Governor of Buenos Aires Province
The Governor of Buenos Aires province is a citizen of the Buenos Aires Province of Argentina, holding the office of governor for the corresponding period. The governor is elected alongside a vice-governor; the governor of Buenos Aires Province is Maria Eugenia Vidal since December 10, 2015. For being able to be elected as governor, the citizen must have been born in Argentina, or be the child of an Argentine citizen if born at a foreign country; the citizen must be of at least 30 years old, have at least 5 uninterrupted years of residence in the province if not natural from it. The period lasts 4 years, with the chance of a single reelection. Buenos Aires Province
Antonio González de Balcarce
Antonio González de Balcarce was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century. González de Balcarce was born in Buenos Aires, he joined the armed forces as a cadet in 1788. In the battle for Montevideo in 1807, he was taken to England. After his release, he fought in the service of Spain during the Peninsular War against the Emperor Napoleon. Returning to Buenos Aires, he participated in the May Revolution in 1810. Subsequently, he was named second commander for the military campaign of the independentist forces in the Viceroyalty of Perú, where he won the Battle of Suipacha on November 7, 1810, the first victory over the Spanish royal forces, he was called back and became the Governor of Buenos Aires Province in 1813. In 1816, he served as the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata ad interim, became the Major General of the armed forces the following year under the government of Juan Martín de Pueyrredón. According to historian William Denslow, Antonio Balcarce was a member of the well-known masonic lodge Lautaro.
He took part of the crossing of the Andes to Chile and was San Martin's second-in-command during the battles of Cancha Rayada and Maipu. He fell ill in Chile and had to return to Buenos Aires, where he died in 1819
Battle of Caseros
The Battle of Caseros was fought near the town of El Palomar, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, on 3 February 1852, between the Army of Buenos Aires commanded by Juan Manuel de Rosas and the Grand Army led by Justo José de Urquiza. The forces of Urquiza and governor of Entre Ríos, defeated Rosas, who fled to the United Kingdom; this defeat marked a sharp division in the history of Argentina. As provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation, Urquiza sponsored the creation of the Constitution in 1853, became the first constitutional President of Argentina in 1854. Rosas had declared war on Brazil in 1851, which led to the signing of a treaty, on 21 November 1851, among the governments of Entre Ríos, Corrientes and the Brazilian Empire. In compliance with the treaty, Urquiza led a joint army and crossed Morón creek, positioning his forces in Monte Caseros; the Brazilian Empire contributed with 3,500 troops, were the only professional soldiers, but the bulk of the Brazilian Army remained out of the battlefield.
Rosas' forces comprised 12,000 cavalrymen and 60 guns. Among his captains were Jerónimo Costa, who defended Martín García island from the French in 1838. Due to desertion that of General Ángel Pacheco and poor morale, several historians and military analysts reckon that for Rosas the battle was lost before it started. However, his opponent suffered from desertions like that of the Regimiento Aquino, a regiment composed by soldiers loyal to Rosas, who murdered their captain Pedro León Aquino and joined the Rosist army. Urquiza's army was 24,000-men strong, among them 3,500 Brazilians and 1,500 Uruguayans, 50 guns. Only the Brazilians were professional soldiers. Urquiza did not conduct the battle: each chief was free to fight as they saw fit. Urquiza himself led a charge against the enemy left in front of their cavalrymen from Entre Ríos. Meanwhile, the Brazilian infantry, supported by a Uruguayan brigade and an Argentine cavalry squadron seized the Palomar, a circular building near the right of the Rosist line and used for pigeon breeding, extant to this day.
After both flanks collapsed only the center under Chilavert's command continued the fighting, reduced to an artillery duel that lasted until he ran out of ammunition. The armies clashed in Buenos Aires province; the whole battle fled. Urquiza's triumph terminated the 20-year term of Rosas as Governor of Buenos Aires and de facto ruler of Argentina. Within a few days, Urquiza's troops entered the city of Buenos Aires without further resistance; the President of the Superior Tribunal, Vicente López y Planes, was appointed interim governor. Gálvez, Manuel. Vida de Juan Manuel de Rosas. Buenos Aires: Editorial Tor
Juan José Castelli
Juan José Castelli was an Argentine lawyer. He was one of the leaders of the May Revolution, he led an ill-fated military campaign in Upper Peru. Juan José Castelli was born in Buenos Aires, went to school at the Real Colegio de San Carlos in Buenos Aires and Monserrat College in the city of Córdoba, Argentina, he graduated as a lawyer in Upper Peru. His cousin, Manuel Belgrano, introduced him to the public administration of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. Along with Belgrano, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, Hipólito Vieytes, Castelli planned a revolution to replace the absolute monarchy with the new ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, he led the Buenos Aires patriots during the May Revolution, which ended with the removal of viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power. He is known as the "Speaker of the Revolution" for his speech during the open cabildo held in Buenos Aires on May 22, 1810. Castelli was appointed a Committee member of the Primera Junta and was sent to Córdoba to end Santiago de Liniers's counter-revolution.
He succeeded, ordered the execution of Liniers and his supporters. He commanded the establishment of a revolutionary government in Upper Peru with the aim of freeing the indigenous peoples and African slaves. In 1811 Castelli signed a truce with the Spanish in Upper Peru, but they betrayed him and caught the Northern Army unprepared; as a result, the Argentines suffered a major loss in the Battle of Huaqui on June 20, 1811. When Castelli returned to Buenos Aires, the First Triumvirate imprisoned him for losing the battle, Castelli died shortly afterwards from tongue cancer. Castelli was born in Buenos Aires in 1764, he was the first of eight children born to a Venetian doctor, Ángel Castelli Salomón, Josefa Villarino, a relative of Manuel Belgrano. He was trained by the Jesuits shortly before their expulsion, attended the Real Colegio de San Carlos in Buenos Aires; as was customary, one of the children of the Castelli family was ordained into the priesthood, Juan José was chosen for this. He was sent to study at the Colegio Monserrat, part of the University of Córdoba.
He was influenced by the works of Voltaire and Diderot, by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract. He was a fellow student of men who would have influence in the public life of South America, including Saturnino Rodríguez Peña, Juan José Paso, Manuel Alberti, Pedro Medrano, Juan Martínez de Rozas, among others, he focused on studying philosophy and theology, but when his father died in 1785, he abandoned his career in the priesthood, for which he felt no strong vocation. Rejecting his mother's proposal of sending him to study in Spain at the University of Salamanca and Alcalá de Henares, alongside his cousin Manuel Belgrano, he enrolled in jurisprudence studies in the University of Chuquisaca, in the Upper Peru. There, he learned about the ongoing French Revolution, the new ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, he learned about the 1782 Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II and the oppression of the indigenous peoples, which influenced his actions in his future Upper Peru campaign. Before returning to Buenos Aires, he visited Potosí and witnessed the use of slave labor in the mines.
Castelli established a legal firm in his family home. He represented the University of Córdoba in various causes, as well as his uncle, Domingo Belgrano Peri. Through his associations with Saturnino Rodríguez Peña, he met and befriended his brother, Nicolás Rodríguez Peña, his associate, Hipólito Vieytes. Castelli married María Rosa Lynch in 1794, they had seven children: Angela, Luciano, Francisco José, Juana. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason; the intellectuals of the viceroyalty received and secretly distributed a copy of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, promulgated by the French Revolution in 1789. Meanwhile, Belgrano returned from his studies in Europe, was appointed as Perpetual Secretary of the new Consulate of Commerce of Buenos Aires. Belgrano and Castelli shared similar ideas about the Spanish trade monopoly and the rights of the natives. Belgrano attempted to appoint Castelli as interim Secretary of the Consulate as his assistant, but faced strong opposition from the peninsular merchants, who delayed the appointment until 1796.
Belgrano became ill during his stay in Europe, which forced him to take extended leaves from work, wanted Castelli to be his successor if he resigned. There was a similar opposition during the 1799 election of delegates to the Buenos Aires Cabildo: Castelli was elected as third Regidor, but was rejected by merchants associated with the port of Cádiz; the conflict lasted a year, until the prominent local merchant Cornelio Saavedra wrote a memorandum recommending Castelli. Viceroy Avilés confirmed him in office by royal decree, in May 1800. Castelli, rejected the post because of his high workload in the Consulate; this was seen as an insult by peninsular merchants such as Martín de Álzaga, influential in the Cabildo. Castelli and Belgrano backed a pair of projects from Francisco Cabello y Mesa, who had just arrived from Spain. Cabello proposed the creation of a "Patriotic and Economic Society" lodge and the publication of a newspaper; this newspaper, the first one published in Buenos Aires, was named Telégrafo Mercantil.
However, both projects were short-lived: the lodge was never established and its activities were banned by royal decree, the Consulate was instructed to withdraw support for the newspaper, closed. Published by Castelli and Belgrano (secretary of the pu
Juan Larrea (politician)
Juan Larrea was a Spanish businessman and politician in Buenos Aires during the early nineteenth century. He headed a military unit during the second British invasion of the Río de la Plata, worked at the Buenos Aires Cabildo, he took part in the ill-fated Mutiny of Álzaga. Larrea and Domingo Matheu were the only two Spanish-born members of the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, he supported the secretary Mariano Moreno within the Junta, was moved to the distant city of San Juan when the Morenists were removed from government. He returned as a deputy for Córdoba in the Assembly of Year XIII constituent assembly, promoting many resolutions. Together with Carlos María de Alvear, he organized the strategy for the downfall of the royalist stronghold in Montevideo, a threat to Buenos Aires during the Argentine War of Independence. Despite the victory, he faced political conflicts with admiral William Brown and an economic crisis, was exiled from the country, he moved to Bordeaux, but returned to Buenos Aires when his exile was lifted by the Oblivion law.
He served as consul for a time, but his business declined and he committed suicide on June 20, 1847. He was the last surviving member of the Primera Junta. Juan Larrea was born on June 1782, in the city of Mataró, Catalonia, his father was Martín Ramón de Larrea, in charge of customs operations in Mataró, his mother was Tomasa Espeso. He studied mathematics and navigation, focused his education towards a career in commerce, his father died in 1793, so Larrea became the patriarch of the family. They moved to Buenos Aires, where he established a warehouse for wines and sugar, he traded with Peru, Upper Peru, Paraguay and colonial Brazil. By 1806 he was a well respected businessman, a syndic of the Royal Consulate, he promoted the role of deputies from Buenos Aires at the Madrid court, to better the representation of the Brazilian viceroyalty and reduce the privileges of peninsular merchants. Buenos Aires and other nearby cities faced the British invasions of the Río de la Plata in 1806 and 1807. In the absence of reinforcements from Spain, viceroy Santiago de Liniers arranged that everyone in Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms should join the resistance against the second invasion.
Larrea established the Legion of Catalan Volunteers with Jaime Nadal y Guarda, Jaime Lavallol and José Olaguer Reynals. Larrea was appointed captain of this military unit; the defense was successful, the British were driven away from the viceroyalty. Larrea's business prospered, in 1808 the Buenos Aires Cabildo appointed him to oversee a naval patrol to suppress shipments of contraband; this gave him an opportunity to put his nautical skills to use. He participated in the secret meetings of patriots who promoted political change, joined the 1809 Mutiny of Álzaga, which attempted to depose viceroy Liniers and replace him with a Junta; the mutiny failed, but the patriots continued to plot, in 1810 the May Revolution succeeded in deposing the new viceroy. Larrea did not take part in the discussions at the open cabildo, but was appointed as member of the Primera Junta. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. Larrea's prestige as an influential businessman promoted his appointment as member of the Primera Junta.
However, as with the other members, the precise reasons for his inclusion are unclear. The Junta's membership has been considered a balance between Alzaguists. Larrea resigned his wages from his position as Junta member, organized the resources for the upcoming war of independence. Together with Manuel de Sarratea he drafted a new code regulating business in Argentina, he secured the exile of former viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros by bribing the captain of the ship carrying him, the Dart, to avoid any landfall until reaching the Canary Islands on the far side of the Atlantic, he supported the execution of Liniers after the defeat of his counter-revolution, supported the secretary Mariano Moreno against the president Cornelio Saavedra. Larrea voted for the incorporation of deputies from other cities into the Junta, although he had indicated his opposition to the proposal, it was intended by Saavedra. The proposal prevailed, the Primera Junta became the Junta Grande by incorporating the new deputies.
The resignation and death of Mariano Moreno did not reduce the conflicts between Morenists and Saavedrists. A rebellion on behalf of Saavedrism ensued, on 5 and 6 April 1811, aiming at the resignation of all remaining Morenists, including Larrea. Larrea was accused of joining factions and risking public security, was deposed. Taken prisoner, he was moved to the nearby city of Luján, to the distant San Juan. Larrea resumed business activities in San Juan, avoiding politics until 1812; the Revolution of October 8, 1812 returned the Morenists to power, so Larrea could return to Buenos Aires. He returned as a deputy for Córdoba to the Assembly of Year XIII constituent assembly. In the assembly, Larrea promoted a customs law which taxed most imports, but made exceptions for machines, scientific tools, books and military supplies, he organized a local mint, the supply of the Army of the North. The presidency of the assembly rotated, Larrea presided from April 30 to June 1, 1813. During this time the Assembly outlawed torture and repealed all noble titles, chose the official Argentine National Anthem.
Larrea served in the Second Triumvirate, replacing José Julián Pérez as finance minister, until the Assembly replaced the Triumvirate with the Supreme Director, an office placing the powers of head of state in the hands of one pers
San José palace
The San José Palace is the former personal residence of Justo José de Urquiza, Argentine caudillo, general and President of the Argentine Confederation from 1854 to 1860. The Palace is now the setting of the Justo José de Urquiza National Monument; the Palace is located in the countryside, 23 kilometres from the city of Concepción del Uruguay, in the province of Entre Ríos. It was designed by architect Pedro Fossati and built between 1848 and 1858; the Palace is a model of mid-19th-century Italian-Argentine architecture. The main floor has two large courtyards surrounded by 38 rooms, as well as an archive, a library, a playroom, a large dining room, kitchens, a chapel, two surveillance towers. One can find such luxuries as Italian marbles, French mirrors, gold-plated roofs; the archives treasure important historical documents, paintings of Urquiza's battles, manifests of ships that landed on Concepción's port. These features are well preserved; the building was the first in the country to have a complete system of running water.
Pipes brought the water from the Gualeguaychú River, 2 kilometres away. The Palace served as a political stage; the Apostolic Nuncio, military leaders and important politicians were received here. Urquiza was assassinated in the Palace on the night of 11 April 1870 by followers of Ricardo López Jordán, a federal dissident; the bloodied prints of Urquiza's hand are preserved in the room where this took place, turned into an oratorium by his wife. The Palace was declared National Monument by law on 30 August 1935. Palacio San José - Official website Museos Argentinos Argentina invisible
Salvador María del Carril
Salvador María del Carril was a prominent Argentine jurist and policy-maker, as well as his country's first Vice President Born in the Andes-range city of San Juan, del Carril was a precocious student, enrolled in the University of Córdoba Law School while still in his teens. Mentored by the school's prestigious ecclesiastical Dean, Gregorio Funes, del Carril received a juris doctor in 1816, at age 18, he relocated to Buenos Aires, the capital of the newly declared United Provinces of South America, following a stint as a journalist, he was appointed as an official in the Finance Ministry. General José María Pérez de Urdininea, Governor of his native San Juan Province, called on del Carril to replace Francisco Narciso de Laprida as his Minister of Government in 1822, the highest-ranking advisory position. Amid the turmoil surrounding the Argentine War of Independence, however, Pérez de Urdininea was returned to active duty in Bolivia by General José de San Martín, leaving del Carril as Governor of San Juan.
Taking office in January 1823, the 24-year-old Governor undertook an ambitious modernization program, commissioning the construction of roads, water works, public buildings and parks, purchasing the province's first printing press, establishing San Juan's first newspaper. Inheriting a province devastated by the wars, he ordered the first Agricultural Census and created a charitable association; the first lawyer to occupy the governor's post, he established San Juan's judicial system and in 1825, promulgated the "May Charter," the province's first constitution. The liberal May Charter, the first in Argentina to guarantee freedom of worship and mandate the separation of church and state forced the closure of monasteries, ran into arduous opposition from the Catholic Church. Facing a firestorm of protest, the governor was overthrown on July 26, the May Charter was publicly burned. Del Carril's efforts, had gained him the respect of the influential Bernardino Rivadavia, a Buenos Aires lawmaker who, in 1826, was elected the first President of Argentina, who appointed del Carril Argentina's first Finance Minister.
Saddled by the Cisplatine War, the nation's finances became dependent on credit from Baring Brothers in London, del Carril offered the nation's exports as collateral. His introduction of the Argentine peso fuerte - the first local currency convertible into gold, the first in Argentina with that name - concentrated wealth into exporters and others with access to hard currency, making peso circulation scarce for the public in general and the war more difficult to finance. Rivadavia's National Bank was mismanaged under del Carril and unrest resulted in President Rivadavia's resignation in 1827; the dissolution of national government ensued in favor of an Argentine Confederation. The advent of the populist Governor of Buenos Aires Province, Manuel Dorrego, was opposed by del Carril, who became an adviser to a conservative insurrection led by General Juan Lavalle. Lavalle's violent 1828 overthrow of Dorrego returned del Carril to the cabinet as Finance and Foreign Minister. A countercoup led by General Juan Manuel de Rosas, a supporter of Dorrego's, forced Lavalle to call elections, though del Carril's manipulation of the results triggered Rosas' overthrow and del Carril's subsequent exile in Montevideo.
Del Carril remained an active opponent of Rosas' while in exile, supporting a failed 1830 invasion of Entre Ríos Province and negotiating an entente with the Governor of Corrientes Province. He struggled financially, though these diffulties were mitigated by his meeting Tiburcia Domínguez y López Camelo, whom he married and had seven children with. Rosas' grasp on power began to slip after the 1838 blockade imposed by France following the death of a French journalist in Buenos Aires, del Carril was named Supply Commissioner to the French Navy fleet stationed in the Río de la Plata, his tenure in the post attracted controversy, when he became conspicuously wealthy in the process. The 1843 overthrow of his ally, President Fructuoso Rivera of Uruguay, forced del Carril yet again into exile, he fled to Brazil, he cultivated a friendship via corrspondence with the powerful Governor of Entre Ríos, Justo José de Urquiza, in subsequent years, following the latter's defeat of Rosas' forces in the 1852 Battle of Caseros, del Carril returned to Argentina.
Del Carril was elected to the assembly. Enmities remaining from the Rosas era thwarted an opportunity to return to the Governor's post in San Juan and despite his personal efforts, Buenos Aires lawmakers rejected the new constitution, his belonging to the Buenos Aires-centric Unitarian Party and rapport with Urquiza made del Carril an easy choice for the latter's running-mate in the elections that November and their national unity ticket was elected handily in the electoral college. President Urquiza took care to preserve balance in his government between the two camps, placing the Vice President as a counterweight to the Federalist Interior Minister, Santiago Derqui. Del Carril became the most prominent voice for Buenos Aires interests in the administration, compounded with a falling-out with erstwhile allies in his native San Juan Province, this frustrated his hopes that Urquiza might support his 1860 presidential candidacy. Nominating Derqui instead, Urquiza's choice led to renewed conflict with Buenos Aires, to Derqui's resignation and exile in 1861.
National unity on the brink, del Carril negotiated a settlement between Urquiza and the leader of the Buenos Ai