Kaifeng is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, is best known for being the Chinese capital in the Northern Song dynasty. Around 5 million people live in Kaifeng's metropolitan area. Located along the Yellow River's southern bank, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, Heze of Shandong to the northeast; the postal romanization for the city is "Kaifeng". Its official one-character abbreviation in Chinese is 汴, it has been known as Dàliáng Biànliáng Biànzhōu Nánjīng Dōngjīng Biànjīng The area was named "Kaifeng" after the Qin's conquest of China in the second century BC. The name means "opening the border" and figuratively "hidden" and "vengeance", its name was Qifeng, but the syllable qi was changed to the synonymous kai (/*Nə-ʰˤəj/, /*ʰˤəj/) to avoid the naming taboo of Liu Qi.

The prefecture-level city of Kaifeng administers five districts and four counties: Gulou District Longting District Yuwangtai District Xiangfu District Shunhe Hui District Weishi County Qi County Tongxu County Lankao County Kaifeng is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China. As with Beijing, there have been many reconstructions during its history. In 364 BC during the Warring States period, the State of Wei founded a city called Daliang as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed linking a local river to the Yellow River; when the State of Qin conquered the State of Wei, Kaifeng was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in place. During the Han Dynasty, the city underwent some reconstruction. Kaifeng became the capital of Liu Wu. Liu Wu constructed many buildings and old city walls. Kaifeng became a center of music, art, a refuge for artists, of splendid gardens despite the trivial political importance of the city at this period.

Early in the 7th century, Kaifeng was transformed into a major commercial hub when it was connected to the Grand Canal as well as through the construction of a canal running to western Shandong. In 781 during the Tang dynasty, a new city was named Bian. Bian was the capital of the Later Jin, Later Han, Later Zhou of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period; the Song dynasty made Bian its capital when it overthrew the Later Zhou in 960. Shortly afterwards, the city underwent further expansion. During the Song, when it was known as Dongjing or Bianjing, Kaifeng the largest and most prosperous city in China, was the capital, with a population of over 400,000 living both inside and outside the city wall. Typhus was an acute problem in the city; the historian Jacques Gernet provides a lively picture of life in this period in his Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276, which draws on Dongjing Meng Hua Lu, a nostalgic memoir of the city of Kaifeng. In 1049, the Youguosi Pagoda – or Iron Pagoda as it is called today – was constructed measuring 54.7 meters in height.

It has survived the vicissitudes of war and floods to become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song-dynasty pagoda, Po Tower, dating from 974, has been destroyed. Another well-known sight was the astronomical clock tower of the engineer and statesman Su Song, it was crowned with a rotating armillary sphere, hydraulically-powered, yet it incorporated an escapement mechanism two hundred years before they were found in the clockworks of Europe and featured the first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. Kaifeng reached its peak importance in the 11th century as a commercial and industrial center at the intersection of four major canals. During this time, the city was surrounded by three rings of city walls and had a population of between 600,000 and 700,000, it is believed that Kaifeng was the largest city in the world from 1013 to 1127. This period ended in 1127, it subsequently came under the rule of the Jurchen Jin dynasty, which had conquered most of North China during the Jin–Song Wars.

While it remained an important administrative center, only the area inside the inner city wall of the early Song remained settled and the two outer rings were abandoned. As the imperial capital of the Song, Kaifeng was conveniently situated along the Grand Canal for logistics supply but militarily vulnerable due to its position on the floodplains of the Yellow River. Kaifeng was reconstructed during this time; the Jurchen kept their main capital further north until 1214 when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng in order to flee from the onslaught of the Mongols. In 1232 they succumbed to the combined Song forces in the Mongol siege of Kaifeng; the Mongols in 1279 conquered all of China. The city was captured around the mid-fourteenth century by the Red Turban rebels who made it their capital for ten years, they were crushed by the early Ming forces. At the beginning of the Ming dynasty in 1368, Kaifeng was made the capital of Henan province. In 1642, Kaifeng was flooded by the Ming army with water from the Yellow River to prevent the pea

Kurhaus of Scheveningen

The Kurhaus of Scheveningen, The Hague in the Netherlands is a hotel, called the Grand Hotel Amrâth Kurhaus The Hague since October 2014. It is located in the main seaside resort area, near the beach; the Kurhaus was built between 1884 and 1885 by the German architects Johann Friedrich Henkenhaf and Friedrich Ebert. It consisted of a concert hall and a hotel with 120 rooms. Having suffered serious damage by fire, it was rebuilt between 1886 and 1887; the ceilings were painted by his large workshop. Several kings and heads of state sojourned in the Kurhaus during its heyday; until the mid 1960s, the Kurhaus remained a public attraction as a major concert hall, at which many top artists performed. The last performance in the Kurhauszaal was by the Rolling Stones on 8 August 1964, who had to flee the building due to the vast numbers of excited fans outside. Fallen into disrepair and closed in 1969, the Kurhaus was saved from demolition in 1975 by being listed as a historic building, was renovated.

It was reopened in 1979 by Princess Beatrix. Media related to Kurhaus Scheveningen at Wikimedia Commons


Shettihalli is the Ward No. 12 of the 200 wards of BBMP Bangalore. It is part of Dasarahalli Assembly constituency. Shri S. Muniraju was the MLA. Shri Manjunath is the present MLA The village Shettihalli is part of Shettihalli Ward; the other villages of this ward include Mederahalli, Dasarahalli,Kammagondanahalli and Abbigere. One of the developing areas is Shettihalli. From Shettihalli it is just five minutes to Jalahalli metro station, 15 minutes to Yeshwanthpur railway station, 35 minutes to Bangalore International Airport ltd, five minutes to Tumkur highway, 15 minutes to Orion Mall. There are many stationery and department stores like A. J Mart, Metro mini bazaar, Krishna bakery, quality stationery shop, De needs in Shettihalli. Landmarks are Prince town, Eskay Hospital, Prince Royal which are the proud landmarks of Shettihalli. Shettihalli has a wildlife sanctuary in its vicinity. South India Wildlife of India