Jute is a long, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, once classified with the family Tiliaceae, more with Malvaceae; the primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. "Jute" is the name of the fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed of the plant materials cellulose and lignin, it falls into the bast fiber category along with kenaf, industrial hemp, ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute; the fibers are off-white to brown, 1–4 metres long. Jute is called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value; the jute plant needs a plain alluvial standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute is offered during the monsoon season. Temperatures from 20˚C to 40˚C and relative humidity of 70%–80% are favourable for successful cultivation.
Jute requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly, more during the sowing time. Soft water is necessary for jute production. Historical documents state; the weavers used simple hand spinning wheels and hand looms, spun cotton yarns as well. History suggests that Indians Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses, it is functional for carrying grains or other agricultural products. Tossa jute is a variety thought native to South Asia, it is grown for both culinary purposes. People use the leaves as an ingredient in a mucilaginous potherb called "molokhiya", it is popular in some Arabian countries such as Egypt and Syria as a soup-based dish, sometimes with meat over rice or lentils. The Book of Job, in the King James translation of the Hebrew Bible מלוח MaLOo-aĤ "salty", mentions this vegetable potherb as "mallow, giving rise to the term Jew's Mallow, it is high in protein, vitamin C, beta-carotene and iron. Bangladesh and other countries in Southeast Asia, the South Pacific use jute for its fiber in.
Tossa jute fiber is softer and stronger than white jute. This variety shows good sustainability in the Ganges Delta climate. Along with white jute, tossa jute has been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. Coremantel, Bangladesh, is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety. Jute was used for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the 3rd millennium BC. For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal in the southwest of Bangladesh. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. During the reign of the British Empire, jute was used in the military. British jute barons grew rich by selling manufactured products made from it. Dundee Jute Barons and the British East India Company set up many jute mills in Bengal, by 1895 jute industries in Bengal overtook the Scottish jute trade. Many Scots emigrated to Bengal to set up jute factories. More than a billion jute sandbags were exported from Bengal to the trenches of World War I, to the United States south to bag cotton.
It was used in the fishing, construction and the arms industries. Due to its texture, it could only be processed by hand until someone in Dundee discovered that treating it with whale oil made it machine processable; the industry boomed throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but this trade had ceased by about 1970 due to the emergence of synthetic fibers. In the 21st century, jute again has become an important export crop around the world in Bangladesh; the jute fiber comes from the ribbon of the jute plant. The fibers are first extracted by retting; the retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the jute stem. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast to cotton's heavy requirements. Production is concentrated in Bangladesh and Indian state of West Bengal, as well as India's states of Assam and Bihar.
India is the world's largest producer of jute, but imported 162,000 tonnes of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes of jute products in 2011. Pakistan, China import significant quantities of jute fiber and products from Bangladesh. India and Bangladesh are major exporter of jute fiber to United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Ivory Coast and Brazil. At the beginning of the 21st century, in 2002 Bangladesh commissioned a consortium of researchers from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute and private software firm DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Ltd. in collaboration with Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Science Malaysia and University of Hawaii, to research different fibers and hybrid fibers of jute. The draft genome of jute was completed. Making twine and matting are
In numerical analysis, von Neumann stability analysis is a procedure used to check the stability of finite difference schemes as applied to linear partial differential equations. The analysis is based on the Fourier decomposition of numerical error and was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory after having been described in a 1947 article by British researchers Crank and Nicolson; this method is an example of explicit time integration where the function that defines governing equation is evaluated at the current time. The method was given a more rigorous treatment in an article co-authored by John von Neumann; the stability of numerical schemes is associated with numerical error. A finite difference scheme is stable if the errors made at one time step of the calculation do not cause the errors to be magnified as the computations are continued. A neutrally stable scheme is one in which errors remain constant as the computations are carried forward. If the errors decay and damp out, the numerical scheme is said to be stable.
If, on the contrary, the errors grow with time the numerical scheme is said to be unstable. The stability of numerical schemes can be investigated by performing von Neumann stability analysis. For time-dependent problems, stability guarantees that the numerical method produces a bounded solution whenever the solution of the exact differential equation is bounded. Stability, in general, can be difficult to investigate when the equation under consideration is nonlinear. In certain cases, von Neumann stability is necessary and sufficient for stability in the sense of Lax–Richtmyer: The PDE and the finite difference scheme models are linear. Von Neumann stability is necessary in a much wider variety of cases, it is used in place of a more detailed stability analysis to provide a good guess at the restrictions on the step sizes used in the scheme because of its relative simplicity. The von Neumann method is based on the decomposition of the errors into Fourier series. To illustrate the procedure, consider the one-dimensional heat equation ∂ u ∂ t = α ∂ 2 u ∂ x 2 defined on the spatial interval L, which can be discretized as u j n + 1 = u j n + r where r = α Δ t 2 and the solution u j n of the discrete equation approximates the analytical solution u of the PDE on the grid.
Define the round-off error ϵ j n as ϵ j n = N j n − u j n where u j n is the solution of the discretized equation that would be computed in the absence of round-off error, N j n is the numerical solution obtained in finite precision arithmetic. Since the exact solution u j n must satisfy the discretized equation the error ϵ j n must satisfy the discretized equation. Here we assumed, thus ϵ j n + 1 = ϵ j n + r is a recurrence relation for the error. Equations and show that both the error and the numerical solution have the same growth or decay behavior with respect to time. For linear differential equations with periodic boundary condition, the spatial variation of error may be expanded in a finite Fourier series, in the interval L, as ϵ
Heidi Suzanne Allen is a British politician who served as the Member of Parliament for South Cambridgeshire from 2015 to 2019. Elected as a Conservative, she resigned from the party in February 2019, joining and serving as leader of Change UK, she resigned from Change UK in June of the same year, joined the Liberal Democrats in October 2019. She announced on 29 October. Allen succeeded Andrew Lansley, the former Conservative Secretary of State for Health who had held the seat since its creation in 1997, following his retirement from the House of Commons in 2015. Allen was born in 1975 in Notton, a small rural village near Wakefield in West Yorkshire, received a B. Sc. degree in astrophysics from University College London. Allen worked including with ExxonMobil and the Royal Mail. In 2008, she joined the family classic-motorcycle paints business, RS Bike Paints Limited, established by her parents in 1978, now run by her husband Phil Allen. Allen has said she was inspired to become active in politics after watching the scenes of the Tottenham riots, first became a councillor in St Albans.
Allen served as a councillor for 18 months before making a bid to become an MP. In February 2014, Allen ran in an open selection process for the South East Cambridgeshire parliamentary constituency Conservative Party candidacy, she was beaten by Lucy Frazer, but there was a controversy about a possible miscount of votes on Frazer's selection. Frazer was reaffirmed as the candidate in January 2015, and, in October 2014, Allen was selected as prospective parliamentary candidate for South Cambridgeshire; the seat was held by the Conservative Andrew Lansley a cabinet minister, who had decided to stand down at the 2015 general election. Allen won the seat in the general election, increasing the Conservative majority and taking 51.1% of the votes cast. The nearest candidate was Labour. In July 2015, Allen was elected to Pensions Select Committee. Allen made her maiden speech before the House of Commons on 20 October 2015, when she detailed criticism of proposed cuts to tax credits, saying, "because today I can sit on my hands no longer".
She wanted to criticise the proposed tax credit cuts and to intervene before it was "too late" to stop the changes to tax credits though she did not wish to support the motion put forward by Labour because she disagreed with the party's overall stance, whilst not being in favour of the Government's motion over tax credit cuts. Isabel Hardman of The Spectator described her speech as "truly brave" and "well argued". Despite her speech, she voted in line with the Conservative whip. Allen supported continued membership of the European Union in the 2016 referendum. On 5 December 2016, Allen announced her intention to put her name forward for the Conservative nomination for the election of Mayor of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough in May 2017. Allen proposed to combine the role with her current position as MP for South Cambridgeshire. In January 2017, she failed to win the Conservative Party nomination for the role. In June 2017, Allen was re-elected as Member of Parliament for South Cambridgeshire in the snap general election.
Over that summer it was mooted that Jacob Rees-Mogg would be a candidate for the leadership of the Conservative Party, Allen announced that if he became leader she would leave the party. In December 2017, Allen displayed tears during a House of Commons debate on Universal Credit after hearing fellow MP, Frank Field, describe how he had talked a man out of suicide; the Department for Work and Pensions stated that "the two examples that gave were not claimants on Universal Credit." In the same month Allen voted along with fellow Conservative Dominic Grieve and nine other Tory MPs against the government, in favour of guaranteeing Parliament a "meaningful vote" on any Brexit deal Theresa May might agree with Brussels. In June 2018, during a debate on changing the abortion laws in Northern Ireland following a referendum in the Republic of Ireland which would amend the Constitution of Ireland to allow terminations, Allen said that she had an abortion for health reasons when she was younger, she stated: "I was ill when I made the hard decision to have a termination: I was having seizures every day, I wasn't able to control my own body, let alone care for a new life...
I am a modern, progressive woman in this country and I am proud that this country is my home... How can it be that Northern Ireland will soon be the only part of Great Britain and Ireland where terminations are to all intents and purposes outlawed?"In September 2018, Allen spoke in favour of a second referendum on the UK leaving the European Union. Allen said she feared the danger to jobs and businesses in her constituency and the whole nation from leaving the EU without a deal. Allen blamed the party's Eurosceptic right-wing for the possibility of a no-deal Brexit, called them "fiscally and economically irresponsible". Allen stated that a second referendum should include the option of staying in the EU under current terms. In early 2019, she co-founded the group Right to Vote. In August 2019, a pro-Brexit former Royal Marine was jailed for 24 weeks after threatening Allen online, including posting aerial images of her home on social media. On 20 February 2019 Allen resigned from the Conservative Party, along with two other MPs from her party, joining the newly formed the Independent Group.
On 29 March 2019, it was announced that the Independent Group had applied to become a political party under the name Change UK, that Allen would be appointed interim leader. In May 2019, A
The Kudurrus of Isin, king Marduk-nadin-ahhe, late 2nd millennium BC, c. 1099-1082 BC. The British Museum kudurru is a black limestone boundary stone of Marduk-nadin-ahhe, who ruled ca. 1100 BC – 1082 BC in Dynasty IV of Babylon. Some kudurrus are known for their representations of the king, etc.. Most kudurrus represent Mesopotamian gods, which are displayed graphically in segmented registers on the stone; the Marduk-nadin-ahhe kudurru shows the king standing in royal garb, holding two arrows. Above his portrayal is one register displaying the gods represented on the boundary stone contract. A caption attests that he is the "Avenger of the People"; the obverse of the kudurru with King Marduk-nadin-ahhe is separated from the reverse by part of a snake, a text in cuneiform comprises the reverse of the kudurru. Walters museum no. 2110 is a damaged kudurru, but parts in exquisite shape, as well as legible cuneiform text. A deed recording the purchase of five GUR of corn-land by Marduk-nasir, the king's officer.
The kudurru appears to be a inscribed stone type. The British Museum kudurru, Land grant to Adad-zer-iqiša, is a large, stone kudurru, in fine shape, with multiple images of gods, their iconic graphic symbols. Cuneiform is written amongst the graphic symbols of the upper cone. An extensive cuneiform script, below an encircling register line, around the top cone, tells the story of the kudurru. Marduk-nadin-ahhe Kudurru A second damaged Kudurru: 2nd, from King. ANGLE view: 1-front-, 2-corner, 3-TEXT on reverse -. Kudurru Image. Article
Pyar Hi Pyar is a 1969 Bollywood film produced by Rajaram and Satish Wagle, the film is directed by Bhappi Sonie. The film stars Dharmendra, Pran, Madan Puri and Mehmood; this was the only movie of Vyjayanthimala together. It was successful at the box office at that time. Young Vijay lives in an orphanage after being separated from Laxmi. Years Vijay has grown up and a wealthy man, Kailashnath Gupta, identifies him as his long-lost son and takes him home. Once there, Vijay decides to find employment as a police constable, much to Kailashnath's displeasure. Vijay's first assignment is to locate a beautiful young woman's missing father; the young woman is Vijay falls head-over-heels in love with her. Vijay sets about to accomplish this task, little knowing that a man named Satish has convinced Kailashnath that Vijay is not who he claims to be, that Satish is Kailashnath's biological son; the movie's songs were hits at that time. Mohammed Rafi sang for Mehmood in the same film. "Agogo Ageya" was for Mehmood and the rest of the songs were for Dharmendra.
"Mein Kahin Kavi" and "Dekha Hai Teri Surat" of Mohd. Rafi were huge hits. Salim Khan, father of Salman was the drummer in the song "Tu Mera Mein Teri" of Mohd. Rafi & Asha Bhosle, picturised on Dharmendra and Helen. Vijayanthimala... Kavita Dharmendra... Vijay Pratap Pran... Satish Raj / Ashok Mehmood... Gogo Helen... Cham Cham Dhumal... Jattadhari Raj Mehra... Kailash Nath Gupta Madan Puri... Dindayal D. K. Sapru... Diwan Manmohan... Shyam Kumar Sulochana Latkar... Yashodha Sulochana Chatterjee... Laxmi Krishan Dhawan... Kewal Mehra Mehmood Jr.... Mehmoodali Salim Khan... DrummerPlayback singer Mohd. Rafi sang all 6 six songs in the movie, he playbacked for both Mehmood. Mein Kahin Kavi Na became a huge hit. Pyar Hi Pyar on IMDb
Alma y Vida were a musical group in Argentina during the first half of the 1970s. Composed of jazz musicians that turned to rock music in the late 1960s, while other future members were regular visitors at the historic La Cueva club, Alma y Vida were pioneers in Argentina of jazz-rock in the vein of Blood, Sweat & Tears, group whose music influenced the band's formative sound. Carlos Mellino: voice and keyboards Juan Barrueco: guitar Alberto Hualde: drums Bernardo Baraj: saxophone Carlos Villalba: bass Mario Salvador: horns Once they settled on a style, Alma y Vida recorded their debut single: "Niño de color cariño" b/w "He comprendido", for the Mandioca label. Soon after, Gustavo Moretto replaced Mario Salvador on the horns, which would in hindsight be an important development. Alma y Vida proceeded to sign with RCA to release their first self-titled album. Alma y Vida was to be influenced by the huge success of Chicago's similar music proposal. 1971's homonymous debut featured hit songs "Mujer, gracias por tu llanto", "Veinte monedas" and "Lágrima de ciudad".
The band was popular in not-so-rock circles in so-called "trendy" clubs, yet only mildly received in the rock industry. But the strength of their sound would begin to reach crossover audiences after their 2nd full-length Alma y Vida II; the track "Hoy Te Vamos a Cantar" was a significant hit. Their third album, 1973's Del Gemido de un Gorrión, was arguably their strongest and one of the best rock releases of the period, it was sophisticated music, as much rock as mature melodies with some political leanings, predicting Argentine rock trends by about three years. Alma y Vida released self-titled number IV for RCA in 1974. "Salven a Sebastián", is seen as the biggest single in the group's catalog. And the rest of the album remains strong, the culmination of a half-decade of strong musical output that by 1975 had won rockers and music hall listeners alike, but by Gustavo Moretto gave the announcement he was stepping aside from Alma y Vida to pursue new musical horizons. A now five member group released Alma y Vida V, in early 1976.
But the album showed clear signs of fatigue, in spite of a solid single in "Le daré su mano a Dios". That would be the end of the road for the group, with Carlos Mellino leaving, but not before Alma y Vida left a delightful and gratifying sounding mark in the landscape of music of their time