SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Justinian II

Justinian II, surnamed the Rhinotmetos or Rhinotmetus, was the last Byzantine Emperor of the Heraclian dynasty, reigning from 685 to 695 and again from 705 to 711. Justinian II was an ambitious and passionate ruler, keen to restore the Roman Empire to its former glories, but he responded brutally to any opposition to his will and lacked the finesse of his father, Constantine IV, he generated enormous opposition to his reign, resulting in his deposition in 695 in a popular uprising, he only returned to the throne in 705 with the help of a Bulgar and Slav army. His second reign was more despotic than the first, it too saw his eventual overthrow in 711, abandoned by his army who turned on him before killing him. Justinian II was the eldest son of Anastasia, his father raised him to the throne as joint emperor in 681 on the fall of his uncles Heraclius and Tiberius. In 685, at the age of sixteen, Justinian II succeeded his father as sole emperor. Due to Constantine IV's victories, the situation in the Eastern provinces of the Empire was stable when Justinian ascended the throne.

After a preliminary strike against the Arabs in Armenia, Justinian managed to augment the sum paid by the Umayyad Caliphs as an annual tribute, to regain control of part of Cyprus. The incomes of the provinces of Armenia and Iberia were divided among the two empires. In 687, as part of his agreements with the Caliphate, Justinian removed from their native Lebanon 12,000 Christian Maronites, who continually resisted the Arabs. Additional resettlement efforts, aimed at the Mardaites and inhabitants of Cyprus allowed Justinian to reinforce naval forces depleted by earlier conflicts. In 688, Justinian signed a treaty with the Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan which rendered Cyprus neutral ground, with its tax revenue split. Justinian took advantage of the peace in the East to regain possession of the Balkans, which were before almost under the heel of Slavic tribes. In 687 Justinian transferred cavalry troops from Anatolia to Thrace. With a great military campaign in 688–689, Justinian defeated the Bulgars of Macedonia and was able to enter Thessalonica, the second most important Byzantine city in Europe.

The subdued Slavs were resettled in Anatolia, where they were to provide a military force of 30,000 men. Emboldened by the increase of his forces in Anatolia, Justinian now renewed the war against the Arabs. With the help of his new troops, Justinian won a battle against the enemy in Armenia in 693, but they were soon bribed to revolt by the Arabs; the result was that Justinian was comprehensively defeated at the Battle of Sebastopolis, caused by the defection of most of his Slavic troops, while he himself was forced to flee to the Propontis. There, according to Theophanes, he took out his frustration by slaughtering as many of the Slavs in and around Opsikion as he could lay his hands on. In the meantime, a Patrician by the name of Symbatius proceeded to rebel in Armenia, opened up the province to the Arabs, who proceeded to conquer it in 694–695. Meanwhile, the Emperor's bloody persecution of the Manichaeans and suppression of popular traditions of non-Chalcedonian origin caused dissension within the Church.

In 692 Justinian convened the so-called Quinisext Council at Constantinople to put his religious policies into effect. The Council expanded and clarified the rulings of the Fifth and Sixth ecumenical councils, but by highlighting differences between the Eastern and Western observances the council compromised Byzantine relations with the Roman Church; the emperor ordered Pope Sergius I arrested, but the militias of Rome and Ravenna rebelled and took the Pope's side. Justinian contributed to the development of the thematic organization of the Empire, creating a new theme of Hellas in southern Greece and numbering the heads of the five major themes- Thrace in Europe, the Anatolikon, Armeniakon themes in Asia Minor, the maritime corps of the Karabisianoi- among the senior administrators of the Empire, he sought to protect the rights of peasant freeholders, who served as the main recruitment pool for the armed forces of the Empire, against attempts by the aristocracy to acquire their land. This put him in direct conflict with some of the largest landholders in the Empire.

While his land policies threatened the aristocracy, his tax policy was unpopular with the common people. Through his agents Stephen and Theodotos, the emperor raised the funds to gratify his sumptuous tastes and his mania for erecting costly buildings. This, ongoing religious discontent, conflicts with the aristocracy, displeasure over his resettlement policy drove his subjects into rebellion. In 695 the population rose under Leontios, the strategos of Hellas, proclaimed him Emperor. Justinian was deposed and his nose was cut off to prevent his again seeking the throne: such mutilation was common in Byzantine culture, he was exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. Leontius, after a reign of three years, was in turn dethroned and imprisoned by Tiberius Apsimarus, who next assumed the throne. While in exile, Justinian began to gather supporters for an attempt to retake the throne. Justinian became a liability to Cherson and the authorities decided to return him to Constantinople in 702 or 703, he escaped from Cherson and received help from Busir, the khagan of the Khazars, who received him enthusiastically and gave him his sister as a bride.

Justinian renamed her Theodora, after the wife of Justinian I. They were given a home in the town of Phan

Circular Head Christian School

Circular Head Christian School is an independent school in Circular Head, North-Western Tasmania. Founded in 1985 with 20 students, Circular Head Christian School serves families through the provision of Christ-centred education, it is a co-educational K-12 school, a member of Christian Education national. The school has an enrolment of 370 students, expected to reach 400 in the near future. Circular Head is a rural municipality of 8000 people in the far north-west corner of Tasmania; the school is located on 8 hectares of property at 48 Nelson Street, the principal town which has about 4200 residents. Major industries of this region include forestry and other types of farming, vegetable processing and fishing; the school is evangelical in its nature. Many denominational groups are represented in the school within the board and student body. Building the campus of CHCS After a year of prayer and investigation of possibilities, Circular Head Christian School began in premises owned by the local Reformed Church on the outskirts of Smithton in 1985 offering K to grade 6 education with 20 pupils.

Steady growth soon resulted in this location with the addition of two demountable classrooms, being too small. In 1990, after being given a generous donation of land, the school moved to our present campus in Grant Street, a three hectare site closer to the town centre and local bus services. Early in 1991, the bold decision was made to establish Circular Head Christian Secondary School, beginning with grade 7 in 1992, flowing through to grade 10 over the next three years; this decision was a real step of faith because our small numbers per grade level meant that we did not qualify for Commonwealth Government funding. In 1996, the schools were merged to form a single entity K - 10 school. About this time the campus was expanded to four hectares with the addition of new sports grounds. In 1997 a major building program was undertaken to establish a new library complex and showers for the gymnasium, bigger staffroom and extra administration offices. In late 1998 another building program was completed.

During 2001, 4 hectares of land adjacent to our campus was purchased to give a separate horticulture teaching area and environmental study area which enabled a new entrance into the school campus from Nelson Street. A new prep classroom was added. Late in 2002 it was necessary to build another three classrooms and common room due to continued enrolment growth and extension to grade 11 in 2003, grade 12 in 2004 to allow study areas for laptop based learning; the 2003/2004 summer break allowed the school to renovate and extend its facilities. The science/cooking rooms were extended and upgraded to allow for increasing class sizes, to stay up to date with current teaching equipment. A transportable building was purchased to allow offices for staff, a new textiles room, a temporary drama room. In 2004 and 2005 canopies were built over the junior & middle play/courtyards which allowed undercover play areas in all types of weather; the science room was refurbished during this time. 2005 saw the extension of the gymnasium to include a permanent stage, a foyer and music room which made the venue much more suitable to whole school gatherings for assemblies and celebration evenings.

The library block was extended by 3 classrooms to accommodate the formation of middle school for the start of 2006. Over the summer holidays of 2006/2007 the administration block and staff room were extended to twice the size as well as building a new prep room, junior art room & enlarging the junior extended learning areas; the horticulture building was upgraded to classroom standard. Separate playground equipment and areas was provided for kinder, junior & middle school as well as a major refurbishment of the junior school. In 2008 a separate building for grade 11/12 was constructed giving individual study areas for students, two teaching areas and a common room/kitchen area. During 2009, BER approval was gained to build a multi-purpose hall, a science centre, re-locate the library to the current gymnasium and to refurbish the old library space into an expanded area for grade 11/12. List of schools in Tasmania Education in Tasmania

S'pore Discovery Centre

The Singapore Discovery Centre is an'edutainment' and tourist attraction located in Jurong West, Singapore. The centre includes exhibits which display the history of Singapore as well as an insight on the future; the mission of Singapore Discovery Centre is to share the Singapore Story and inspire a desire to contribute to Singapore’s future. SDC provides a mind-and-heart-engaging and multi-sensory learning experience which spans a selection of integrated themes. Visitors can learn about what makes Singapore tick and gain insights into Singapore’s challenges and aspirations. In 1988, the idea of building a museum to showcase the history of the SAF was first mooted; this idea was evolved into the concept of the Singapore Discovery Centre. However, SDC is not an educational tool for the SAF, it is a platform that provides plenty for Singaporeans to think about and helps them prepare for future challenges. In October 1992, MINDEF approved the setting up of the Singapore Discovery Centre at the cost of $70 million.

Located on the grounds of the SAFTI Military Institute, Mitchell Giurgola & Throp Architects developed the architectural design for SDC. Previous buildings by these architects include the SAFTI Military Institute and the Australian Parliament House. SDC was opened by president Ong Teng Cheong on 23 November 1996. In 1989, SDC started a review of the Centre to change from a historical site to an issue-based orientation. In 2001, Ralph Appelbaum Associates was selected as the design consultants for the project. RAA are planners and producers of museum exhibitions, visitors centre and educational environments, they are behind many famous institutions such as the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D. C. and the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia. A presentation was made to the Singapore Totalisator Board in 2002 and a grant of S$25 million was approved. Redevelopment work started in December that year. In its first phase it developed in a story telling interactive experience showing Singapore's recent history - living under the flags of Britain, Britain, Malaysia before becoming an independent nation.

Milestones in that journey were picked out in a theatrical setting.'Singapore Today' showed the vibrant life in late 20th century Singapore. Interactive quizzes allowed visitors to discover facts about Singapore; the visually dramatic'future' exhibit showed that war and peace are two sides of the same coin. Other galleries include mini-theaters showing the role of tactics and planning in everyday life and showcased the Singapore Armed Forces. Indoor exhibits include'So Singapore Theatre, Portals, Build it, Crisis Simulation Theatre, Harmony Circle etc. Outdoor exhibits includes the a display of aircraft; the Chief Exhibit Designer for the Centre's creation is UK based Neal Potter. The centre was planned by Canadian company Lord Cultural Resources and the building was designed by mgt Architects from Australia. In 2013, Singapore Discovery Centre was awarded the prestigious Minister for Defence Award and one of the ten corporate recipients to be inducted into the MiDAs League for a five-year tenure as advocates of national defence.

In 2012, Singapore Discovery Centre was awarded the Work-Life Achiever Award 2012 by Tripartite Committee on Work-Life Strategy. Official site