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Juris Doctor

The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. In Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, the Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law and first denominated LL. B. it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers. It traditionally involves a three-year program, although some U. S. law schools offer a two-year accelerated program in which students complete courses over two additional summer semesters. The LL. B. was replaced by the J.

D. in the US in the 20th century. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements. In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in some but not all of the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence.

"Juris Doctor" means "teacher of law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "teacher of legal knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, a standard of professional experience beyond that required for a PhD and academic accomplishment well beyond a professional degree such as the J. D; the LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law.

While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities. The nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation. However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system.

The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law o

William Fettes Pitcairn

William Fettes Pitcairn was a Scottish theological author. He was born in Edinburgh on 14 October 1803 the son of Alexander Pitcairn, a wealthy merchant, by his second wife, Jane Trotter, he was first cousin to Robert Pitcairn. The family lived at 4 Forth Street a newly built Georgian townhouse in the eastern part of Edinburgh's New Town, he appears to have trained as a lawyer. He lived much of his life with his parents but by 1860 is living independently at 19 Forth Street, a few doors from his family home, he died on 25 September 1891 at his home 30 York Place in Edinburgh’s New TownHe is buried in St Cuthbert’s Churchyard at the west end of Princes Street. He lies on a main dividing wall within the churchyard, to the north-west of the church, with his grandfather Alexander Pitcairn. Selection of Homilies Pastoral Letter, Easter The Passion and Resurrection of the Lord The Catholic Apostolic Church

The Black (album)

The Black is the fourth studio album by English metalcore band Asking Alexandria. It was released on 25 March 2016, is their only album to feature second lead vocalist Denis Stoff, who replaced original lead vocalist Danny Worsnop. Worsnop returned to the band in October 2016; the album was preceded by the singles "I Won't Give In" released on 26 May 2015, "Undivided" released on 25 September 2015, the album's eponymous track "The Black" released on 2 February 2016. The first song on the album, "Let It Sleep", was released on 3 March 2016, with a music video for the track being released the following day. Though the album was well received by music critics, fans of the band remain divided over its legacy since Stoff’s departure from the band in 2016. Since the return of Worsnop, all songs from The Black have been omitted from the band's concert setlists. On 22 January 2015, former frontman Danny Worsnop announced his departure from the band to focus his work on hard rock band We Are Harlot, however, he stated that the band will continue touring as well.

This has been done with the induction of former Down & Dirty and newly introduced Asking Alexandria frontman Denis Stoff. Stoff's Asking Alexandria covers on his YouTube account above92 had drawn the attention of Ben Bruce, with Bruce stating that "it had to be Denis" for whom he was praised for his much greater vocal range and his style, inspired by Worsnop during the band's early stages, believing he was capable of performing their songs live on a much higher level than his predecessor. Moreover, just like Asking Alexandria, Stoff's previous bands were contracted to Sumerian Records, which may have granted him an easier transition on succeeding Danny Worsnop. Stoff was commended by the band and their fans for his enthusiasm towards the band that the remaining members felt had been a missing presence during the past few years with Worsnop as lead vocalist. Ben Bruce, on Danny's gradual loss of interest in performing with the band, stated that his departure was “inevitable” and “needed to happen for… I wanna say a few months, but it’s more like a few years.”

He added, “Danny just stopped caring about Asking Alexandria. He didn’t like screaming, he didn’t like heavy music, he didn’t like the fans, he didn’t like anything to do with Asking Alexandria.” Bruce felt that Stoff's introduction to the band was "the right choice to make", adding that " an talented vocalist, from the multiple wide range of screams that Asking Alexandria needs and will continue to have, his singing and range is out of this world. He’s been a fan of the band for a long time, so he’s familiar with all our old songs, he cares about the band. With Denis Stoff being a permanent member in Asking Alexandria, they played at festivals including Rock am Ring and Warped Tour within Summer 2015, in order to promote their first single "I Won't Give In". Ben Bruce has stated that The Black will feature influences of Guns N' Roses and Van Halen just as influences from modern bands such as Avenged Sevenfold and Slipknot. Furthermore, he has stated that the new album will contain "some huge arena-rock songs".

According to Stoff, he will maintain his vocalistic style without imitating Danny Worsnop, trying to distinguish himself from his predecessor. Prior to the announcement of their forthcoming album, their first single "I Won't Give In" was released on YouTube on 26 May 2015 declaring Denis Stoff as the band's new lead singer; the second single was "Undivided", leaked a few days before the actual release date, but was released on 25 September 2015. In December 2015 the band announced the title of their upcoming album to be The Black confirming the release date as being 25 March 2016. In January 2016, Ben Bruce launched a poll on his Twitter page, offering the possibility of the band releasing a new song in anticipation of the British Invasion tour with Welsh heavy metal band Bullet for My Valentine in the United States between February and March 2016. Due to the poll's results unanimously requesting that the single be released, the band's self-titled third single from the album, "The Black" was premiered on BBC Radio 1 on 31 January 2016, with a music video being released for the single on the following day, along with an iTunes release on 30 March 2016.

The song is a slight variation on the band's signature sound, featuring melodic vocals from guitarist Ben Bruce. A music video for "Let It Sleep" was released on 4 March 2016. Following this, the song "Here I Am" premiered on Octane Radio on 8 March 2016. Regarding the release of "I Won't Give In", the first single featuring Danny Worsnop's successor Denis Stoff, Worsnop himself has positively welcomed their latest work, commenting "Glad to hear shit's still going strong." The Black received positive reviews from music critics. The album holds a 90/100 rating on Metacritic; the Music Melting Pot gave The Black an overwhelmingly positive score of 92% saying'The Black is the Asking Alexandria album we’ve all been waiting for without even knowing it. Asking Alexandria have taken the ongoing story of their evolution, added a triumphant transitional chapter.' The Metalist praised Stoff's vocals comparing him to former vocalist Danny Worsnop. However, Broken Arrow gave it a more mixed review, stating that the album'goes downhill after the first few songs', giving it a 6/10 overall.

Ultimate Guitar gave it a 2.5/5 stars, criticising some of the lyrics and musicianship. All tracks are written by Ben Bruce, Joey Sturgis and James Cassells. Asking Alexandria Denis Stoff – lead vocals Ben Bruce – lead guitar, backing vocals, vocals on tracks 2 and 10 Cam