Kaithi

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Kaithī
Kayathi, Kayasthi
Kaithi handwritten.jpg
Type
Languages Angika, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Magahi, Maithili, Hindustani
Time period
c. 16th–mid 20th century
Parent systems
Sister systems
Devanagari, Nandinagari
Direction Left-to-right
ISO 15924 Kthi, 317
Unicode alias
Kaithi
U+11080–U+110CF

Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former Awadh and Bihar. It was used for writing legal, administrative, and private records.[1]

Etymology[edit]

Kaithi script derives its name from the word Kayastha, a social group of India that traditionally consists of administrators and accountants.[2] The Kayastha community was closely associated with the princely courts and colonial governments of North India, and were employed by them to write and maintain records of revenue transactions, legal documents, and title deeds; general correspondence; and proceedings of the royal courts and related bodies.[3] The script used by them acquired the name Kaithi.[citation needed]

History[edit]

A printed form of the Kaithi script, as of the mid-19th century

Documents in Kaithi are traceable to at least the 16th century. The script was widely used during the Mughal period. In the 1880s, during the British Raj, the script was recognized as the official script of the law courts of Bihar. Kaithi was the most widely used script of North India west of Bengal. In 1854, 77,368 school primers were in Kaithi script, as compared to 25,151 in Devanagari and 24,302 in Mahajani.[4] Among the three scripts widely used in the Hindi Belt, Kaithi was widely perceived to be neutral, as it was used by both Hindus and Muslims alike for day-to-day correspondence, financial, and administrative activities, while Devanagari was used by Hindus and Persian script by Muslims for religious literature and education. This made Kaithi increasingly unfavorable to the more conservative and religiously inclined members of society who insisted on Devanagari-based and Persian-based transcription of Hindi dialects. As a result of their influence and due to the wide availability of Devanagari type as opposed to the incredibly large variability of Kaithi, Devanagari was promoted, particularly in the Northwest Provinces, which covers present day Uttar Pradesh.[5] Kaithi was also nicknamed "Shikasta Nagari" due to its relationship with Devanagari being akin to the relationship between the widely-used dot-less Shikasta Nastaliq of the time and the more formal and fully expressive printed Nastaliq scripts.

Consonants[edit]

All Kaithi consonants have an inherent a vowel:

Occlusives
VOICELESS PLOSIVES VOICED PLOSIVES NASALS
Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated
Letter Trans. IPA Letter Trans. Letter Trans. IPA Letter Trans. Letter Trans. IPA
Velar 𑂍 k /k/ 𑂎 kh 𑂏 g /ɡ/ 𑂐 gh 𑂑 /ŋ/
Palatal 𑂒 c /c/ 𑂓 ch 𑂔 j /ɟ/ 𑂕 jh 𑂖 ñ /ɲ/
Retroflex 𑂗 /ʈ/ 𑂘 ṭh 𑂙 /ɖ/ 𑂛 ḍh 𑂝 /ɳ/
𑂚 /ɽ/ 𑂜 ṛh
Dental 𑂞 t /t/ 𑂟 th 𑂠 d /d/ 𑂡 dh 𑂢 n /n/
Labial 𑂣 p /p/ 𑂤 ph 𑂥 b /b/ 𑂦 bh 𑂧 m /m/
Sonorants and fricatives
Palatal Retroflex Dental Labial
Letter Trans. IPA Letter Trans. IPA Letter Trans. IPA Letter Trans. IPA
Sonorants 𑂨 y /j/ 𑂩 r /r/ 𑂪 l /l/ 𑂫 v /ʋ/
Sibilants 𑂬 ś /ɕ/ 𑂭 /ȿ/ 𑂮 s /s/
Other
𑂯 h /h/

Vowels[edit]

Kaithi vowels have independent (initial) and dependent (diacritic) forms:

Vowels
Trans. Letter Diacritic Shown with k Trans. Letter Diacritic Shown with k
Guttural a 𑂃 𑂍 ā 𑂄 𑂰 𑂍𑂰
Palatal i 𑂅 𑂱 𑂍𑂱 ī 𑂆 𑂲 𑂍𑂲
Rounded u 𑂇 𑂳 𑂍𑂳 ū 𑂈 𑂴 𑂍𑂴
Palatoguttural e 𑂉 𑂵 𑂍𑂵 ai 𑂊 𑂶 𑂍𑂶
Labioguttural o 𑂋 𑂷 𑂍𑂷 au 𑂌 𑂸 𑂍𑂸

Diacritics[edit]

Several diacritics are employed to change the meaning of letters:

Diacritic Name Function
𑂀 candrabindu A candrabindu denotes nasalization although it is not normally used with Kaithi.[3]
𑂁 anusvara An anusvara in Kaithi represents true vowel nasalization[3]. For example, 𑂍𑂁, kaṃ.
𑂂 visarga Visarga is a Sanskrit holdover originally representing /h/. For example, 𑂍𑂂 kaḥ.[3]
𑂹 virama A virama removes a consonant's inherent a and in some cases forms consonant clusters. Compare 𑂧𑂥 maba with 𑂧𑂹𑂥 mba.[6]
𑂺 nuqta A nuqta is used to extend letters to represent non-native sounds. For example, 𑂔 ja + nuqta = 𑂔𑂺, which represents Arabic zayin.[3]

Punctuation[edit]

Kaithi has several script-specific punctuation marks:

Sign Description
𑂻 The abbreviation sign is one method of representing abbreviations in Kaithi.[3] For example, 𑂪𑂱𑂎𑂱𑂞𑂧 can be abbreviated as 𑂪𑂲𑂻.[3]
𑂽 The number sign is used with digits for enumerated lists and numerical sequences.[3] It can appear above, below, or before a digit or sequence of digits.[3] For example, 𑂽१२३.
𑂼 The enumeration sign is a spacing version of the number sign.[6] It always appears before a digit or sequence of digits (never above or below).
𑂾 The section sign indicates the end of a sentence.[6]
𑂿 The double section sign indicates the end of a larger section of text, such as a paragraph.[6]
𑃀 Danda is a Kaithi-specific danda.
𑃁 Double danda is a Kaithi-specific double danda.

General punctuation is also used with Kaithi:

  • + plus sign can be used to mark phrase boundaries
  • hyphen and - hyphen-minus can be used for hyphenation
  • word separator middle dot can be used as a word boundary (as can a hyphen)

Digits[edit]

Kaithi uses stylistic variants of Devangari digits. It also uses common Indic number signs for franctions and unit marks.[6]

Unicode[edit]

Kaithi script was added to the Unicode Standard in October 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode block for Kaithi is U+11080–U+110CF:

Kaithi[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1108x 𑂀 𑂁 𑂂 𑂃 𑂄 𑂅 𑂆 𑂇 𑂈 𑂉 𑂊 𑂋 𑂌 𑂍 𑂎 𑂏
U+1109x 𑂐 𑂑 𑂒 𑂓 𑂔 𑂕 𑂖 𑂗 𑂘 𑂙 𑂚 𑂛 𑂜 𑂝 𑂞 𑂟
U+110Ax 𑂠 𑂡 𑂢 𑂣 𑂤 𑂥 𑂦 𑂧 𑂨 𑂩 𑂪 𑂫 𑂬 𑂭 𑂮 𑂯
U+110Bx 𑂰 𑂱 𑂲 𑂳 𑂴 𑂵 𑂶 𑂷 𑂸 𑂹 𑂺 𑂻 𑂼  𑂽  𑂾 𑂿
U+110Cx 𑃀 𑃁
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

References[edit]

  1. ^ King, Christopher R. 1995. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. New York: Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Grierson, George A. 1899. A Handbook to the Kaithi Character. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Pandey, Anshuman (2008-05-06). "L2/08-194: Proposal to Encode the Kaithi Script in ISO/IEC 10646" (PDF). 
  4. ^ Rai, Alok. "Hindi Nationalism", p. 13
  5. ^ General Report on Public Instruction in the Bengal Presidency, p. 103.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Chapter 15.2 Kaithi". The Unicode Standard, Version 10.0 (PDF). Mountain View, CA: Unicode, Inc. June 2017. ISBN 978-1-936213-16-0.