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Kabir Das was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement and his verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Guru Granth Sahib. His early life was in a Muslim family, but he was influenced by his teacher, the Hindu bhakti leader Ramananda. Kabir was born in the Indian city of Varanasi but spent most of his life in the city of Faridabad near Delhi. Kabir is known for being critical of both Hinduism and Islam, stating followers of both were misguided by the Vedas and Quran, questioning their meaningless rites of initiation such as the sacred thread and circumcision respectively. During his lifetime, he was threatened by both Muslims for his views; when he died, both Hindus and Muslims he had inspired claimed him as theirs. Kabir suggested that True God is with the person, on the path of righteousness, considering all creatures on earth as his own self, and, passively detached from the affairs of the world. To know God, suggested Kabir, meditate with the mantra Rāma, Rāma.

Kabir's legacy survives and continues through the Kabir panth, a religious community that recognises him as its founder and is one of the Sant Mat sects. Its members are known as Kabir panthis; the years of Kabir's birth and death are unclear. Some historians favour 1398–1448 as the period Kabir lived, while others favour 1440–1518. Many legends, inconsistent in their details, exist about early life. According to one version, Kabir was born to a Brahmin unwed mother in Varanasi, by a seedless conception and delivered through the palm of her hand, who abandoned him in a basket floating in a pond, baby Kabir was picked up and raised by a Muslim family. However, modern scholarship has abandoned these legends for lack of historical evidence, Kabir is accepted to have been born and brought up in a family of Muslim weavers. According to the Indologist Wendy Doniger, Kabir was born into a Muslim family and various birth legends attempt to "drag Kabir back over the line from Muslim to Hindu"; some scholars state that Kabir's parents may have been recent converts to Islam and Kabir were unaware of Islamic orthodox tradition, are to have been following the Nath school of Hinduism.

This view, while contested by other scholars, has been summarized by Charlotte Vaudeville as follows: Circumcised or not, Kabir was a musalman, though it appears that some form of Nathism was his ancestral tradition. This alone would explain his relative ignorance of Islamic tenets, his remarkable acquaintance with Tantric-yoga practices and his lavish use of its esoteric jargon, he appears far more conversant with Nath-panthi basic attitudes and philosophy than with the Islamic orthodox tradition. Kabir is believed to have become one of the many disciples of the Bhakti poet-sant Swami Ramananda in Varanasi, known for devotional Vaishnavism with a strong bent to monist Advaita philosophy teaching that God was inside every person, everything. Early texts about his life place him with Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism as well as the Sufi tradition of Islam. According to Irfan Habib, the two manuscript versions of the Persian text Dabistan-i-Mazahib are the earliest known texts with biographical information about Kabir.

The Dabistan-i-Mazahib states Kabir is a "Bairagi" and states he is a disciple of Ramanand. In addition, it states that Kabir is a monotheist and his God is "Rama"; some legends assert that Kabir never led a celibate's life. Most scholars conclude from historical literature that this legend is untrue, that Kabir was married, his wife was named Dhania, they had at least one son named Kamal and a daughter named Kamali. Kabir's family is believed to have lived in the locality of Kabir Chaura in Varanasi. Kabīr maṭha, a maṭha located in the back alleys of Kabir Chaura, celebrates his life and times. Accompanying the property is a house named Nīrūṭīlā which houses Niru and Nima graves. Kabir's poems were in vernacular Hindi, borrowing from various dialects including Braj, they cover various aspects of call for a loving devotion for God. Kabir composed his verses with simple Hindi words. Most of his work were concerned with devotion and discipline. Kabir and his followers named his verbally composed poems of wisdom as "bāņīs".

These include songs and couplets, called variously dohe, śalokā, or sākhī. The latter term means "witness", implying the poems to be evidence of the Truth. Literary works with compositions attributed to Kabir include Kabir Bijak, Kabir Parachai, Sakhi Granth, Adi Granth, Kabir Granthawali. However, except for Adi Granth different versions of these texts exist and it is unclear which one is more original; the most in depth scholarly analysis of various versions and translations are credited to Charlotte Vaudeville, the 20th century French scholar on Kabir. Kabir's poems were verbally composed in the 15th century and transmitted viva voce through the 17th century. Kabir Bijak was written down for the first time in the 17th century. Scholars state that this form of transmission, over geography and across generations bred change and corruption of the poems. Furthermore, whole songs were creatively fabricated and new couplets inserted by unknown authors and attributed to Kabir, not because of dishonesty but out of respect for him and the creative exuberance of anonymous oral tradition found in Indian literary works.

Scholars have sought to establish poetry that came from Kabir and its


Chevarambalam is a suburb of Kozhikode city. This residential layout lies between the Wayanad Road. Arulappadu Devi Temple, Unni Rarichan Temple and Subramania Temple are prominent places of worship in Chevarambalam. Chevarambalam junction has four roads converging into a small town with Ruby Restaurant at its center. One road takes goes to Vellimadukunnu junction in the north. Another one goes to Iringadan Pally paddy fields; the roads going to the southwest connects with the Thondayad Kudil Thodu area. The road going to southeast is called Golf Link Road and it connects Chevarambalam with Chevayur junction near the leprosy hospital and the vehicle testing grounds. Chevarambalam has become a prominent residential locality of Kozhikode city. Vrindavan housing Colony, Kerala Residential colony and the Prisunic Apartments are the main residential pockets of Chevarambalam; the Kirtads Museum, a museum of tribal artifacts and products maintained by the provincial government, is located in Chevarambalam.

It includes research and surveying facilities. Chevayur Silver Hills, Kozhikode Kottooly Thondayad

Testicular vein

The testicular vein, the male gonadal vein, carries deoxygenated blood from its corresponding testis to the inferior vena cava or one of its tributaries. It is the male equivalent of the ovarian vein, is the venous counterpart of the testicular artery, it is a paired vein, with one supplying each testis: the right testicular vein joins the inferior vena cava. The veins emerge from the back of the testis, receive tributaries from the epididymis. Below the subcutaneous inguinal ring, they unite to form three or four veins, which pass along the inguinal canal, entering the abdomen through the abdominal inguinal ring, coalesce to form two veins, which ascend on the Psoas major, behind the peritoneum, lying one on either side of the internal spermatic artery; these unite to form a single vein, which opens, on the right side, into the inferior vena cava, on the left side into the left renal vein. The spermatic veins are provided with valves; the left spermatic vein passes behind the iliac colon and is thus exposed to pressure from the contents of that part of the bowel.

Since the left testicular vein goes all the way up to the left renal vein before it empties, this results in a higher tendency for the left testicle to develop varicocele because of the gravity working on the column of blood in this vein. Moreover, the left renal vein passes between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery en route to the inferior vena cava, is compressed by an enlarged superior mesenteric artery—this is called the "Nutcracker effect"; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 678 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:40:13-0103 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Posterior Abdominal Wall: Tributaries to the Inferior Vena Cava"

Stephen Ferris

Stephen Ferris is a retired Irish rugby union player who played for Ulster and represented Ireland internationally. Ferris played club rugby with Dungannon, he attended Friends' School Lisburn. He played for Ireland in all three backrow positions. Ferris retired for rugby in June 2014. Ferris graduated from the Ulster Academy and joined Ulster Rugby on a development contract at the start of the 2005–06 season, he was named in the Ireland Under-20 Rugby World Cup Squad in 2005. He made his Ulster debut against Border Reivers in October 2005. Ferris made his full Ireland debut against Pacific Islanders in November 2006. Ferris was selected for the Ireland Rugby World Cup squad in 2007 but was an unused reserve at the tournament. Injury ruled Ferris out of the 2008 Six Nations, but good early season form for Ulster saw him rewarded with three further caps during Ireland's end of year campaign, he earned his fifth Irish cap against Australia in June 2008. He retained his place for the following year's Six Nations and was an ever-present as Declan Kidney's side clinched the Grand Slam.

Ferris was selected as part of the 2009 Irish Lions tour to South Africa. He scored his first Lions try on 3 June, against the Golden Lions but was forced to withdraw from the squad on Tuesday 9 June after he tore the medial collateral ligament in his right knee during a training session, he was replaced by Wales captain Ryan Jones. He made his international return for the autumn series the same year and featured in the hard-fought draw with Australia and the impressive victory over South Africa, 15–10. Ferris played in four of Ireland's 2010 Six Nations matches, but missed the 2010 Summer Tour through injury. However, he made his international comeback during the 2010 November Tests, scoring his first international try against New Zealand at the new Landsdowne Road, scoring his second against Argentina, he missed the 2011 Six Nations, the latter half of the 2010/2011 season through injury, but returned for Ireland against France on 20 August during a 2011 Rugby World Cup warm-up test, having been included in Ireland's training squad for the 2011 World Cup.

During the campaign, Ferris shone in their win over Australia in the group stages. He adopted the now famous'wrap around' tackle to prevent the Wallabies from getting quick ball as Declan Kidney's men ran out 15–6 winners. Ireland bowed out to Wales in the quarter-finals, but Ferris was one of the standout players in the tournament. Going into the 2011–12 season and Ferris shone on the European stage with the Irish side putting in a memorable 41–7 win over Leicester at Ravenhill during the Heineken Cup group stages. Despite injury, Ferris performed valiantly earning man of the match honours during Ulster's Heineken cup quarter final victory over Munster. Due to his strong performances Ferris was nominated for the ERC European Player of the Year 2012. Ulster ended up losing to Leinster in the 2012 Heineken Cup Final, 42–14. Ferris last played against Edinburgh due to an ankle injury he sustained; this injury prevented a lucrative move to Japan. He remained at Ulster on a short term contract as he underwent rehabilitation, before returning against the Scarlets on the 14 March 2014 where he came off the bench to a standing ovation after a 15-month absence.

Ulster went on to win the Scarlets match 26–13. The injury recurred forcing Ferris' retirement in June 2014, aged 28. Ulster profile IRFU profile Lions profile ESPNscrum profile Stephen Ferris Interview

Botso Jaqeli

Botso Jaqeli was a Georgian nobleman of the Jaqeli family, the first to have the rank of eristavi of Samtskhe. He lost his positions for having joined an aristocratic revolt against Queen Tamar of Georgia. Botso's parentage is not known, his father could have been either Murvan Jaqeli of an inscription from the Agara monastery, near Akhaltsikhe, or Memna, mentioned by Stepanos Orbelian as a participant of the 1178 revolt against George III of Georgia. Botso Jaqeli's namesake and possible grandfather is recorded as eristavt-eristavi in a Georgian stone inscription from the Ali monastery, now in Turkey, marzpan in a note attached to the 12th-century Gelati Gospels manuscript. According to the historian Cyril Toumanoff, Botso's successor as duke of Samtskhe, Ivane-Qvarqvare Jaqeli, was his brother. Botso's possible sister, was married to the nobleman Samdzivari and was responsible for negotiating the surrender of Qutlu Arslan's rebellious party to Queen Tamar. Botso Jaqeli appears as eristavi and spasalar of Samtskhe, an important frontier region in southwest Georgia, in the reign of Queen Regnant Tamar.

Around 1187, together with Guzan, duke of Tao, repelled an attack from Saltukid Erzurum and Sham into the provinces of Shavsheti and Klarjeti. Around 1191, Botso joined the likes as Vardan Dadiani and Guzan of Tao in a failed coup in favor of Tamar's disgraced husband, George the Rus'. Botso's subsequent fate is not clear. Botso's sons and descendants were known as Botsosdze, his elder son, Memna known as Ivane, was killed, being in charge of the defense of Tbilisi against the Khwarazmian army in 1226. A younger son, Botso took part in this battle, commanding the last stand at Isani; this Botso was married to Vaneni, daughter of Ivane Abuserisdze, duke of Adjara, sister of the scholar Tbeli Abuserisdze. The Botsosdze are last heard of with Shalva in the 1260s. By 1516, their estates in Samtskhe appear in possession of the Oladashvili family. Bakhtadze, Mikheil. ჯაყელთა საგვარეულოს ისტორია XI-XV საუკუნეებში. Tbilisi: Artanuji. ISBN 9789994055456. Peacock, Andrew. "Between Georgia and the Islamic world: the atabegs of Samc'xe and the Turks".

In Beyazit, Deniz. At the Crossroads of Empires: 14th-15th century Eastern Anatolia. Varia Anatolica. 25. Paris and Istanbul: Institut français d'études anatoliennes. Pp. 49–70. ISBN 978-2-36245-002-0. Toumanoff, Cyrille. Les dynasties de la Caucasie Chrétienne: de l'Antiquité jusqu'au XIXe siècle: tables généalogiques et chronologique. Rome

The Australian

The Australian and its Saturday edition, the Weekend Australian, is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964. As the only nationally distributed daily newspaper aimed at a general readership, its cross-platform readership as of September 2019 was 2,394,000 million, down 4.4% on 2018. Its editorial line is centre-right, the newspaper is owned by News Corp Australia; the Australian is published by News Corp Australia, an asset of News Corp, which owns the sole daily newspapers in Brisbane, Adelaide and Darwin, the most circulated metropolitan daily newspapers in Sydney and Melbourne. News Corp's Chairman and Founder is Rupert Murdoch; the Australian integrates content from overseas newspapers owned by News Corp Australia's international parent News Corp, including The Wall Street Journal and The Times of London. The first edition of The Australian was published by Rupert Murdoch on 15 July 1964, becoming the third national newspaper in Australia following shipping newspaper Daily Commercial News and Australian Financial Review.

Unlike other original Murdoch newspapers, it is not a tabloid publication. At the time, a national paper was considered commercially unfeasible, as newspapers relied on local advertising for their revenue; the Australian was printed in Canberra plates flown to other cities for copying. From its inception the paper struggled for financial viability and ran at a loss for several decades. A Sunday edition, The Sunday Australian, was established in 1971. However, it was discontinued in 1972 because there was insufficient press capacity to print it as well as The Sunday Telegraph and the Sunday Mirror; the Australian's first editor was Maxwell Newton, before leaving the newspaper within a year, was succeeded by Walter Kommer, by Adrian Deamer. Under his editorship The Australian encouraged female journalists, was the first mainstream daily newspaper to hire an Aboriginal reporter, John Newfong. During the 1975 election, campaigning against the Whitlam government by its owner led to the newspaper's journalists striking over editorial direction.

Editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell was appointed in 2002 and retired on 11 December 2015. In May 2010, the newspaper launched. In October 2011 The Australian announced that it was planning to become the first general newspaper in Australia to introduce a paywall, with the introduction of a $2.95 per week charge for readers to view premium content on its website, mobile phone and tablet applications. The paywall was launched on 24 October, with a free 3-month trial. In September 2017 The Australian launched their Chinese website. In October 2018 it was announced that Chris Dore, former editor of The Daily Telegraph, would be taking over as editor-in-chief. Daily sections include National News followed by Worldwide News and Business News. Contained within each issue is a prominent op/ed section, including regular columnists and non-regular contributors. Other regular sections include Technology, Features, Legal Affairs, Defence, Horse-Racing, The Arts, Health and Higher Education. A Travel & Indulgence section is included on Saturdays, along with The Inquirer, an in-depth analysis of major stories of the week, alongside much political commentary.

Saturday lift-outs include Review, focusing on books, arts and television, The Weekend Australian Magazine, the only national weekly glossy insert magazine. A glossy magazine, Wish, is published on the first Friday of the month. "The Australian has long maintained a focus on issues relating to Aboriginal disadvantage." It devotes attention to the information technology and mining industries, as well as the science and politics of climate change. It has published numerous "special reports" into Australia's energy policy, legal affairs and research sector; the Australian Literary Review was a monthly supplement from September 2006 to October 2011. Former editor Paul Kelly stated in 1991 that "The Australian has established itself in the marketplace as a newspaper that supports economic libertarianism". Laurie Clancy asserted in 2004 that the newspaper "is conservative in tone and oriented toward business. Former editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell has said that the editorial and op-ed pages of the newspaper are centre-right.

In 2007 Crikey described the newspaper as in support of the Liberal Party and the then-Coalition government, but has pragmatically supported Labor governments in the past as well. In 2007 The Australian announced their support for the Rudd Australian Labor Party in the Federal election; the Australian presents varying views on climate change, including articles by those who disagree with the scientific consensus such as Ian Plimer, authors who agree with the scientific consensus such as Tim Flannery and Bjørn Lomborg. A 2011 study of the previous seven years of articles claimed that four out of every five articles were opposed to taking action on climate change. In 2010 the ABC's Media Watch presenter Paul Barry accused The Australian of waging a campaign against the Australian Greens, the Greens' federal leader Bob Brown wrote that The Australian has "stepped out of the fourth estate by seeing itself as a determinant of democracy in Australia." In response, The Australian opined that "Greens leader Bob Brown has accused The Australian of trying to wreck the alliance between the Greens and Labor.

We wear Senator Brown's cr