in Central and Eastern Europe and marked the rise of the Polish–Lithuanian union as the dominant political and military force in the region.
The battle was one of the largest in medieval Europe and is regarded as one of the most important victories in the histories of Poland and Lithuania and is widely celebrated in Belarus. It has been used as a source of romantic legends and national pride, becoming a larger symbol of struggle against foreign invaders. During the 20th century the battle was used in Soviet propaganda campaigns. Only in recent decades have historians moved towards a dispassionate, scholarly assessment of the battle, reconciling the previous narratives, which differed by nation; the battle was fought in the territory of the monastic state of the Teutonic Order, on the plains between three villages: Grünfelde to the west, Tannenberg to the northeast and Ludwigsdorf to the south. Władysław II Jagiełło referred to the site in Latin as in loco conflictus nostri, quem cum Cruciferis de Prusia habuimus, dicto Grunenvelt. Polish chroniclers interpreted the word Grunenvelt as Grünwald, meaning "green forest" in German; the Lithuanians translated the name as Žalgiris.
The Germans named the battle after Tannenberg. Thus there are three used names for the battle: German: Schlacht bei Tannenberg, Polish: Bitwa pod Grunwaldem, Lithuanian: Žalgirio mūšis, its names in the languages of other involved peoples include Belarusian: Бітва пад Грунвальдам, Ukrainian: Грюнвальдська битва, Russian: Грюнвальдская битва, Czech: Bitva u Grunvaldu, Romanian: Bătălia de la Grünwald. There are few contemporary, reliable sources about the battle, most were produced by Polish sources; the most important and trustworthy source is Cronica conflictus Wladislai regis Poloniae cum Cruciferis anno Christi 1410, written within a year of the battle by an eyewitness. Its authorship is uncertain, but several candidates have been proposed: Polish deputy chancellor Mikołaj Trąba and Władysław II Jagiełło's secretary Zbigniew Oleśnicki. While the original Cronica conflictus did not survive, a short summary from the 16th century has been preserved. Another important source is Historiae Polonicae by Polish historian Jan Długosz.
It is a detailed account written several decades after the battle. The reliability of this source suffers not only from the long gap between the events and the chronicle, but Długosz's alleged biases against the Lithuanians. Banderia Prutenorum is a mid-15th-century manuscript with images and Latin descriptions of the Teutonic battle flags captured during the battle and displayed in Wawel Cathedral and Vilnius Cathedral. Other Polish sources include two letters written by Władysław II Jagiełło to his wife Anne of Cilli and Bishop of Poznań Wojciech Jastrzębiec and letters sent by Jastrzębiec to Poles in the Holy See. German sources include a concise account in the chronicle of Johann von Posilge. A discovered anonymous letter, written between 1411 and 1413, provided important details on Lithuanian maneuvers. In 1230 the Teutonic Knights, a crusading military order, moved to Chełmno Land and launched the Prussian Crusade against the pagan Prussian clans. With support from the pope and Holy Roman Emperor, the Teutons conquered and converted the Prussians by the 1280s and shifted their attention to the pagan Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
For about 100 years the Knights raided Lithuanian lands Samogitia, as it separated the Knights in Prussia from their branch in Livonia. While the border regions became an uninhabited wilderness, the Knights gained little territory; the Lithuanians first gave up Samogitia during the Lithuanian Civil War in the Treaty of Dubysa. The territory was used as a bargaining chip to ensure Teutonic support for one of the sides in the internal power struggle. In 1385 Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania agreed to marry Queen Jadwiga of Poland in the Union of Kreva. Jogaila converted to Christianity and was crowned King of Poland, thus creating a personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the official Lithuanian conversion to Christianity removed the religious rationale for the order's activities in the area. Its grand master, Conrad Zöllner von Rothenstein, supported by Hungarian King Sigismund of Luxemburg, responded by publicly contesting the sincerity of Jogaila's conversion, bringing the charge to a papal court.
The territorial disputes continued over Samogitia, in Teutonic hands since the Peace of Raciąż in 1404. Poland had territorial claims against the Knights in Dobrzyń Land and Gdańsk, but the two states had been at peace since the Treaty of Kalisz; the conflict was motivated by trade considerations: The kn
Jurbarkas District Municipality
Jurbarkas District Municipality is a municipality in Tauragė County, Lithuania The Jurbarkas municipality contains 12 seniūnijos. Eržvilko eldership – Eržvilkas Girdžių eldership – Girdžiai Juodaičių eldership – Juodaičiai Jurbarko eldership – Jurbarkas Jurbarkų eldership – Jurbarkai Raudonės eldership – Raudonė Seredžiaus eldership – Seredžius Skirsnemunės eldership – Skirsnemunė Smalininkų eldership – Smalininkai Šimkaičių eldership – Šimkaičiai Veliuonos eldership – Veliuona Viešvilės eldership – Viešvilė Status: M, MST - city, town / K, GST - village / VS - steading