SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Justice

Justice, in its broadest context, includes both the attainment of that, just and the philosophical discussion of that, just. The concept of justice is based on numerous fields, many differing viewpoints and perspectives including the concepts of moral correctness based on ethics, law, religion and fairness; the general discussion of justice is divided into the realm of social justice as found in philosophy and religion, procedural justice as found in the study and application of the law. The concept of justice differs in every culture. Early theories of justice were set out by the Ancient Greek philosophers Plato in his work The Republic, Aristotle in his Nicomachean Ethics. Throughout history various theories have been established. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God. In the 1600s, theorists like John Locke argued for the theory of natural law. Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned.

In the 1800s, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued. John Rawls used a social contract argument to show that justice, distributive justice, is a form of fairness. Property rights theorists take a consequentialist view of distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system. Theories of retributive justice are concerned with punishment for wrongdoing. Restorative justice is an approach to justice that focuses on the needs of offenders. In his dialogue Republic, Plato uses Socrates to argue for justice that covers both the just person and the just City State. Justice is a harmonious relationship between the warring parts of the person or city. Hence, Plato's definition of justice is. A just man is a man in just the right place, doing his best and giving the precise equivalent of what he has received.

This applies both at the universal level. A person's soul has three parts – reason and desire. A city has three parts – Socrates uses the parable of the chariot to illustrate his point: a chariot works as a whole because the two horses' power is directed by the charioteer. Lovers of wisdom – philosophers, in one sense of the term – should rule because only they understand what is good. If one is ill, one goes to a medic rather than a farmer, because the medic is expert in the subject of health. One should trust one's city to an expert in the subject of the good, not to a mere politician who tries to gain power by giving people what they want, rather than what's good for them. Socrates uses the parable of the ship to illustrate this point: the unjust city is like a ship in open ocean, crewed by a powerful but drunken captain, a group of untrustworthy advisors who try to manipulate the captain into giving them power over the ship's course, a navigator, the only one who knows how to get the ship to port.

For Socrates, the only way the ship will reach its destination – the good – is if the navigator takes charge. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice, indeed the whole of morality, is the authoritative command of God. Murder must be punished, for instance, because God says it so; some versions of the theory assert that God must be obeyed because of the nature of his relationship with humanity, others assert that God must be obeyed because he is goodness itself, thus doing what he says would be best for everyone. A meditation on the Divine command theory by Plato can be found in Euthyphro. Called the Euthyphro dilemma, it goes as follows: "Is what is morally good commanded by God because it is morally good, or is it morally good because it is commanded by God?" The implication is that if the latter is true justice is arbitrary. A response, popularized in two contexts by Immanuel Kant and C. S. Lewis, is that it is deductively valid to argue that the existence of an objective morality implies the existence of God and vice versa.

For advocates of the theory that justice is part of natural law, it involves the system of consequences that derives from any action or choice. In this, it is similar to the laws of physics: in the same way as the Third of Newton's laws of Motion requires that for every action there must be an equal and opposite reaction, justice requires according individuals or groups what they deserve, merit, or are entitled to. Justice, on this account, is a universal and absolute concept: laws, religions, etc. are attempts to codify that concept, sometimes with results that contradict the true nature of justice. In Republic by Plato, the character Thrasymachus argues that justice is the interest of the strong – a name for what the powerful or cunning ruler has imposed on the people. Advocates of the social contract agree that justice is derived from the mutual agreement of everyone concerned; this account is considered further below, under'Justice as fairness'. The absence of bias refers to an equal ground for all people

Curious (Tony Yayo song)

"Curious" is the second single released off Tony Yayo's debut album, Thoughts of a Predicate Felon. The single features R&B artist Joe on the chorus of the song. For the chart issue dated September 10, 2005, "Curious" debuted at number 94 on the US Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart: it went on to peak at number 85, spending five weeks on the chart in total. Chart-position wise, "Curious" became the second most successful single from Thoughts of a Predicate Felon, behind only the album's first single, "So Seductive", which reached number seven on the corresponding chart and peaked at number 48 on the US Billboard Hot 100; the video is about how Tony Yayo spots a girl he likes, is'curious' to know what it would take for her to be his. At the end, the video cuts into another Tony Yayo song called "Pimpin"; the video features G Unit. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Vikhorevka

Vikhorevka is a town in Bratsky District of Irkutsk Oblast, located on the left bank of the Vikhorevka River, 916 kilometers northwest of Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast, 46 kilometers southwest of Bratsk. Population: 22,520 , it was founded in 1957 as a workers' settlement due to the construction of the western section of the Baikal–Amur Mainline between Tayshet and Bratsk. The river, the railway station, the town were named after Vikhor Savin, a Strelets sotnik, killed here by the Tungus people in 1630, it was granted town status in 1966. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Vikhorevka is subordinated to Bratsky District; as a municipal division, the town of Vikhorevka is incorporated within Bratsky Municipal District as Vikhorevskoye Urban Settlement. The town's economy relies on timber production, as well as a railway depot. Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Постановление №9/5-ЗС от 15 апреля 2009 г. «Устав Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №2-У от 14 декабря 2017 г.

«О поправках к Уставу Иркутской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Областная", №45, 24 апреля 2009 г.. Законодательное Собрание Иркутской области. Закон №76-оз от 2 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Братского района Иркутской области», в ред. Закона №24-ОЗ от 6 марта 2014 г. «О распространении действия отдельных Законов Иркутской области на всю территорию нового субъекта Российской Федерации — Иркутской области и внесении в них изменений». Вступил в силу с 31 декабря 2004 г. но не ранее чем через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Восточно-Сибирская правда", №248–249, 14 декабря 2004 г.. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Formations of Irkutsk Oblast