Spanish naming customs
Spanish naming customs are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain. According to these customs, a person's name consists of a given name followed by two family names; the first surname is the father's first surname, the second the mother's first surname. In recent years, the order of the surnames can be decided at birth; the practice is to use one given name and the first surname only, with the full name being used in legal and documentary matters, or for disambiguation when the first surname is common. In these cases, it is common to use only the second surname, as in “Lorca”, "Picasso" or “Zapatero”; this does not affect alphabetization: discussions of "Lorca", the Spanish poet, must be alphabetized in an index under “García Lorca", never "Lorca". In Spain, people bear a single or composite given name and two surnames. A composite given name comprises two single names; the two surnames refer to each of the parental families. Traditionally, a person's first surname is the father's first surname, while their second surname is the mother's first surname.
For example, if a man named Eduardo Fernández Garrido marries a woman named María Dolores Martínez Ruiz and they have a child named José, there are several legal options, but their child would most be known as José Fernández Martínez. Spanish gender equality law has allowed surname transposition since 1999, subject to the condition that every sibling must bear the same surname order recorded in the Registro Civil, but there have been legal exceptions. From 2013, if the parents of a child were unable to agree on the order of surnames, an official would decide, to come first, with the paternal name being the default option. Since June 2017, adopting the paternal name first is no longer the standard method, parents are required to sign an agreement wherein the name order is expressed explicitly; the law grants a person the option, upon reaching adulthood, of reversing the order of their surnames. However, this legislation only applies to Spanish citizens; each surname can be composite, with the parts linked by the conjunction y or e, by the preposition de, or by a hyphen.
For example, a person's name might be Juan Pablo Fernández de Calderón García-Iglesias, consisting of a forename, a paternal surname, a maternal surname. There are times when it is impossible, by inspection of a name, to analyse it. For example, the writer Sebastià Juan Arbó was alphabetised by the Library of Congress for many years under "Arbó", assuming that Sebastià and Juan were both given names. However, "Juan" was his first surname. Resolving questions like this, which involve common names requires the consultation of the person involved or legal documents pertaining to them. A man named José Antonio Gómez Iglesias would be addressed as either señor Gómez or señor Gómez Iglesias instead of señor Iglesias, because Gómez is his first surname. Furthermore, Mr. Gómez might be informally addressed as José Antonio José Pepe Antonio Toño Joselito, Joselillo, Josico or Joselín Antoñito, Toñín, Toñito, Ñoño or Nono Joseán. Formally, he could be addressed with an honorific such as don José Antonio or don José.
It is not unusual, when the first surname is common, like García in the example above, for a person to be referred to formally using both family names, or casually by their second surname only. For example, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is called Zapatero, the name he inherited from his mother's family since Rodríguez is a common surname and may be ambiguous; the same occurs with another former Spanish Socialist leader, Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, with the poet and dramatist Federico García Lorca, with the painter Pablo Ruiz Picasso. As these people's paternal names are common, they are called with their maternal names, it would nonetheless be a mistake to index José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero under Z as "Zapatero", or Federico García Lorca under L as "Lorca". In an English-speaking environment, Spanish-named people sometimes hyphenate their surnames to avoid Anglophone confusion or to fill in forms with only one space provided for last name, thus: Mr. José Antonio Gómez-Iglesias. A practical option to spare an explanation is using a single surname composed of two separate words.
Parents choose their child's given name, which must be recorded in the Registro Civil to establish his or her legal identity. With few restrictions, parents can now choose any name. Legislation in Spain under Franco limited cultural naming customs to only Christian and typical Spanish names. Although the first part of a composite forename reflects the gender of the child, the second personal name need not. At present, the only naming limitation is the dignity of the child, who cannot b
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Antonio González de Balcarce
Antonio González de Balcarce was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century. González de Balcarce was born in Buenos Aires, he joined the armed forces as a cadet in 1788. In the battle for Montevideo in 1807, he was taken to England. After his release, he fought in the service of Spain during the Peninsular War against the Emperor Napoleon. Returning to Buenos Aires, he participated in the May Revolution in 1810. Subsequently, he was named second commander for the military campaign of the independentist forces in the Viceroyalty of Perú, where he won the Battle of Suipacha on November 7, 1810, the first victory over the Spanish royal forces, he was called back and became the Governor of Buenos Aires Province in 1813. In 1816, he served as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ad interim, became the Major General of the armed forces the following year under the government of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. According to historian William Denslow, Antonio Balcarce was a member of the well-known masonic lodge Lautaro.
He took part of the crossing of the Andes to Chile and was San Martin's second-in-command during the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipu. He fell ill in Chile and had to return to Buenos Aires, where he died in 1819
Mariano Moreno was an Argentine lawyer and politician. He played a decisive role in the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, created after the May Revolution. Moreno was born in Buenos Aires in 1778, his father was Manuel Moreno y Argumosa, born in Santander, who arrived in the city in 1776 and married María del Valle. Mariano had thirteen brothers. During his youth he studied Latin and philosophy at San Carlos Royal College, followed by college studies of law at Chuquisaca. During these studies, he learned the new ideas of the Spanish Enlightenment, he married María Guadalupe Cuenca and returned to Buenos Aires, becoming a prominent lawyer for the Cabildo. Unlike most other criollos, he rejected the Carlotist project and the administration of Santiago de Liniers, joining instead the ill-fated mutiny of Álzaga against him, he worked for Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros. He wrote the economic paper The Representation of the Landowners, which persuaded the viceroy to open trade with Britain.
Although he was not prominently involved in the May Revolution that deposed Cisneros, he was appointed as secretary of war of the new government, the Primera Junta. Along with Juan José Castelli, he promoted harsh policies against the supporters of the former government and the strengthening of the new one; these policies were detailed in the Operations plan. Moreno organized military campaigns to Paraguay and Upper Peru and ensured the execution of Santiago de Liniers after the defeat of his counter-revolution, he established the first Argentine newspaper, La Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, translated Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract into Spanish. When the Junta achieved the first military victories, President Cornelio Saavedra opposed Moreno, favoring moderate policies instead. Allied with Gregorio Funes, Saavedra expanded the number of members of the Junta to leave Morenism in a minority. With disputes still going on, Moreno was appointed to a diplomatic mission to Britain but died at sea on the way there.
His brother Manuel Moreno alleged. His supporters were still an influential political party for some years after his death. Historians hold several perspectives about the role and historical significance of Moreno, from hagiography to repudiation, he is considered the precursor of Argentine journalism. Mariano Moreno was the eldest of 14 children of poor parents, Manuel Moreno y Argumosa and Ana María Valle, he studied at Colegio Grande de San Carlos, but without living in it, as his family could not afford the price. He graduated with an honorary diploma, he met influential people within the literary field, who helped him to continue his studies at the University of Chuquisaca when his father could not afford the cost. This was the only big university in South America at the time, he studied the books of Montesquieu, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, other European philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment. He studied French languages as well, to understand authors from Britain and France; this allowed him to work as a translator, he spent several years working with Rousseau's The Social Contract.
Moreno was convinced that society could be changed by the power of reason. He studied philosophical texts of the Spanish Enlightenment under the tutelage of the priest Terrazas and aspired to implement the new ideas in his country, he wrote a thesis with strong criticism of the native slavery at the mines of Potosí, influenced by the Spanish jurist Juan de Solorzano Pereira, the foremost publisher of Indian Law, Victoria Villalva, fiscal of the Audiencia of Charcas and defender of the indigenous cause. He started his professional career between 1803 and 1804, in the office of Augustine Gascón, officiating as labor counselor for Indians; as a result, he confronted powerful people like the mayors of Chayanta. He left the city after being threatened and returned to Buenos Aires in 1805 with his wife Maria Guadalupe Cuenca and their newborn son. Once in the city, he became a reporter of the hearings of the Royal Audiencia, a local appeallate court; the Buenos Aires Cabildo, the local council, hired him as an advisor as well.
He defended Melchor Fernández, aggrieved by Bishop Benito Lue y Riega, in one of his first cases. In another of his early disputes, he backed the Cabildo in denying the appointment as an ensign of the young Bernardino Rivadavia. A British army invaded Buenos Aires in 1806. Although Moreno was not involved with the military counter-offensive which drove them out, he opposed the British presence in Buenos Aires, he wrote a diary that noted all the events, so that, in the future, his countrymen would know the circumstances that allowed such an invasion. The British made a new attack in this time invading Montevideo, they published a bilingual English–Spanish newspaper known as "The Southern Star" or "La estrella del sur". It advocated free trade, a British goal, promoted American independence under British protection; the Royal Audiencia of Buenos Aires banned the newspaper and requested Moreno to write articles refuting those of the British publication. Moreno refused because, although he did not accept British rule, he agreed with some of their criticisms of the Spanish government.
Fearing a new attack to Buenos Aires, Moreno left the city with his whole family and relocated in the countryside. His house in Buenos Aires, left unoccupied, was used to keep prisoner William Carr Beresford, the Britis
Battle of Caseros
The Battle of Caseros was fought near the town of El Palomar, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, on 3 February 1852, between the Army of Buenos Aires commanded by Juan Manuel de Rosas and the Grand Army led by Justo José de Urquiza. The forces of Urquiza and governor of Entre Ríos, defeated Rosas, who fled to the United Kingdom; this defeat marked a sharp division in the history of Argentina. As provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation, Urquiza sponsored the creation of the Constitution in 1853, became the first constitutional President of Argentina in 1854. Rosas had declared war on Brazil in 1851, which led to the signing of a treaty, on 21 November 1851, among the governments of Entre Ríos, Corrientes and the Brazilian Empire. In compliance with the treaty, Urquiza led a joint army and crossed Morón creek, positioning his forces in Monte Caseros; the Brazilian Empire contributed with 3,500 troops, were the only professional soldiers, but the bulk of the Brazilian Army remained out of the battlefield.
Rosas' forces comprised 12,000 cavalrymen and 60 guns. Among his captains were Jerónimo Costa, who defended Martín García island from the French in 1838. Due to desertion that of General Ángel Pacheco and poor morale, several historians and military analysts reckon that for Rosas the battle was lost before it started. However, his opponent suffered from desertions like that of the Regimiento Aquino, a regiment composed by soldiers loyal to Rosas, who murdered their captain Pedro León Aquino and joined the Rosist army. Urquiza's army was 24,000-men strong, among them 3,500 Brazilians and 1,500 Uruguayans, 50 guns. Only the Brazilians were professional soldiers. Urquiza did not conduct the battle: each chief was free to fight as they saw fit. Urquiza himself led a charge against the enemy left in front of their cavalrymen from Entre Ríos. Meanwhile, the Brazilian infantry, supported by a Uruguayan brigade and an Argentine cavalry squadron seized the Palomar, a circular building near the right of the Rosist line and used for pigeon breeding, extant to this day.
After both flanks collapsed only the center under Chilavert's command continued the fighting, reduced to an artillery duel that lasted until he ran out of ammunition. The armies clashed in Buenos Aires province; the whole battle fled. Urquiza's triumph terminated the 20-year term of Rosas as Governor of Buenos Aires and de facto ruler of Argentina. Within a few days, Urquiza's troops entered the city of Buenos Aires without further resistance; the President of the Superior Tribunal, Vicente López y Planes, was appointed interim governor. Gálvez, Manuel. Vida de Juan Manuel de Rosas. Buenos Aires: Editorial Tor
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states. It refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to a full range of topical issues. International treaties are negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. David Stevenson reports that by 1900 the term "diplomats" covered diplomatic services, consular services and foreign ministry officials; some of the earliest known diplomatic records are the Amarna letters written between the pharaohs of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt and the Amurru rulers of Canaan during the 14th century BC. Following the in c. 1274 BC during the Nineteenth dynasty, the pharaoh of Egypt and the ruler of the Hittite Empire created one of the first known international peace treaties which survives in stone tablet fragments, now called the Egyptian–Hittite peace treaty. Relations with the government of the Ottoman Empire were important to Italian states.
The maritime republics of Genoa and Venice depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans. Interactions between various merchants and clergy men hailing from the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft; the primary purpose of a diplomat, a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War, he lived during a time in which rival states were starting to pay less attention to traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs while each vied for power and total conquest.
However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state, the idealized role of the "persuader/diplomat" developed. From the Battle of Baideng to the Battle of Mayi, the Han Dynasty was forced to uphold a marriage alliance and pay an exorbitant amount of tribute to the powerful northern nomadic Xiongnu, consolidated by Modu Shanyu. After the Xiongnu sent word to Emperor Wen of Han that they controlled areas stretching from Manchuria to the Tarim Basin oasis city-states, a treaty was drafted in 162 BC proclaiming that everything north of the Great Wall belong to nomads' lands, while everything south of it would be reserved for Han Chinese; the treaty was renewed no less than nine times, but did not restrain some Xiongnu tuqi from raiding Han borders. That was until the far-flung campaigns of Emperor Wu of Han which shattered the unity of the Xiongnu and allowed Han to conquer the Western Regions; the Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the model of governance.
The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 when the Tang seemed on the brink of collapse. After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty, there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China. After warring with the Lý Dynasty of Vietnam from 1075 to 1077, Song and Lý made a peace agreement in 1082 to exchange the respective lands they had captured from each other during the war.
Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia and Persia, starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese became invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Arabia, East Africa, Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. During the Mongol Empire the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza; the paiza were in three different types (
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho