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Justus von Liebig

Justus Freiherr von Liebig was a German scientist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, was considered the founder of organic chemistry. As a professor at the University of Giessen, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, for such innovations, he is regarded as one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time, he has been described as the "father of the fertilizer industry" for his emphasis on nitrogen and trace minerals as essential plant nutrients, his formulation of the law of the minimum, which described how plant growth relied on the scarcest nutrient resource, rather than the total amount of resources available. He developed a manufacturing process for beef extracts, with his consent a company, called Liebig Extract of Meat Company, was founded to exploit the concept, he popularized an earlier invention for condensing vapors, which came to be known as the Liebig condenser. Justus Liebig was born in Darmstadt into the middle-class family of Johann Georg Liebig and Maria Caroline Möser in early May 1803.

His father was a drysalter and hardware merchant who compounded and sold paints and pigments, which he developed in his own workshop. From childhood, Justus was fascinated with chemistry. At the age of 13, Liebig lived through the year without a summer, when the majority of food crops in the Northern Hemisphere were destroyed by a volcanic winter. Germany was among the hardest-hit nations in the global famine that ensued, the experience is said to have shaped Liebig's work. Due in part to Liebig's innovations in fertilizers and agriculture, the 1816 famine became known as "the last great subsistence crisis in the Western world". Liebig attended grammar school at the Ludwig-Georgs-Gymnasium in Darmstadt, from the ages of 8 to 14. Leaving without a certificate of completion, he was apprenticed for several months to the apothecary Gottfried Pirsch in Heppenheim before returning home because his father could not afford to pay his indentures, he worked with his father for the next two years attended the University of Bonn, studying under Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner, his father's business associate.

When Kastner moved to the University of Erlangen, Liebig followed him. Liebig left Erlangen in March 1822, in part because of his involvement with the radical Korps Rhenania, but because of his hopes for more advanced chemical studies; the circumstances are clouded by possible scandal. In late 1822, Liebig went to study in Paris on a grant obtained for him by Kastner from the Hessian government, he worked in the private laboratory of Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, was befriended by Alexander von Humboldt and Georges Cuvier. Liebig's doctorate from Erlangen was conferred on 23 June 1823, a considerable time after he left, as a result of Kastner's intervention on his behalf. Kastner pleaded that the requirement of a dissertation be waived, the degree granted in absentia. Liebig left Paris to return to Darmstadt in April 1824. On 26 May 1824, at the age of 21 and with Humboldt's recommendation, Liebig became a professor extraordinarius at the University of Giessen. Liebig's appointment was part of an attempt to modernize the University of Giessen and attract more students.

He received a small stipend, without laboratory access to facilities. His situation was complicated by the presence of existing faculty: Professor Wilhelm Zimmermann taught general chemistry as part of the philosophy faculty, leaving medical chemistry and pharmacy to Professor Philipp Vogt in the medical faculty. Vogt was happy to support a reorganization in which pharmacy was taught by Liebig and became the responsibility of the faculty of arts, rather than the faculty of medicine. Zimmermann found himself competing unsuccessfully with Liebig for their lecture fees, he refused to allow Liebig to use existing space and equipment, committed suicide on 19 July 1825. The deaths of Zimmermann and a Professor Blumhof who taught technology and mining opened the way for Liebig to apply for a full professorship. Liebig was appointed to the Ordentlicher chair in chemistry on 7 December 1825, receiving a increased salary and a laboratory allowance. Liebig married Henriette "Jettchen" Moldenhauer, the daughter of a state official, in May 1826.

They had five children, Agnes, Hermann and Marie. Although Liebig was Lutheran and Jettchen Catholic, their differences in religion appear to have been resolved amicably by bringing their sons up in the Lutheran religion and their daughters as Catholics. Liebig and several associates proposed to create an institute for pharmacy and manufacturing within the university; the Senate, uncompromisingly rejected their idea, stating that training "apothecaries, beer-brewers and vinegar-distillers" was not the university's task. As of 17 December 1825, they ruled; this decision worked to Liebig's advantage. As an independent venture, he could ignore university rules and accept both matriculated and unmatriculated students. Liebig's institute was advertised in pharmaceutical journals, opened in 1826, its classes in practical chemistry and laboratory procedures for chemical analysis were taught in addition to Liebig's formal courses at the university. From 1825 to 1835, the laboratory was housed in the guardroom of a disused barracks on the edge of town.

The main laboratory space was about 38 m2 in size and included a small lecture room, a storage closet, a main room with ov

Significant symbols

In sociology, a significant symbol is a gesture that calls out in the individual making the gesture the same response, called out in others to whom the gesture is directed. Significant symbols are a by-product of the meaning emergent in the act, which meaning is described, or accounted for, in terms of symbols or language. Significant symbols originated by the social behaviorist George Herbert Mead, who made a great impact in sociologist studies in the 20th century. Mead was interested in the work of Wilhelm Wundt, it was from Wundt that Mead gained an understanding how the gesture is involved in social interaction. This sociological term significant symbols is the basis for symbolic interactionism, which attempts to define the self. Language, in Mead's view, is communication through significant symbols. Physical objects can be significant symbols, but vocal gestures language, are the crucial significant symbols. Language brings out the same response in both the hearer. Language is the highest form of a mature development of the gesture situation.

Language is important because it is the means by which an individual may convey his attitudes and assume the roles of others, thus participate in the interactionary creation of mind and self. Language makes possible the critically important ability of people to think, to engage in mental processes. Thinking, as well as the mind, is defined as conversation that people have with themselves using language. Language allows people to stimulate their own actions as well as those of others. Through role-taking and the development of significant gestures and symbols the mind develops as the ability to indicate to one's self the same response that one's gestures had brought out in others, to control the response in terms of it. Accuracy in role-taking implies a preexisting social world of shared linguistic meanings that enable actors to respond to their own oncoming behavior in the same way as the other. Without them, role-taking and coordinated behavior could not proceed. Significant symbols' specific meaning differs in various social situations.

Significant communication may be defined as the comprehension by the individual through the meaning of her gestures. Mead describes the communication process as a social act since it requires at least two individuals in interaction with one another, it is within this act. The act of communication has a triadic structure consisting of the following components: An initiating gesture on the part of an individual A response to that gesture by a second individual The result of the action initiated by the first gestureIn and during the social contact, the mind recognizes symbols and translates those symbols, acts or adjusts to symbols based on the previous knowledge of meaning. A gesture is an action that implies a reaction; the reaction is the meaning of the gesture and points toward the result of the action initiated by the gesture. Gestures "become significant symbols when they arouse in an individual making them the same responses which they explicitly arouse, or are to arouse, in other individuals, the individuals to whom they are addressed."Although people and animals employ insignificant gestures, only people employ significant gestures, or those that involve thought before a response is made.

Significant symbols always imply a context within which it has significance, a universe of discourse. The universe of discourse is constituted by a group of individuals carrying on a common social process, within which these symbols have common meaning within that group, regardless of whether the members are making the gestures or responding to them. If you bark at a dog, the dog will bark back. If you bark at a human, the human may not bark back, it all depends on the human's decision to the symbol If an organism were to scratch their tooth only those involved within that social situation might be able to interpret that gesture and subsequently be able to respond. This is the essence of the significant symbol, it has meaning. One can respond to it. If an individual was to say the word dog to another person, both persons would have a similar mental image of a dog. If an individual yelled the word fire in a crowded theater, everyone would be driven to escape the theater as as possible. Baldwin, John D.

George Herbert Mead. California: Sage. 1986

Harouna Doula Gabde

Doula Gabde Harouna, better known as Harouna Doula is a Nigerien football manager and former player. He was Manager of the Niger national football team from 2009 to 2012, leading Niger to its first African Nations Cup qualification in 2012, their first African Nations Championship qualification in 2011, the winning of the UEMOA Tournament in 2010, he was demoted following the first match loss at the 2012 Nations Cup finals. Aged 46 in January 2012, Harouna Doula was a Nigerien international. After retirement he received a "professorat" degree in physical education and sport form Niger's National Institute of Youth and Culture, he holds an "A License" for professional football training from the University of Leipzig, a "C License" from the Confederation of African Football, instructorship diplomas for CAF, UEFA, FIFA. Appointed manager of the Nigerien men's national squad in 2009, Harouna Doula replaced former U-17 Niger coach Frederic Costa, appointed in December 2008. Under Harouna Doula Niger finished a poor run, ending in failure to qualify for the 2010 African Cup of Nations in Angola.

Despite a failed run for ACON2010, Niger hosted and won the UEMOA Tournament in November 2010, followed up with their first qualification for the African Nations Championship in February 2011. Niger progressed to their first quarter-final appearance, ending in a loss to the hosts,On 10 October 2010, Niger earned a shock 1-0 win over Egypt at home in the 2012 African Cup of Nations qualification. After home wins—but away losses—over South Africa and Sierra Leone, on 8 October 2011 Niger qualified for the Africa Cup of Nations for the first time in its history. For his part in Niger's unprecedented run, Harouna Doula was awarded "Best African Manager 2011" by CAF in December 2012. In the runup to ACON 2012. Reporters and political leaders commented on his collaborative management style. In one interview he said that "out objective is to always remain humble... but to surpass ourselves, to surprise, as we were able to do during the qualification phase."On 13 November, two days prior to Niger's last preparative friendly FENIFOOT announced it had recruited two "technicians" to aid Harouna Doula in the African Nations Cup.

Bako Adamou was to be assistant trainer and the French manager Rolland Courbis was named "Technical counselor" to the team. Colonel Djibrilla Hima, president of FENIFOOT, stressed in a press conference that "It was not a question of the national team manager leaving the national team, he qualified us for CAN, he will take us to the final of the African Cup of Nations." On 6 January, Harouna Doula, along with team captain Lawali Idrissa, announced the selection of the 26 players who would attend the pre-tournament camp in Douala, Cameroon. Two days after the 2-0 to Gabon in Niger's first match of the tourney on 23 January, Harouna Doula was removed as manager Colonel Djibrilla Hima on 25 January announced Harouna Doula would be demoted to "Second trainer" until the end of the 2012 African Cup of Nations, was being replaced as head coach by Rolland Courbis. FENIFOOT blamed Harouna Doula's reported last minute changes to the starting lineup of the side that lost Gabon, it was unclear at the time.

Despite the changes, Harouna Doula affirmed to the press in Libreville prior to their Tunisia match that there was no rivalry between him and Courbis. Continuing to work as a trainer and appear on the bench with the squad, Harouna Doula said on 27 January that "We cooperate, we work together for the good of the team." 2012 Africa Cup of Nations Group C 2012 Africa Cup of Nations qualification