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Juvenal

Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman poet active in the late first and early second century AD. He is the author of the collection of satirical poems known as the Satires; the details of the author's life are unclear, although references within his text to known persons of the late first and early second centuries AD fix his earliest date of composition. One recent scholar argues that his first book was published in 100 or 101; because of a reference to a recent political figure, his fifth and final surviving book must date from after 127. Juvenal wrote at least 16 poems in the verse form dactylic hexameter; these poems cover a range of Roman topics. This follows Lucilius—the originator of the Roman satire genre, it fits within a poetic tradition that includes Horace and Persius; the Satires are a vital source for the study of ancient Rome from a number of perspectives, although their comic mode of expression makes it problematic to accept the content as factual. At first glance the Satires could be read as a critique of pagan Rome.

That critique may have ensured their survival in the Christian monastic scriptoria although the majority of ancient texts did not survive. Details of the author's life cannot be reconstructed definitely; the Vita Iuvenalis, a biography of the author that became associated with his manuscripts no than the tenth century, is little more than an extrapolation from the Satires. Traditional biographies, including the Vita Iuvenalis, give us the writer's full name and tell us that he was either the son, or adopted son, of a rich freedman, he is supposed to have been a pupil of Quintilian, to have practised rhetoric until he was middle-aged, both as amusement and for legal purposes. The Satires do make accurate references to the operation of the Roman legal system, his career as a satirist is supposed to have begun at a late stage in his life. Biographies agree in giving his birthplace as the Volscian town of Aquinum and in allotting to his life a period of exile, due to his insulting an actor who had high levels of court influence.

The emperor, said to have banished him is given variously, as either Trajan or Domitian. A preponderance of the biographies place his exile in Egypt, with the exception of one, that opts for Scotland. Only one of these traditional biographies supplies a date of birth for Juvenal: it gives 55 AD, which most is speculation, but accords reasonably well with the rest of the evidence. Other traditions have him surviving for some time past the year of Hadrian's death; some sources place his death in exile, others have him being recalled to Rome. If he was exiled by Domitian it is possible that he was one of the political exiles recalled during the brief reign of Nerva, it is impossible to tell how much of the content of these traditional biographies is fiction and how much is fact. Large parts are mere deduction from Juvenal's writings, but some elements appear more substantial. Juvenal never mentions a period of exile in his life, yet it appears in every extant traditional biography. Many scholars think the idea to be a invention.

Others, however - Gilbert Highet - regard the exile as factual, these scholars supply a concrete date for the exile: 93 AD until 96, when Nerva became emperor. They argue that a reference to Juvenal in one of Martial's poems, dated to 92, is impossible if, at this stage Juvenal was in exile, or, had served his time in exile, since in that case, Martial would not have wished to antagonise Domitian by mentioning such a persona non grata as Juvenal. If Juvenal was exiled, he would have lost his patrimony, this may explain the consistent descriptions of the life of the client he bemoans in the Satires; the only other biographical evidence available is a dedicatory inscription said to have been found at Aquinum in the nineteenth century, which consists of the following text: Scholars are of the opinion that this inscription does not relate to the poet: a military career would not fit well with the pronounced anti-militarism of the Satires and, the Dalmatian legions do not seem to have existed prior to 166 AD.

Therefore, it seems that this reference is to a Juvenal, a relative of the poet, however, as they both came from Aquinum and were associated with the goddess Ceres. If the theory that connects these two Juvenals is correct the inscription does show that Juvenal's family was reasonably wealthy, that, if the poet was the son of a foreign freedman his descendants assimilated into the Roman class structure more than typical. Green thinks it more that the tradition of the freedman father is false and, that Juvenal's ancestors had been minor nobility of Roman Italy of ancient descent. Juvenal is credited with sixteen known poems divided among five books. In Satire I, concerning the scope and content of his work, Juvenal says: Juvenal claims as his purview, the entire gamut of human experience since the dawn of history. Quintilian—in the context of a discussion of literary genres appropriate for an oratorical education—claimed that, unlike so many literary and artistic forms adopted from Greek models, “satire at least is all ours” (satura

American women in World War I

World War I marked the first war in which American women were allowed to enlist in the armed forces. While thousands of women did join branches of the army in an official capacity, receiving veterans status and benefits after the war's close, the majority of female involvement was done through voluntary organizations supporting the war effort or through becoming a nurse for the military. Additionally, women made an impact on the war indirectly by filling the workforce, becoming employed in the jobs left behind by male soldiers. More than 1,476 U. S. Navy nurses served in military hospitals stateside and overseas. Over 400 U. S. military nurses died in service all from the Spanish flu epidemic which swept through crowded military camps and ports of embarkation. The first American women enlisted into the regular armed forces were 13,000 women admitted into active duty in the U. S. Navy, they served stateside in jobs and received the same benefits and responsibilities as men, including identical pay, were treated as veterans after the war.

The U. S. Marine Corps enlisted 305 female Marine Reservists to "free men to fight" by filling positions such as clerks and telephone operators on the home front. In 1918 during the war, twin sisters Genevieve and Lucille Baker transferred from the Naval Coastal Defense Reserve and became the first uniformed women to serve in the U. S. Coast Guard. Before the war ended, several more women joined them, all of them serving in the Coast Guard at Coast Guard Headquarters in Washington; these women were demobilized when hostilities ceased, aside from the Nurse Corps the uniformed military became once again male. In 1942, women were brought into the military again following the British model. During the course of the war, 21,498 U. S. Army nurses served in military hospitals in overseas. Many of these women were positioned near to battlefields, they tended to over a million soldiers, wounded or were unwell. 272 U. S. Army nurses died of disease. Eighteen African-American Army nurses served stateside caring for German prisoners of war and African-American soldiers.

They were assigned to Camp Grant, IL, Camp Sherman, OH, lived in segregated quarters. Hello Girls was the colloquial name for American female switchboard operators in World War I, formally known as the Signal Corps Female Telephone Operators Unit. During World War I, these switchboard operators were sworn into the Army Signal Corps; this corps was formed in 1917 from a call by General John J. Pershing to improve the worsening state of communications on the Western front. Applicants for the Signal Corps Female Telephone Operators Unit had to be bilingual in English and French to ensure that orders would be heard by anyone. Over 7,000 women applied. Many of these women were former switchboard employees at telecommunications companies. Despite the fact that they wore Army Uniforms and were subject to Army Regulations, they were not given honorable discharges but were considered "civilians" employed by the military, because Army Regulations specified the male gender. Not until 1978, the 60th anniversary of the end of World War I, did Congress approve veteran status and honorable discharges for the remaining women who had served in the Signal Corps Female Telephone Operators Unit.

During WWI, large numbers of women were recruited into jobs that had either been vacated by men who had gone to fight in the war, or had been created as part of the war effort. The high demand for weapons and the overall wartime situation resulted in munitions factories collectively becoming the largest employer of American women by 1918. While there was initial resistance to hiring women for jobs traditionally held by men, the war made the need for labor so urgent that women were hired in large numbers and the government actively promoted the employment of women in war-related industries through recruitment drives; as a result, women not only began working in heavy industry, but took other jobs traditionally reserved for men, such as railway guards, ticket collectors and tram conductors, postal workers, police officers and clerks. World War I saw women taking traditionally men's jobs in large numbers for the first time in American history. Many women worked on the assembly lines of factories, producing trucks and munitions, while department stores employed African American women as elevator operators and cafeteria waitresses for the first time.

The Food Administration helped housewives prepare more nutritious meals with less waste and with optimum use of the foods available. Most important, the morale of the women remained high, as millions joined the Red Cross as volunteers to help soldiers and their families, with rare exceptions, the women did not protest the draft; the Department of Labor created a Women in Industry group, headed by prominent labor researcher and social scientist Mary van Kleeck. This group helped develop standards for women who were working in industries connected to the war alongside the War Labor Policies Board, of which van Kleeck was a member. After the war, the Women in Industry Service group developed into the U. S. Women's Bureau, headed by Mary Anderson. Social status dictated the way in which a woman was involved in the war effort. Working-class women were the ones enlisting in the armed forces or taking over jobs left behind, while middle and upper-class women participated in voluntary organizations; these were the women with more free time, whose living s

Cappadocia

Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Niğde Provinces in Turkey. According to Herodotus, in the time of the Ionian Revolt, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying a region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine. Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains that separate it from Cilicia, to the east by the upper Euphrates, to the north by Pontus, to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia; the name, traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history, continues in use as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders, in particular characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage. The earliest record of the name of Cappadocia dates from the late 6th century BC, when it appears in the trilingual inscriptions of two early Achaemenid kings, Darius I and Xerxes, as one of the countries of the Persian Empire. In these lists of countries, the Old Persian name is Katpatuka.

It was proposed that Kat-patuka came from the Luwian language, meaning "Low Country". Subsequent research suggests that the adverb katta meaning'down, below' is Hittite, while its Luwian equivalent is zanta. Therefore, the recent modification of this proposal operates with the Hittite katta peda- "place below" as a starting point for the development of the toponym Cappadocia; the earlier derivation from Iranian Hu-aspa-dahyu'Land of good horses' can hardly be reconciled with the phonetic shape of Kat-patuka. A number of other etymologies have been offered in the past. Herodotus tells us that the name of the Cappadocians was applied to them by the Persians, while they were termed by the Greeks "Syrians" or "White Syrians" Leucosyri. One of the Cappadocian tribes he mentions is the Moschoi, associated by Flavius Josephus with the biblical figure Meshech, son of Japheth: "and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch. AotJ I:6. Cappadocia appears in the biblical account given in the book of Acts 2:9; the Cappadocians were named as one group hearing the Gospel account from Galileans in their own language on the day of Pentecost shortly after the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Acts 2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing Jews". See Acts of the Apostles; the region is mentioned in the Jewish Mishnah, in Ketubot 13:11, in several places in the Talmud, including Yevamot 121a. Under the kings of the Persian Empire, the Cappadocians were divided into two satrapies, or governments, with one comprising the central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by Greek geographers, while the other was called Pontus; this division had come about before the time of Xenophon. As after the fall of the Persian government the two provinces continued to be separate, the distinction was perpetuated, the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province, which alone will be the focus of this article; the kingdom of Cappadocia still existed in the time of Strabo as a nominally independent state. Cilicia was the name given to the district in which Caesarea, the capital of the whole country, was situated; the only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were Caesarea and Tyana, not far from the foot of the Taurus.

Cappadocia lies in the heartland of what is now Turkey. The relief consists of a high plateau over 1000 m in altitude, pierced by volcanic peaks, with Mount Erciyes near Kayseri being the tallest at 3916 m; the boundaries of historical Cappadocia are vague towards the west. To the south, the Taurus Mountains form the boundary with Cilicia and separate Cappadocia from the Mediterranean Sea. To the west, Cappadocia is bounded by the historical regions of Lycaonia to the southwest, Galatia to the northwest. Due to its inland location and high altitude, Cappadocia has a markedly continental climate, with hot dry summers and cold snowy winters. Rainfall is sparse and the region is semi-arid. Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age, was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. After the fall of the Hittite Empire, with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century, Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition, which made them apt to foreign slavery.

It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius but continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King. After ending the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great tried to rule the area through one of his military commanders, but Ariarathes, a Persian aristocrat, somehow became king of the Cappadocians. As Ariarathes I, he was a successful ruler, he extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as to the Black Sea; the kingdom of Cappadocia lived in peace until the death of Alexander. The previous empire was divided into many parts, Cappadocia fell to Eumenes, his claims were made good in 322 BC by the regent Perdiccas.